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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOCKDED BY JAMBS LOEB, LL.D, y" 

fS3> 

EDITED BY V ^"^ 

t T. E. PAGE. C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, lttt.d. 

.. A. POST, L.B.D. E. H. WARMIXGTON. m.a.. f.b.hist.soc. 




PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

n 



Y^IAHaU 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 
II 

86 b— 171 F 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

FRANK COLE BABBITT 

TKISITT COUEGE, HABTFORO COSSECnCOT 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITi' PRESS 

LONDON' 

WILLIAM HEINExMANN LTD 

MCMLXIl 



First printed 1928 
Reprinted t9M, 1962 




1153684 



Printed in Great BriUtiv 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II 

PAGE 

Preface \u 

The Traditional Order of the Books of 

THE MORALIA xi 

How TO PROFIT BY ONe's EnEMIES 

Introduction 3 

Text and Translation 4 

Ox HAVING MANY FrIENDS 

Introduction 45 

Text and Translation 46 

Chance — 

Introduction . . 73 

Text and Translation 74 

Virtue and Vice — 

Introduction 93 

Text and Translation 94 

A Letter of Condolence to Apollonius — 

Introduction 105 

Text and Translation 108 

Advice about Keeping Well — 

Introduction 214 

Text and Translation 216 

V 



CONTENTS 

PAOK 

Advice to Bride and Groom — 

Introduction 297 

Text and Translation 298 

The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men — 

Introduction 346 

Text and Translation 34-8 

Superstition — 

Introduction 452 

Text and Translation 454 

Indb^x 497 



PREFACE 

As in the first volume of this series, no apology is 
offered for the translation which, it is to be hoped, 
may be slightly better than that offered in the first 
volume, or, if that hope is vain, at least no worse. 

To the bibliography in \'ol. I. p. xxvi, is to be 
added an important and interesting book : H. J. Rose, 
The Roman Questions of Plutarch. A New Translation 
with Introductory Essays and a Running Commentary 
(Oxford, 1924). 

Of the essays included in this volume all but the 
last two had been sent to the printer, and the 
last two were ready for printing, when the new 
Teubner edition of Vol. I. of the Moralia appeared 
{Plutarch Moralia, Vol. I. recensuerunt et emen- 
daverunt W. R. Patonf et I. Wegehauptf. Prae- 
fationem scr. M. Poholenz. Leipzig, 1925). Conse- 
quently the text of the last two essays has been 
diligently compared with that of the new edition 
before they were sent to the printer, and in the rest 
only such changes have been made as seemed impera- 
tive. It is but fair to say that the changes made 
consist almost wholly of additional notations in 
regard to the readings of the Mss. The text as 
originally constituted, whether for better or for 
worse, has hardly been changed at all. 

vii 



PREFACE 

It may not be amiss to say a word about the new 
edition, which was prepared with the advice and 
consent of v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, who is spoken 
of in the preface as " huius editionis patronus." 
The book is a great disappointment. True it gives 
detailed information in regard to the readings of the 
Mss., and some additional information regarding the 
Mss. and their relations, and it provides also a more 
generous list of references both to Plutarch and to 
other authors, although some important references 
seem to be missing. But the text itself, as finally 
constituted, is inferior to that of Bernardakis or of 
Wyttenbach. The editors seem too much inclined 
to subjective emendation, to rewriting Plutarch so as 
to make him ^ay what they think he ought to have 
said — a fashion more in vogue in the last centur}'. 
It is becoming clear that most of the minor errors in 
the text of Plutarch will yield in time to the orderly 
processes of textual criticism. 

In the really difficult passages one will usually look 
in vain for help from this edition, for one will find in 
the text, as a rule, only a transcript of the reading 
of one or more manuscripts, or else occasionally an 
emendation which only too loudly condemns itself, 
and too often no note of suggestions made by others. 
The editors seem not to have read Hatzidakis' review 
of Bernardakis' edition ('A6'7;i'a, vol. xiii.), and many 
of the minor mistakes found in Bernardakis' edition 
are reprinted in this.^ Again, in several cases, 
emendations are not correctly attributed to their 

* It is amusing to find that one of these little errors, 
to which V. Wilamowitz Moellendorff, " huius editionis 
patronus," called especial attention in Hermes, vol xxv., 
appears here unchanged. 



PREFACE 

authors, and this leads one to question whether the 
readings of the mss. are always recorded correctly. 
Yet, on the whole, the book is a distinct contribution 
to the study of Plutarch and it is a matter for regret 
that its pubhcation was so long delayed, and a matter 
for still keener regret is the untimely death of the 
two editors, W. R. Paton and J. Wegehaupt. 

F. C. B. 

Trikity College, 

Hahtfohd, Conn. 

November 1926. 



VOL. II A 2 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanas (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 

PAQB 

1. De liberis educandis (Ylepi Traidoiv dya*yjjs) 1a 

Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(IlcI)S ScI Tov veov iTOir}fjLa.Tcuv djcoveiv) ITd 

De recta ratione audiendi (Ilepi tov aKoikiv) . 37b 

Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(Ilais av Ti9 huucplveu tov KoXaxa toi3 <f>iXov) . iSs 

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 

(Ilais av Tty aloBono eairrov irpoKOTrrovros iit 

dp€Tjj) ..... 75a 

11. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (Il6i« di> ns 

vtt' iyBpwv ilxj>eXolTo) .... 668 

De amicorum multitudine ((Ilepi woAw^tAtaj) . 93a 

De fortuna (Ilepi Tvxqs) .... 97o 

De virtute et vitio (Ilepi dpeTrjs kcu. Koxias) ■ lOOs 
Consolatio ad Apollonium {Ilapafj.vdriTi.K6s irpoi 

' AttoXXuiviov) ...... iOIf 

De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Tyieim jrop- 

ayycA/iara) ... 

(Honiugalia praecepta {TafUKa napayyiXfLaTa) . 
Septem sapientium convivium (Tiuv eWd ao<f>d>i' 

oviiTToaiov) . . 146b 

De superstitione (Ilepi 6eiat&u/iow'as) 164e 

111. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata (' Awo- 

iffdeyfiaTa ^aaiXeuiv Kol OTpan/yaii' ) . 172a 

Apophthegmata Laconica ('Awo^eyfuxTa Ao- 

KWVIKO,) • aOoA 

Instituta Laconica(TdiraAaid tom' Aaicedaiftovitat' 

eninjBevfxara) ... -236f 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGT? 

Lacaenarum apophthe^mata {AaKouviov dno- 

(f>d4yiJ,aTa) ... 240c 

Mulierum virtutes {TwaiKciv dperai) . 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae {Alria 'Pco/xaTxa). . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (Ama 'EXXtjvikol) . 291d 

Parallela Graeca et Romana (T-wayar/rj iaro- 

piaiv wapaXX-qXcDv 'EXXtjvikcov Kai 'PtofxaiKwv) . 305a 
De fortuna Romanorum (Ilept Tfjs 'Pwfiauav 

rvx^s) 316b 

De Alexandn magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilcpi rfjs ' AXe$dvbpov rvxqs ^ dpeTijs, 

Adyot j8') 326d 

Bellone an pace clariore- fuennt Athenienses 

(UoTfpov 'AdTjvaloi Kara ttoXshov ^ Kara ao4>iav 

evbo^oTfpoi) 345c 

V. De Iside et Osiride (Ilcpt "laiSos /cat 'OaipiSos). 351c 
De E apud Delphos (Ilepi tov EI tov ev AeX<f>ois) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis iHepi toO ^17 xpo-'' e^Lfierpa 

vvv TT]v Ilii^tai') .... 394d 

De defectu oraculorum (Ilepi tcDv (kX€Xoi7t6t<x»' 

Xpy]cm]pi<t)v) ... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Ei SiSaicrov -q dperij) . 439a 
De virtute moral! (Ilepi ttjs ij^t/c^s dperiis) . 440d 
De cohibenda ira (Ilept dopyrjaias) . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilepi ivdvpi-La^) . . 464e 

De fraterno amore (Ilepi <^tAa8eA<^taj) . . 478a 

De amore proiis (Ilepi ttjs et? rd (Kyova <l>iXo- 

aropyias) ... . . 493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Et 

aindpicqs 17 KaKia npos KaKo8aip.oviav) 498a 

Animine an corporis afFectiones sint peiores 

(TloTepov rd rfjs i/jvxfjs ^ rd tov acofiaros nddrj 

Xeipova) .... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept dSoXeaxias) 502b 

De curiositate (Ilepi TToXvTTpayfwavvrjs) . . 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilepi <f)iXo7rXoirriasl . 523c 
De vitioso pudore (Ilepi Svawirias) . 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilepi (l>66vov koi fiiaovs) . 536e 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando ( Ilepi tov 

tavTov eiraivelv dvein(f>d6vcos) ■ • 539a 

De sera numinis vindicta (Ilepi twv vno tov 

deiov ^pa84ciis Tifuttpovfievoiv) . . 548a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

PAQB 

De fato (Ilepc eifiapfjievtjs) .... 568b 

De genio Socratis ( Ilepi rov ^^Kparovs Saiftoviov) 575a 

De exilio (Ileot (fivyrfs). . 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem (Ilapafiv&rp-iKOS ■rrpos rf/v 

ywouca). ... 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi {^vfiiroata- 

Kwv TTpo^\r]yuira>v ^i^Xia S"') • • 612o 

1,612c: II, 629b: III, 644e: IV. 659e: V. 
672d : VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Hvfinoma- 

Kofv TrpofiXTjfidTcov ^i^XLa y) . 697o 

VII, 697c: VIII. 7 16d: IX, 736c 

Amatorius CEpcoriKos) 748b 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ( 'Eptt>Tt#fat SiT/y^oct?) 77 1e 

Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 
serendum (Ilepi rov on ndXurra rotj rjyfijboai 
6fi Tov (fiiXoGcx^v hi-aXiyeadaj.) . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpos -qyffwva dirai- 

SevTov) .... 779o 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et itpeafivTepw 

itoXirevTiov) .... 783a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae iHoXiTiKa 

■napayyeXfiara) 798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, pcpulari 
statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilepi fiovapxuis 
Koi 8T)fioKparias Koi oXiyapxias) . 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilepi rov ftri Seiv Savei- 
/ CfoBai) . S27d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Ilept tow 8e'«a pitro- 

pcav\ ... . . '^328 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium CEtjyKpiaetos ' Apurrtxlxiiws kox Mev- 
avSpov e'TTiTO/iTj) .... 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate I Hep* rfjs 'UpoS&rov 

KaKorjdeias) .... 854e 

De placitis phiiosophorum, libri v (Hep: TtSv 

apeoKOVTcov tols <f>iXoa6<f>ois , Pi^Xia e') 874d 

Quaestiones naturales ( AiTio ^W7i»ca) 911o 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilepi rov 
dfufxuvofievov -npoacirnov rCa kvkXu) ttjs atXr)- 
Mjs) ...*..*. . 920a 

De prime frigido (Ilepi rod irpotroK i/wxpo^) 945b 

XUT 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGE 

Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Hep', rod irorepov 

vbcop ■^ TTvp xpn^aifi(i)T€pov\ ... 953d 
Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 

ora (IloTepa row l,(x)oiv (fipovifuiyrepa to, xepaata 

rj TO, evvSpa) . 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilepi 

Tov TO. aXoya Xoyw ;(p'^a0at) . . 985 D 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilepi aapKO(f>ayias 

XoyoL ^') . . 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones {nXaTojuiKo. l,TjTTJfj.aTa) . 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (IIcpi Tfjs ev 

Tifiaicu ipvxoYovias) 1012a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 

Timaeo ('E771TO/L117 tou nepi ttjj eV tu> Ti/xai'a> 

ijivxoyovias) .... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repupnantiis (Ilepi SrcoiiftSr evav- 

TiajixaTcov) 1033a 

Compendium argument) Stoicos absurdiora 

poetis dicere (Swoi/nj tov on TrapaSo^orepa 01 

SrcutAfoi Tcov TTOiffTojv Xiyovai) . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilepi 

rwv KOt.v<x)v ewoLcov irpos rovs Stoiikouj) 1058e 

XIV Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

('On oi58' TjSecos i,TJv eari kwt 'EimKovpov^ 1086c 

Adversus Colotem (IIpos KtuAwTT;!/) I107n 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum Ei 

KaXios elpvraL to Xdde /Stwaaj) . . . 1128a 

De musica (Ilepi fj.ovat.Kijs) .... 1131a 
XV. Fragments and Index 



Ziv: 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S 
ENEMIES 

(DK CAPIENDA EX INIMICIS 
UTILITATE) 



, INTRODUCTION 

The essay on turning even one's enemies to some 
profitable use was an extempore address which was 
afterwards reduced to ^^'riting. It still retains, 
however, some of the marks of its extempore char- 
acter in an occasional asyndeton or anacoluthon, in a 
few repetitions, and in such httle slips as reversing 
the -positions of Domitius and Scaurus (91 d). But 
minor matters of this sort cannot obscure the excel- 
lence of the essay as a whole, which contains much 
good ad\ice, many wholesome truths, and much 
common sense. To cite but one example, the 
statement (91 b) that many things which are neces- 
sary in time of war, but bad under other conditions, 
acquire the sanction of custom and law, and cannot 
be easily abohshed, even though the people are 
being injured by them, will appeal to everj'body 
except the confirmed mihtarist. The essay was 
written some time after the essay entitled Advice 
to Statesmen, which in turn must be placed shortly 
after the death of Domitian (a.d. 96). 

This is one of the " moral " essays of Plutarch 
which so impressed Christians that they were trans- 
lated into Syriac in the sixth or seventh centuries. 
The translation of this essay is rather an adaptation, 
many details being omitted as unessential, but even 
so it gives light on the Greek text in a few places. 
The Syriac translation is published in Stadia Sinaitica, 
No. IV (London 1894) 

S 



(86) B n^S AN TIS YD' EXGPHN Q^EAOITO 

1. Opo) jxev oTt rov npaoraTov, cb Kopvi^Ate 
IlovXx€p,^ TToAtreta? rjprjaat rpoTTOV, iv Jj fxaXiara 
roLS KOLVois co(f)eXLfj.os <^v dXvTTorarov I8ia tols iv- 
C Tvxxp-vovai Trapex^is aeavrov. eVet Se ;(co/3av ju,ev 
dOripov wGirep Icrropovcn rrjv l^pT^rrjv evpeXv eari, 
TToAtreta Se [XTJre <p66vov ivqvoxv^O' fJ-'^jre i,rjXov -q 
^iXoveiKLav, exdpas yovifiajrara Trddt], p^^xpi' vvv 
ov yeyovev (dAA' et ixrjSev dXXo, rals ex^paLs at 
(f)iXiaL crvfXTTXeKovcriv Ty/xa?- o /cat Xt'Acuv o ao<j>6s 
voTjaas Tov enrovra /xvySeva ex^iv ix^pov rjpcoTrjaev 
et fiTjSe. (f)iXov ^x^')> ^OKel fiot, rd t d'AAa ire/ji 
exdpcov Tw TToXiTiKcp Bi€aK€(f)dat TTpoarjiceiv koL rov 
£iievo(f)CovTos aKTjKoevai, pirj rrapepycos clttovtos oti, 
TOV vovv exovTog iari /cat " diro rwv ix^P'^^ a>0e- 
XeXaOat." direp ovv et? tovto Trpwrjv etTretr fioi 
TTapeoTq, avvayaydjv ojxov tl tols avrols ovopbaaiv 
aTrearaA/cd crot, (f>€iad[X€vos d)s ivrjv fidXicrTa ratv 

* IIoDXxe/) Xylander: woOXxpe (or TrovXxep) drep. Perhaps 
drep came from the explanatory note of some copyist (Aar, 
ep). 

" Presumably Cn. Cornelius Pulcher, who was procurator 
in Achaea towards the close of Plutarch's life. He also held 
various other offices. Cf. Corpus Jnscr. Graec. i. 1186. 

* This tradition in regard to Crete is found in several 
ancient writers. Cf. for example Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 83. 
4 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES 

1 . I OBSERVE, my dear Cornelius Pulcher," that you 
have chosen the mildest form of official administration, 
in which you are as helpful as possible to the public 
interests while at the same time you show vourself 
to be very amiable in private to those who have 
audience with you. Now it may be possible to find 
a country, in which, as it is recorded of Crete,* there 
are no wild animals, but a government which has not 
had to bear >vith en\'y or jealous rivalry or conten- 
tion — emotions most productive of enmity— has not 
hitherto existed. For our very friendships, if nothing 
else, involve us in enmities. This is what the \\ise 
Chilon '^ had in mind, when he asked the man who 
boasted that he had no enemy whether he had no 
friend either. Therefore it seems to me to be the 
duty of a statesman not only to have thoroughly 
investigated the subject of enemies in general, but 
also in his reading of Xenophon ** to have given more 
than passing attention to the remark that it is a 
trait of the man of sense " to derive profit even from 
his enemies." Some thoughts, therefore, on this 
subject, which I recently had occasion to express, I 
have put together in practically the same words, 
and now send them to you, ^^•ith the omission, so far 

• The same remark is quoted by Plutarch in Moralia 96 a. 
Cf. also Aulus Gellius, i. 3. * In Oeconmnicus 1.15. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(86) iv rot? IToAtTtKot? UapayyeXfxaai, yeypafi/xevoiv, 
D inel KOLKelvo to ^i^Xlov opco ere Trpox^t-pov exovra 

TToXXaKLS. 

2. 'K^-qpKei Totg TraXaLoi^ vtto tojv dAAoc^uAcut' 
Kal aypiiov l^tocov p,rj dSLKeladai, Kal tovto twv 
TTpos TO. drjpla rdXos "^v dycovwv e/cetVoi?* oi 8' 
varepov tJStj ;^p7^CT^ai [xadovres avrots Kal (h<j>eXovv- 
rat aap^l rpet^opievoi /cat dpi^lv dfX(f>i,€wvfji€vot, Kal 
XoXaXs Kal TTvriais larpevofj-evoL Kal Sepfxaaiv ottXl- 
^ovres iavTOvs, cSctt' d^iov elvai SeSteWt fx-rj rCov 
drjpioiv eTTtXiTTOVTCOV rw dvOpcvno) drjpLcoSrjs 6 jSto? 
avTov yivrjraL Kal dnopos Kal dvrjixepos. eirel 
roLvvv TOLS p-kv dXXoig iKavov eari to p.rj Trdax^eiv 
VTTO Tcov e^OpcJov KaKws, Tovs 8e vovv exovTas o 
S,€vo(f)a>v Kal (h(l>€Xeladai (f)rjatv aTTo tcov 8ia(f>epo- 
p,€vcov, dTTiaTetv pt.ev ov XPV' Cv'''^^^ ^^ pedohov Kai 
TexvTjv St' 1^9 TOVTO TTepUaTai to KaXov ot? x^P''^ 
ixdpov t,riv dhvvaTov eariv. 

Ov Swarat irdv i^-qpepcoaai, SdvSpov 6 yecopyog 
ovSe Trdv Tidaaevaat drjpLov 6 Kvvrjyos' i^iJTrjaav 
ovv Kad^ €T€pas ;^peta? o pev e/c tcov dKapncov 6 S 
diTO TCOV dypioiv oi^eAeta^ai. Trjs daXaTTrjs to 

vScop dlTOTOV i(TTt Kal TTOVrjpOV, dAA' Ix^VS Tpe(f)€L 
Kai TTOpLTTipiOV icTTl TTaVTlTj Kal TTOpeVOipLOV OXT)pO. 
Tols KOp.Ll,Op.eVOiS' TOV §6 CtaTVpOV TO TTVp, CO? 

i TTpcoTOV a)(f)dr], ^ovXop.4vov (j)LXrjaai Kal Trepi^aXelv, 
6 Ilpop,r)devs 

' This work has been preserved ; it is to be found in the 
Moralia, 798 a-825 f. 

6 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 86 

as possible, of matter contained in my Advice to 
Statesmen,'^ since I observe that you often have that 
book close at hand. 

2. Primitive men were quite content if they could 
escape being injured by strange and fierce animals, 
and this was the aim and end of their struggles 
against the wild beasts ; but their successors, by 
learning, as they did, how to make use of them, now 
profit by them through using their flesh for food, 
their hair for clothing, their gall and colostrimi as 
medicine, and their skins as armour, so that there is 
good reason to fear that, if the supply of vild beasts 
should fail man, his life would become bestial, help- 
less, and uncivilized.^ Since, then, it is enough for 
most people if they can avoid suffering ill-treatment 
at the hands of their enemies, and since Xenophon "^ 
asserts that men of sense will even derive profit 
from those who are at variance with them, we must 
not refuse him credence, but rather try to discover 
the system and the art through which this admirable 
advantage is to be gained by those who find it im- 
possible to hve -without an enemy. 

The farmer cannot domesticate every tree, nor 
can the huntsman tame every beast ; and so they 
have sought to derive profit from these in ways to 
meet their other needs : the farmer from the trees 
that bear no fruit and the huntsman from the vnld 
animals. The water of the sea is unfit to drink and 
tastes vile ; yet fish thrive in it, and it is a mediimi 
for the dispatch and conveyance of travellers every- 
where. The Satyr, at his first sight of fire, wished 
to kiss and embrace it, but Prometheus said, 

> Cf. Moralia, 964 a. 
• Oeconomicut, 1. 15 ; cf, also Cyropaedia, i. 6. 11. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

rpayo? yeveiov dpa TrevOjjcrets av ye* 

Koi yap^ /caet rov di/jdixevov , dXXd ^tD? napex^L kol 
oepfJLorrjra /cat Te)(vrjs dTrdarjs opyavov iart rot? 
XpfjaOai fiadovac. okottcl Srj /cat tov ixOpdv, el 
^Xa^epog d)v rdXXa /cat hvajxerax^ipLarog , d/jLcoa- 
yeTTCos d(f)rjv ivSLScocnv avrov /cat ;\;/)7jatv oiKeiav 

oi /cat <1)(J)4\lix6s ioTL. /cat rcov Trpayp-drcov a^tAa 
TToAAo. /cat dTr€)(6rj /cat di/Tt7raAa rot? ivTvyxd- 
vovGLV dXX' opag on /cat vocrois eVtot acofxarog els 
aTTpayixoavvrjv exp'Tjoavro , /cat ttovoi ttoXXols Trpoa- 
Treaovres kppojaav /cat 'qaKrjaav. evLOL Se /cat 
TraTpiSo? (JTeprjaLV /cat XPVH'^'^^^ aTTO^oXrjv i(/)- 
oStov axoXrjs eTToi-qaavTO /cat <f)LXoao(f)Las, (Ls 
ALoyevrjg /cat KpaTTy?" Zi^vajr Se, TTy? vavKXrjplag 
avrcp awTpij^eia-qs, TTvdofievos etTrev, " eu y', (5 
Tvx^}, TTOiels, els TOV rpt^cova crvveXavvovaa rjiids." 
coaTTep yap rd poijxaXecoTara' rovs GTOjxdxovs^ /cat 
yytetv-orara tojv i^cvcov 6(f>€is eadiovra KaraveTrei 

ij /cat OKopTTLOvs, eart 8' a /cat Xldois /cat ocrrpdKois 
Tpe(f}eTaL {jxeTa^aXXovat, 8e 8t' evroviav /cat depfxo- 
rrjTa TTvev/jLarog) , ol 8e aiKxol /cat t'OCTcoSets" dprov 
/cat otvoi/* TTpoa^ep6p,evoi vavTiCbaiv, ovrcos ol jxev 
dvorjTOL /cat ra? ^tAta? hLa(f)6eipovaLV, ol 8e 
<j>p6vipiOL /cat rat? exdpais ifjcpieXcos XPV^^^'' 
SvvavTai. 

^ Kal yap added by Bernardakis. 

* pufiaXeibrara Hercher : pufjiaXea (pwnaXewrepa Suidas 5.1J. 

<7t/CX(JS). 

' roi)s (rro/U.dxoi's Suidas : rots (XTOfiaxoi-s. 

* or;'o«'] iidwp Suidas. 

" From Prometheus the Fire-bearer of Aeschylus. Cf. i 

Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Aeschylus, No. 207. 

^ C/. Diogenes Laertius, vi. 20 ff. j 

8 I 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 86-87 

You, goat, will mourn your vanished beard," 

for fire bums him who touches it, yet it furnishes 
light and heat, and is an instrument of every craft 
for those who have learned to use it. So look at 
your enemy, and see whether, in spite of his being 
in most respects harmful and difficult to manage, 
he does not in some way or other afford you means of 
getting hold of him and of using him as you can use 
no one else, and so can be of profit to you. Many 
of the circumstances of life are unkindly and hateful 
and repellent to those who have to meet them ; yet 
you observe that some have employed their attacks 
of bodily illness for quiet resting, and trials which 
have fallen to the lot of many have but strengthened 
and trained them. Some, too, have made banish- 
ment and loss of property a means of leisure and 
philosophic study, as did Diogenes *• and Crates." 
And Zeno,** on learning that the ship which bore his 
venture had been wrecked, exclaimed, " A real kind- 
ness, O Fortune, that thou, too, dost join in dri\dng 
us to the philosopher's cloak ! " For just as those 
animals which have the strongest and soundest 
stomachs can eat and digest snakes and scorpions, 
and there are some even that derive nourishment 
from stones and shells (for they transmute such 
things by reason of the vigour and heat of their 
spirit), while fastidious and sickly persons are nause- 
ated if they partake of bread and A^ine, so fools 
spoil even their friendships, while wise men are able 
to make a fitting use even of their enmities. 

« Ibid. vi. 85. 

'' The remark of Zeno is again referred to by Plutarch in 
Moralia, 467 d and 603 d ; c/. also Diogenes Laertius, vii. 5, 
and Seneca, De animi tranquillitate, chap. xiii. 

9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(87) 3, UpcoTOV fz€v ovv So/cet /not Trjg exOpas to 
pAapepdoraTOV oj^eXifxcLraTov av yeveadai rols 
Trpoaexovaiv. ri Se tovt' iartv; €c/)t8peveL aov 
Tols TTpdyfiaaLV eyprjyopcbs 6 i^Qpos a.€l /cat Xa^rjv 
^TjTcov TTavraxodev TreptoSevei rov ^lov, ov Sta 
Spvos fiovov opojv (hs 6 AvyKCvs ouSe 8ia XidoiV 

C /cat oaTpaKcov, dXXa /cat Sict ^LXov /cat olk€tov /cat 
Sia cruvqdovs ttovtos cos dvvaTov ecrrt (fxaptov to. 
TTpaTTOfxeva /cat rd ^ovXevofieva hiopyrrcov /cat 
oi€p€vvcopL€vos . ol jx€v ydp (f)iXoL /Cat vocroVi re? 
rjfjids TToXXdKis /cat aTToOv^aKovTes Xavddvovaiv 
afxeXovvras xal oXcycopovvras, twv S' exdpdjv 
fiovovovxl Kal rovs oveipovg TToXvTrpayfiovovfxcv 
voaot he /cat 8avetCT/i.ot /cat hia^opal Trpds yuvat/ca? 
avrovs eKeivovs fidXXov ■^ tov ix^pov Xavddvovai. 
/xaAtCTTa 8e tojp' dfxaprLdjv ex^Tai /cat raura? 
e^t;^veuet. /cat Kaddrrep ol yvnes inl rds oarfMag 

D Toii^ SL€(f)9op6rcov acofidrcov ^epovTai, tcov 8e 
KaOapdJv /cat uytatwt'Tcov' a'iadiqaLV ovk exovatv, 
ovTO) ra voaovvra rov ^iov /cat (f)avXa Kal ttcttov- 
dora KLvel tov ex^pdv, Kal irpos Tavd' ol paaovvTes 
arTOVGL Kal tovtcov d-nTOVTat. /cat avapdrTovai. 
TOVTO ovv (h^eXi/jLov ion; Trdvv fxev ovv, evXa^ov- 
fJLevov l,rjv Kal irpoaex^LV iavro) /cat pLrjTe TrpdTTCiv 
fjLTjhev oXLydopcos Kal aTrepta/ceVraJS" fi^jrc XeyeLV, 
aAA' del SLa(f)vXdTT€iv (Zarrep iv dKpi^eZ StatTT^ tov 
Plov dveTTLXrjTTTOV' 7} ydp ovtcj avareXXovaa Ta 

E Trddr) /cat avvexovcra tov Xoyiafxov evXd^eia p,eXeTrjv 
efJLTTOict Kat TTpoaipeariv rov ^i]v eTneLKcos /cat 

" Lynceus was gifted with superhuman powers of vision ; 
cf. for example Moralia, 1083 d ; Pindar, Nemean Odes, x. 
60 ; Horace, Epistles, i. 1. 28, and Pausanias, iv. 2. 
10 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 87 

3. In the first place, then, it seems to me that the 
most harmful element in enmity may be made most 
profitable to those who give heed. What is this ? 
Your enemy, wide awake, is constantly lying in wait 
to take advantage of your actions, and seeking to 
gain some hold on you, keeping up a constant patrol 
about your Ufe ; and not only does his sight, like 
the sight of Lynceus," penetrate the oak-tree and 
stones and tiles, but your enemy, through every 
friend and servant and acquaintance as well, so far 
as possible, plays the detective on your actions and 
digs his way into your plans and searches them 
through and through. Oftentimes we do not learn, 
until too late, of the illness or the death of our 
friends, so careless are we and neglectful ; but our 
curiosity about our enemies all but prompts us to 
pry into their dreams ; sickness, debts, and conjugal 
disagreements are more likely to be unkno\Mi to the 
very persons affected than to their enemy. Especi- 
ally does he try to get hold of their failings and ferret 
them out. And just as vultures are drawn to the 
smell of decomposed bodies, but have no power to 
discover those that are clean and healthy, so the 
infirmities, meannesses, and untoward experiences 
of life rouse the energies of the enemy, and it is 
such things as these that the malevolent pounce upon 
and seize and tear to pieces. Is this then profitable ? 
Assuredly it is, to have to live circmnspectly, to give 
heed to one's self, and not to do or say anything care- 
lessly or inconsiderately, but always to keep one's 
life unassailable as though under an exact regimen. 
For the circumspection which thus represses the 
emotions and keeps the reasoning power within 
bounds gives practice and purpose in living a life that 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aveyKXrjroJS . KadaTrep yap at TToXe/jiois darvyei- 
ToviKoZs Kal arpaTeiais ivSeXex^cn (T(x)(f>povit,6jxevai. 
TToXeis evvojxiav Kal TToXiretav vyiaivovaav rjydTrq- 
aav, ovTCOS ol hi ex^pag Ttvds dvayKaadevres 
€TTLvrj<f>€LV TO) ^Lip Kal (f)v\dTT€adai TO padvpLeZv Kal 
Kara^poveZv Kal pier evxp'fJc^TLas eKaara TrparTeiv 
Xavddvovatv els to dvapidpTrjTOV vtto ttjs avvqdeias 
ayopievoi Kal KaTaKoafxovpievoL tov Tporrov, av /cat 
piLKpov 6 Xoyos avveTTiXapL^dv^Tai. to ydp 

F Tj K€V yrjdrjaai YlpiapLOs HpidpLOio t€ TraiSe? 

ots icTTLV del TTpox^ipov, €TrLaTpe(/)ei Kal StarpeTret 
Kal d(/)LaTr]ai tcov toiovtcjjv ecf)' olg ol e^Bpot X^*-' 
povat, Kal KaTayeXoJGi. Kal p.r]v tovs Trepl tov Ato- 
vvaov TexviTag opcopiev CKXeXvpievovs Kal dnpodv- 
pLovs Kal ovK dKpi^oJS TToXXdKLS dyojvil,opevovs ev 
Tols dedTpoLs ecf)* eavTCov oTav S dpiXXa /cat ayojv 
yevrjTai irpog CTepovs, ov piovov avTOvg dXXa /cat 
ra opyava pidXXov avveiriaTpecjiovaL, x^P^'^^^'V^^^'^^^ 
Kal dKpi^eoTepov dppiol,6pevoi Kal KaTavXovvTes . 
oaTis ovv olSev dvTaycovLGTrjv ^iov Kal So^rjg tov 
88 exdpov ovTa, Trpoaex^c pdXXov avTcp, /cat Ta trpay- 
jLtara TTepiaKOTTeZ /cat Sta/o/xo^erat tov ^iov. eneu 
Kal TOVTO Trjs /ca/cta? tStov euTi, to tovs ex^povs 
alaxvveadai p,dXXov t] tovs <f>iXovs i(f>* ots e^apiap- 
Tdvofiev. odev 6 Nacrt/ca?, olopevcuv twwv Kai 
XeyovTcov ev dacfiaXeZ yeyovevai to. 'Vcopaiiov rrpay- 
/xara Kapx^Sovicov pcev dvrjprjpevojv 'A^atajj^ oe 

" Homer, II. i. 255. The words are addressed by Nestor 
to the Greek leaders, Agamemnon and Achilles, who have 
quarrelled. 

* Actors and musicians. 

12 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 87-88 

is fair and free from reproach. For just as states 
which are chastened by border warfare and continual 
campaigning become well content ^\'ith good order 
and a sound government, so persons who have been 
compelled on account of enmities to practise sober- 
ness of li\'ing, to guard against indolence and con- 
temptuousness, and to let some good purpose prompt 
each act, are insensibly led by force of habit to 
make no mistakes, and are made orderly in their 
behaviour, even if reason co-operate but shghtly. 
For Avhen men keep always ready in mind the thought 
that 

Priam and Priam's sons would in truth have cause 
for rejoicing," 

it causes them to face about and turn aside and 
abandon such things as give their enemies occasion 
for rejoicing and derision. Furthermore, we observe 
that the Dionysiac artists '' often play their parts in 
the theatres in a listless, dispirited, and inaccurate 
way when they are by themselves ; but when there 
is rivalry and competition with another company, 
then they apply not only themselves but their in- 
struments more attentively, picking their strings 
and tuning them and playing their flutes in more 
exact harmony. So the man who knows that his 
enemy is his competitor in life and repute is more 
heedful of himself, and more circumspect about his 
actions, and brings his life into a more thorough 
harmony. For it is a peculiar mark of vice, that we 
feel more ashamed of our faults before our enemies 
than before our friends. This is the ground of 
Nasica's remark, when some expressed their behef 
that the power of the Romans was now secure, inas- 
much as the Carthaginians had been annihilated and 

IS 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(88) 8eSovXcofjL€vcov, " vvv fiev ovv," el7T€v, " i7na(f)aXct)s 
€XO[JL€V, jji-qd oy? (f)0^r]doJix€v fJLijd* ovg ato^uv- 
datfjiev iavTols aTroAeAotTrore?." 
B 4. Ert TOLVvv 7Tp6aXa^€ ttjv Atoyevovs arro- 
(paaiv, (f)iX6aocf)ov a<f)68pa Kal TToXtriKr^v ovaav 
7TCOS afjivvovfjuac rov i^Opov; " " avros koXo^ 
Kayados yevo/xevos ." Ittttovs ixdpoJv opaJVTes ev- 
hoKipiovvras dvLcovTat Kal^ Kvvas eTraivovpiivovs. 
av x^pi-ov iK7Te7TovT]fX€vov IScoatv, av evdaXovvra 
KrJTTOV, €7narevov(JL. ri ovv olei, aeavrov cTnSeiK- 
wfjievos avSpa StKaiov apTL<j>pova xprjorov, iv 
Xoyois €vS6ki[xov, iv Trpd^eai Kadapov, iv hiairrj 

KOafJLlOV, 

padelav avXaKa 8td (f>pev6s KapTTovfievov, 
i^^ rjs rd KeSvd ^Xaardvei ^ovXevp^ara; 
viKwfievoi," (f>r]al UtvSapo?, 

" dvSpes dypv^la. SiSevrat.," 

C ovx anXcos ovSe TrdvTes, oAA' oaoc vLKOJfievovs 
avrovs opdjaiv vtto tcjv ixdpcbv cTrt^eAeia XPV' 
aroTTjTL iJi€yaXo(f)poavvrj (f>i,XavdpojTTLaLS evepyeaiais' 
ravr a7Toarpe(f)ei, ttjv yXaJTrav," (Ls 6 Arfpio- 
adevTjs (fnqaiv, " ip,(f)pdTT€t to ar6p.a, dyx^i, aicorrdv 

TTOiei." 

av rot Sta^epe rcov KaKcbv e^eart, ydp. 

el OiXets dvidv rov paaovvra, jxtj XoiSopei, KLvaihov 
fiTjSe piaXaKov ptrjh^ dKoXaarov fjLrjSe ^wpioXoxov 

^ Kui added by Bernardakis. * i^] a.(f>' Aeschylus. 

" Quoted again in Moralia, 21 e. 

* Aeschylus, Seven against Thebes, 593 ; quoted also in 
Moralia, 32 d, 186 b, and Life of Aristides, chap. iii. (p. 
320 b). 
^4 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 88 

the Achaeans reduced to subjection. " Nay," he 
said, " now is our position really dangerous, since we 
have left for ourselves none to make us either afraid 
or ashamed." 

4. Moreover, as a supplement to this take the 
declaration of Diogenes," which is thoroughly philo- 
sophic and statesmanlike : " How shall I defend 
myself against my enemy ? " " By proving yourself 
good and honourable." Men are much distressed 
when they see their enemies' horses winning renown 
or their dogs gaining approval. At the sight of a 
well-tilled field or a flourishing garden they groan. 
What, think you, would be their state of mind if you 
were to show yourself to be an honest, sensible man 
and a useful citizen, of high repute in speech, clean 
in actions, orderlv in Uving, 

Reaping the deep-sown furrow of your mind 
From which all goodly counsels spring ? * 

Pindar •= says. 

The vanquished are bound 
In the fetters of silence profound, 

not absolutely or universally, however, but only those 
who reahze that they are outdone by their enemies 
in diligence, goodness, magnanimity, kindly deeds, 
and good works. These are the things which, as 
Demosthenes •* puts it, " retard the tongue, stop the 
mouth, constrict the throat, and leave one with 
nothing to say." 

Be thou unlike the base ; this thou canst do.' 
If you wish to distress the man who hates you, do 
not revile him as lewd, effeminate, hcentious, \Tilgar, 

' Pindar, Frag. 229 (ed. Christ). 

* Demosthenes, Or. xL\. {be falsa legatione) 208 (p. 406). 

• Euripides, Orestes, 251. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(88) ^1178' dveXcvdepov, dAA' avros dvrjp ladt /cat aco- 
(j>p6v€L Koi dXrjdeve /cat XP^ (f>iXavdpa)7Ta)s /cat 
D SiKaicos rois evrvyxdvovaLv . dv Se Xoiboprjaat 
TTpoaxOfjS, diraye TToppcoTdrco aeavrov cov AotSo- 
pet? CKelvov. ivSvov rfj ifjvxj], Treptcr/coTret to. 
aadpd,^ p^rj rig aoi ttoOcv VTTO(j)d4yyr]Tai /ca/cta to 
Tov rpaycphov 

dXXcov larpos avros eA/ceaiv ^pvcov. 

dv airaihevTOV etTTT^s"/ eTTtVetre to cjiiXopiades iv ae- 
avTip /cat (fjiXoTTOvov dv SeiXov, eyeipe p,dXXov to 
OappaXeov /cat dvSpcodes' Kdv daeXyrj /cat d/coAa- 
arov, €^dX€L(f)e rrjs ^i^XV^ ^^ ''"' Xavddvov iarl 
<f>i,X'q8ovlas LX^^^' ovhev yap ataxtov eari ^Xao- 
(f}r]p,Las 7TaXi,v8pop,ov(Tr)s ovBe XvTrrjporepov, oAA' 
€oiK€ /cat TOV (J)Cot6s TO dvaKXcopevov p,dXXov ev- 
oxXeiv Tas dadevets opdaeis /cat tcov ifjoycov oi 
TTpog avTovs dva(f)€p6p,€voL tovs ifjeyovras vito ttjs 
E dXrjdeias. u)S yap 6 /catKtas" tci v€<f)r}, /cat o ^avXos 
^Los i<l)' eavrov e'A/cet rds AotSopta?. 

5. '0 p,€v ovv nAdTOJv oo-d/ct? dax'^P'Ovovaiv 

dvdpwTTOLs TTapayevoiTO , irpos avTOV elcodet Xeyetv 

pirj 7TOV ap eyoj tolovtos; o oe AoLooprjaas 

^ For TO, (raOpd the Syriac version appears to have read to. 
aa epya, " examine your actions." 

* eiTTTjs Boissonade, confirmed by the Syriac version: 
eiTrr) <re. 

^ irov &p' Hercher, to conform to the other quotations of 
this saying by Phitarch : irrj 5.p\ or wot Up'. 

" From an unknown play of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 1086 ; Plutarch quotes the Une 
also in Moralia, 71 f, 481 a, and 1110 e. 

* Proverbial ; cf. Aristotle, Problem. 26. 1 ; Theo- 
phrastus, De ventis, p. 410 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. ii. 48 ; 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 88 

or illiberal, but be a man yourself, show self-control, 
be truthful, and treat ^^ith kindness and justice those 
who have to deal with you. And if you are led into 
re\iling, remove yoiu-self as far as possible from the 
things for which you re\'ile him. Enter within the 
portals of your own soul, look about to see if there be 
any rottenness there, lest some vice lurking some- 
where within whisper to you the words of the 
tragedian : 

Wouldst thou heal others, full of sores thyself ? " 

If you call your enemy uneducated, strive to in- 
tensify in yourself the love of learning and industr}-^ ; 
if you call him a coward, rouse even more youi self- 
reliance and manliness ; if you call liim unchaste 
and Ucentious, obliterate from yoxir soul whatever 
trace of devotion to pleasure may be lurking there 
unperceived. For there is nothing more disgraceful 
or painful than e\"il-speaking that recoils upon its 
author. So reflected hght appears to be the more 
troublesome in cases of weak eyesight, and the same 
is true of censures that by the truth are brought 
back upon the very persons who are responsible for 
them. For as surely the north-east ^^•ind ^ brings 
the clouds, so surely does a bad life bring re\'ilings 
upon itself. 

5. As often as Plato " found himself in the com- 
pany of persons whose conduct was unseemly, he 
was wont to say to himself, " Is it possible that I am 
like them ? " But if the man who r exiles another's 

Plutarch, Moralia, 833 b, and Nauck, Trag. Graee. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 75. 

• This remark of Plato is cited also in the Moralia, 40 d, 
129 D, and 463 e. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Tov eripov ^Lov av evdvg cTnaKOTrfj rov eavrov koI 
(jLedapfjiOTTr) irpos rovvavTLOv a.7T€vdvvcov /cat oltto- 
arp€(j)(DV, €^€L TL xP''j<^''fJ'OV €K TOV AoiSopetv, dWcos 
axprjcrrov /cat kcvov Sokovvtos eivai /cat ovtos. 
Ot fxev ovv TToAAot yeXaxTLV, av rts cov ^aAa/c/ao? t] 
F Kvprog irepovs els ravra XoiSopfj /cat aKcoTTTj]' ye- 
XoLov S' oXcos earl to XoihopeZv /cat aKciiTrreiv 
OTiovv avTiXoiSop7]dfjvat, Svvdfxevov, cos Accov 6 
Bu^avrto? V7t6 Kvprov XoiSoprjOels els ttiv tcov 
oixfidrcov dadeveiav, " dvdpwTTLVov," €(f)7], ' irddos 
ovetSi^eis, e77t tov vcotov <f>ipcov ttjv vefieaiv." 
ovKovv fxrj^e fjLoixov XoiSop'^crris, avTos cov TratSo- 
liavrjs, p-y)^' dcrcoTov, avTOs cov dveXevdepos. 

avSpOKTOvov yvvaLKOs 6p.oyevr]s €(f>vs 

Trpos TOV "ASpaaTov 6 'AA/c/xewr. tl ovv eKcTvos; 
ovK dXXoTpiov dXX* tSiov avTCp 7Tpo(f)€pojv oveiSos 

89 (TV 8' avTox^ip ye p^rjrpos rj a* eyelvaTO. 

'Trpos TOV Kpdaaov 6 AofxiTios, " ov ai) p,vpaLvr]s ev 
^oiypeio) aoi Tp€(/)op,evr]s eir' dnodavova-qs e/cAau- 
aas; " /cat o erepos " ov av Tpets yvvoiKas ckko- 
fXLaas OVK eSdKpvaas; " ovk ev(f)vij Set tov AotSo- 
prja6p,evov elvat /cat fi€yaX6(f)OJVov /cat LTafiov, dAA' 
aXoiSoprjTov /cat dveyKXrjrov ovSevL yap ovtojs 
eoiKe TTpoaTdTTeiv 6 deos cos tco fieXXovTi tpeyeiv 

" Cf. 633 c, for a slightly different version of the story. 

* From the Alcmaeon of Euripides; cf. Nauck, T.G.P., 
Adespota, No. 358. Quoted also in Moralia, 35 d. 

" Crassus's pet eel was famous. Plutarch speaks of| 
it twice elsewhere: Moralia, 811a and 976a. Of other 
writers, Aelian, De natura animal, viii. 4, contains the most 
interesting account of it. 
18 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 88-89 

life will at once carefully inspect his own, and re- 
adjust it by directing and turning it aside into the 
opposite course, he MriW have gained something 
useful from this re\ahng, which, othenvise, not only 
gives the impression of being useless and inane, but 
is so in fact. 

Now most people laugh if a man who is bald or 
hump-backed rexiles and jeers at others for being 
in such case ; for it is altogether ridiculous to indulge 
in revihng and jeering at anything that affords to 
another the opportunity for a caustic retort. For 
example, Leo " of Byzantium, being re\'iled by a 
humpback for the weakness of his eyes, said, " You 
reproach me with that which can happen to any 
man, while you bear on your back the mark of 
God's -wrath ! " Do not therefore ever re\ile an 
adulterer when you yourself are given to uimatural 
lust, nor a profligate when you yourself are stingy. 

Own kin are you of her who slew her spouse * 

are the words of Alcmeon to Adrastus. What then 
does Adrastus say ? He reproaches the speaker 
with a shameful deed which is not another's but all 
his own : 

But you yourself slew her who gave you birth.* 

Domitius remarked to Crassus, " Did you not weep 
at the death of a lamprey'' which was being kept 
for you in a fish-pond ? " And the other replied, 
" Did you not bury three >vives and not shed a tear ? " 
The man who is going to indulge in reviling need not 
be smart and loud-voiced and aggressive, but he 
must be irreproachable and unimpeachable. For 
upon nobody does the divine power seem so to enjoin 

VOL. II B 19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(89) erepov to " yvcodi aavrov," Iva fjirj Xeyovres a 
deXovaw aKovcoaiv a fir) deXovai. " (j^tAet " yap 6 
TOLovTOs Kara tov 2o(^o/cAea 

B yXwcrcrav cKx^as fidrr^v 

aKcov oLKoveiv ovs ckwv eiTTT) Xoyovs- 
6. TovTL [xev ovv evecrri, ru) Xothopetv rov i^ 
6p6v (hcfjeXifjLov /cat XPV^''H'^^' ^^'^ eXarrov 8' ere- 
pco,^ ra>^ XoiSopeladaL Kal KaKcos OLKOveiv avTov vtto 
r(x>v ixdpcov. odev opdojs 6 'Avricrdevrjs elTrev ore 
rots' fieXXovai aco^eadat (j)iXoiv Set yv-qaicDV •^ Sta- 
TTvpcov ixdpojv ol [xev yap vovderovvres tovs dfiap- 
Tavovras ol 8e XocSopovvres diTOTpeTTOvai. eirei S' 
7] ^tAta rd vvv laxv6(f>ojvos yeyovev iv ra> Trapprj- 
arid^ecrdai, Kal to KoXaKevov avTrj? XdXov ioTL, to 

Q Se vovdcTOVv dvavSov, dKovoTiov iaTL irapd tcjv 
exdpdjv TTjv dXrjdeLav. cos ydp 6 Ti^Ae^o? oIkclov 
firj Tvyxdvcov larpov Tip iroXepuKip Sdpart to eA/co? 
V7Tedr]K€v, ovrco tovs diropovvTas evvoias vovde- 
Tovarjs VTTopLeveiv dvdyKrj pnaovvTOs ixOpov Xoyov, 
dv iXeyxj} Kal KoXdl^rj ttjv KaKiav, aKoirovvTas to 
epyov dXXd fx-q ttjv yvwfjurjv tov KaKcbs XeyovTOS. 
wairep ydp 6 tov QeaaaXov YlpopLTjdea KTclvai Sta- 
voTjdels eVatae tco ^i(j)ei to (f)V[xa Kal SteiAev ovtcos 

^ iriptfi F.C. B. : eripov, 'irepa or irepov, 
* T<^] t6 most jiss. 

" Two lines of a longer quotation from an unknown play ; 
cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Sophocles, No. 843. 

* Diogenes is given as the author of this saying twice else- 
where in the Moralia, 74 c and 82 a. One ms. gives Diogenes 
here. 

* Among the many references to this story, it is perhaps 
sufficient to cite Moralia, 46 f ; Propertius, ii. 1. 63 ; Ovid, 
Tristia, v. 1. 15. 

20 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 89 

the precept, " Know thyself," as upon him who 
purposes to censure another, so that such persons 
may not, by saying what they want to say, have to 
hear what they do not want to hear. For a person 
of this type, as Sophocles " puts it. 

By babbling thoughtless talk is wont to hear 
Against his will the words he willing speaks. 

6. There may be, then, so much that is profitable 
and useful in re\"iling one's enemy ; but no less 
profit hes in the alternative of being re\'iled oneself 
and ill spoken of by one's enemies. Hence Anti- 
sthenes * was quite right in saying that, as a matter 
of self-preservation, men have need of true friends 
or else of ardent enemies ; for the first by admoni- 
tion, and the second by reviling, turn them from 
error. But since friendship's voice has nowadays 
become thin and weak when it comes to frank 
speaking, while its flattery is voluble and its ad- 
monition mute, we have to depend upon our enemies 
to hear the truth. For as Telephus,'' unable to find 
a suitable physician, subjected his wound to his 
enemy's spear, so those who are cut off from bene- 
volent admonition must submit with patience to the 
remarks of a malevolent enemy if he exposes and 
reprehends their vice, and they must give considera- 
tion to the facts only, and not to what is in the mind 
of the detractor. Another parallel is the case of 
the man who, with intent to kill the Thessalian 
Prometheus,** smote \\'ith his sword a tumoiu* which 
Prometheus had, and opened it so that the man's Bfe 

' Apparently a sort of nickname of Jason of Pherae ; at 
any rate this story is told of Jason by Cicero, De natura 
diorum, iii. 28 (70) ; Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 51 ; and Valerius 
Maximus, i. 8, ext. 6. Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica, ii. 3. 36. 

2J 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(89) cocrre acodfjvac top dvdpcoTTOv /cat a.TraAAay-^i'at rov 
cj)vixaTOS payevTOs, ovrco TroAAa/ct? vtt* opyrjs ■^ e%- 
D dpas TTpoGTreaovaa XotSopia KaKov ^V)(t]s rj ayvoov- 
fievov r) dfJieXoviJievov edepdirevaev. oAA' ol ttoWoI 
XoihopiqdivTe? ov ctkottovglv et TrpocreoTLV avTols to 
Xeyofxevov, dXXd ri Trpoaeartv erepov ro) AotSo- 
povvTi, KaX Ka6a.7T€p OL TTaXaLovres TrjV kovlv ovx 
iavriov diTOipcoaL ra? XotSopcas, dXXd crvpLTrdrTovaLV 
dAAT^Aous" etra (f)vpovTai /cat dvaypcLvvvvrai crv/x- 
7T€a6vT€s VTT^ dXXijXcDv. Set S' dKovdavra /ca/coi? utt' 
i^dpov ro jxev irpocjov dcfiaipelv avrov pidXXov rj 
KrjXtSa irpoaovaav t/xarto) /cat Set;^0etaat'' dv 84 rt? 
Xeyj) rd [irj rrpoaovra, ojxcos t^r^relv r-qv^ alriav d(f>' 
^ "^S Tj jSAaCTc^TjjLtta yeyove, Kal (f>vXdrrea6ai /cat Se- 
Siev'at /XT^ Tt Xavddvcojxev ^ avveyyvs 7] opboiov riu 
Xeyop^evo) TrapafiapTavovres. olov AaKvSrjv" top 
^ApyeLcov ^aaiXia Kopiris rivog hiddeais Kal jSa- 
StCT/xa rpv(j>ep(x)repov els fxaXaKtav Ste^aAe, /cat 
YlofXTT'qiov TO €VL Kvdadat T-qv Ke<f)aXrjv SaKrvXco 
voppcoTaTO) diqXvTrjTOS Kai a/coAacrtas" ovra. Kpaa- 
(Tos 8e Tcbv Upcbv fxia TTapdevoiv atViav ^(^X^ 
7rXr](ndl,€iv, x^^P^ov rt KaXov divqaaadai trap avTrjs 
^ovXofxevos /cat Sta tovto TroAAct/ct? evrvyxdvwv 

^ T7)v added by Hercher. 

2 \aK.v5-i)v] AaKTjOriv was suggested by Wyttenbach (fol- 
lowed by Wilamowitz), comparing Pausanias, ii. 19. 2. 

" Mention of this habit of Pompey's is found also in the 
Moralia, 800 d, in the Life of Pompey, chap, xlviii. 
(p. 645 a), and in the Life of Caesar, chap. iv. (p. 709 b). 

* The story is told more fully in the Life of Grassus, chap. 
i. (p. 54S b). 
22 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 89 

was saved, and he obtained relief from his tumour 
through its bursting ; so oftentimes revihng launched 
upon a man by the prompting of anger or enmity 
cures some evil in his soul which either was not 
recognized or was disregarded by him. But most 
persons on being re\"iled do not stop to think whether 
the reproach is applicable to themselves, but they 
trj' to think what other form of reproach is applicable 
to the re^'iler, and, just as ^\Testlers do not wipe the 
dust from off their o^vn bodies, so these persons do 
not wipe off the refilings from themselves, but they 
besmear one another, and in consequence get be- 
smirched and begrimed by each other as they 
grapple together. But it is more imperative thai 
the man who is ill spoken of by an enemy should rid 
himself of the attribute in question, than that he 
should get rid of a stain on his clothes to which his 
attention has been called ; and if anybody mentions 
things which are not really attributes of ours, we 
should nevertheless seek to leam the cause which 
has given rise to such slanderous assertions, and 
we must exercise \igilance, for fear that we un- 
mttingly commit some error either approximating 
or resembhng the one mentioned, lor example, 
an unwarranted suspicion of uiunanhness Avas aroused 
against Lacydes, king of the Argives, by a certain 
arrangement of his hair and a mincing gait, and 
Pompey" suffered in the same way on account of 
his habit of scratching his head with one finger, 
although he was very far removed from effeminacy 
and Ucentiousness. Crassus ^ incurred the charge 
of being too intimate M-ith one of the Vestal virgins, 
when he only wanted to buy from her a piece of 
good land, and for this reason had many private 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

iSia /cat depaTTevojv. Uoarovfiiav 8e to yeXdv 
F TTpox^Lporepov Kai AaAta y^prjadat dpaarvrepa rrpos 
dvSpas SU^aXev, coare Kpidi^vai (f)dopds. evpedrj 
fjLcv ovv Kadapa rrjs alrias, dnoXvaas 8' avTr]v 6 
dpxtepevs ^TTopios MivovKtos VTT€fi,vr](jr€ fxrj xpT](^dai 
Aoyoi? dcrefMvorepoLS rov ^iov. QefjucrroKXet Be 
Havaavlas fJirjSev dBiKovvTL irpoaeTpiijjaro ttjv 
VTToi/jtav TTJs vpoSoaias Sta to xPV^^^'' 4'*-^^ '^**' 
ypd(f)eLv cruvexojs Kal Tre/XTretv Trpos avrov. 

7. "OTai' ovv Xexdfj tl firj dXr]6es, ovx on ipev- 
Sos ean Set Karacjipovetv koI dfieXetv, dXXd aKOTreZv 
Tt Twv V7TO aov XeyofxcvcDv t] TrparTopiivoiv "q ctttov- 
90 8al^o[jL€V(ov rj cruvovrcov ofioLorrjra rfj Bia^oXfj 
TTapeax^jKe, /cat rovro SievXa^elcrdat /cat (f)€vy€t,v. 
el yap erepoi Trpdyixaaiv d^ovX-qrois TTepnreaovres 
SiSdaKOvrai to p^piyo-tjuov, woTrep r] MepoTn^ (f>r]aLV 

at rvxa.i' Se /x€ 
fitadov Xa^ovcrai rtbv ifiojv rd <f>iXraTa 
aocf)riv edrjKav, 

Tt KojXvet SiSdcTKaXov dpucrdov Xa^ovra rov ex^pov 
d)(f)€Xr]d7]vai /cat fiadelv Tt tojv Xavdavovrcov ; TroAAa 
yap 6 exOpos aladdverai rov (f)LXov pLoXXov (" tu- 
<f>Xovrai" yap "to (f>LXovv irepl to ^iXovyievov ," co? 
o nAaTOJV (f)y]al), ro) he pnaeZv pLerd rov ttoXv- 
B TrpaypLovelv /cat to AaAeit' eveanv. 6 'lepcov viro 

" A Vestal virgin ; cf. Livy, iv. 44. 

* Thucydides, i. 135 : cf. also Plutarch, Life of Themi- 
stocles, chap, xxiii. (p. 123 c). 

" From the Cresphontes of Euripides ; Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 458. 

<* Plato, Laws, p. 731 z. The quotation is repeated a few 
pages farther on (92 e), and also in the Moralia, 48 e and 
1000 a. 
24 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 89-90 

interviews with her and paid her much attention. 
Again, Postumia's " ready laughter and overbold talk 
in men's company put her under unjust suspicion, so 
that she was tried for unchastity. She was found 
innocent of the charge, but in dismissing her the 
Pontifex Maximus, Spurius Minucius, reminded her 
that the language she used should have no less 
dignity than her Ufe. And again Pausanias inflicted 
on Themistocles,*' who was doing nothing wrong, the 
suspicion of treason by treating him as a friend, 
and by writing and sending messages to him con- 
tinually. 

7. Whenever, then, anything untrue has been said, 
you must not despise and disregard it just because 
it is false, but rather consider what word or act of 
yours, which of your piursuits or associations, has 
given colour to the calumny, and then be studiously 
careful to avoid it. For if others by becoming in- 
volved in undesired situations thereby learn a useful 
lesson — just as Merope says that 

Inconstant Fortune took from me. 
To pay her fee, the dearest that I had. 
But she for that hath made me wise * — 

what is to hinder a man from taking his enemy as 
his teacher Avithout fee, and profiting thereby, and 
thus learning, to some extent, the things of which he 
was unaware ? For there are many things which an 
enemy is quicker to perceive than a friend (for Love is 
blind regarding the loved one, as Plato ** says), and 
inherent in hatred, along with curiosity, is the in- 
ability to hold one's tongue. Hiero * was re\iled by 

* The story is repeated in the Moral ia, 175 b, and else- 
where by other writers. One author tells it of Gelon. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(90) TLVog Tcbv ixdpMV €LS TTjv SvacoSCav €Xoihopii^di~i TOV 
arofxarog. iXdcov ovv ot/caSe irpos ttjv yvvalKa 
" Tt Xeyeis; " €L7T€v, " ovSe av fxoL rovr' €<f)pa- 
aas. y] S' ovaa aaxfypcov /cat a/ca/co? " (pfxrjv," 
eiTrev, " on tolovto Travres ot,ovacv ol dvSpes." 
ovTOi Kal TO. aladr^TiKO, Kal ra crco/xart/ca /cat to, 
i<ara(j)avri Trdai -napa rcov €-)(dpa)v {xaOelv TTporepov 
cariv 7) ra)v ^iXojv /cat avvqOoiV. 

8. "Avev Se rovrov ttjv irepl rrju^ yXwTTav iy- 
Kparetav, ov fiiKpov aperrjs fi^pos ovaav, viTrjKoov 
C aei TCp Xoyiaixip /cat TreLdijviov ex^iv ovk eveariv, 
av fxtj TLS OLGK-^acL /cat fieXerr) /cat (^iXoTrovia ra 
KCt/ctCTTa Tcov TTadcov, olov iaTLV Tj opyrjy Karepyd- 
arjTaL. rj yap " aKovuiois eKTrirrTOvaa (fxxjvrj " /cat 

TO 

eVos" (fivyev epKos ohovTojv, 

Kal TO 

ei'ia i^LTTTaadaL tojv prjixdrcov avro/xara 

rots dvaaKtJTOLs /LtaAtara Ovfiols olov oXiaddvovai 
Kal Btappeovaiv eTnyiyverai St dadeveiav 9vp,ov, 
St' aKparrj yv(JjpiT)Vy Sta Statrai' dpaaelav.' Xoyov 
§6 Kov(j)OTdTOV TTpdy/jiaros ^apvTdriq ^rjfiia Kara 
TOV delov nActTOJi'a /cat irapd deatv erreraL Kal irap 
D dv9pa)7TO}v. Tj Se atyr) TTavra)(ov puev avvnevdwov 
{ov [xovov aSiiJjov, cos <f)rjaiv ^iTTTTOKpdTTjs), iv 

^ irepl Trjv Stobaeus, Flor. xxiii. 9 : irepl. 
" 5ia diaiTav dpaaetav F.C.B. : Biairrj Opaaeiq., 

" A picturesque expression several times used by Homer ; 

^6 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 90 

one of his enemies for his offensive breath ; so when 
he went home he said to his >vife, " What do you 
mean ? Even you never told me of this." But she 
being \'irtuous and innocent said, " I supposed that 
all men smelt so." Thus it is that things which are 
perceptible, material, and evident to all the world, 
may sooner be learned from our enemies than from 
our friends and close associates. 

8. But, quite apart from this, control over the 
tongue, which is no small part of \irtue, is something 
which it is impossible to keep always in subjection 
and obedience to the reasoning faculties, unless a 
man by training, practice, and industry has mastered 
the worst of his emotions, such as anger, for example. 
For the " voice that shps out unintended,"" and the 

Word that has 'scaped the lips' prison," 
^ and 
■ Some of the sayings that flit forth of themselves," 

are all incident to temperaments that are quite un- 
trained, and are unsteady and fluctuating, so to 
speak, o^ving to weakness of will, headstrong opinions, 
and a reckless way of Hving. Just for a word, the 
lightest thing in the world, is ordained, according 
to the divine Plato,* hea%iest punishment, coming 
from both gods and men. But silence cannot 
under any circumstances be called to an accounting 
(it is more than a preventive of thirst, as Hippo- 
crates " says of it), and in the midst of reviling it is 

«.g. II. iv. 350 ; xiv. 83 ; Od. i. 64 ; xxiii. 70. The source of 
I the other two quotations is unknown, 

* Plato, Laws, pp. 717 c and 935 a. Plutarch quotes it 
again in Moralia, 456 d and 505 c. 

• Cf. Moralia, 515 a. 

VOL. II i; !2 27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(90) Se AotSopiat?^ aefxvov /cat ^coKparLKov, [xdWov 8' 
Hpa/cAetov, et ye /cd/cetvo? 

oi5S' oaaov fJLvlas arvyepwv e/^Tra^ero fivdojv. 
ovTL^ IXT)V TOVTOV a€fJLv6r€pov Kal KaXXtov ecTTt, rov^ 
XoiSopovvTos ix^P^^ '^V^ rjGvx^civ dyeiv 

XcaadSa nerpav 
<f>i,XoK€pTOfjiov ojs TTapavrjxofxevovs, 

aAAo. p,eit,a)v rj dcTKrjais. dv i)(dp6v ediadfjs Aot- 
Sopovvra (j)ipeiv aLojvfj, ttow pahicos otaeLs yvvai- 
Kos opjjLr^v* KaKcvs Xeyovarjs, Kal (f)lXov (f)covds Kal 
dSeA^ou TTLKpordTas dKovcov vnofievets dOopv^ojs' 
TTarpl Se Kal {irjTpl rviTTopLevos Kal ^aXXofxevos 

E irapi^eis ddvfxov Kal dp.T]V(,TOV creavTov. 6 p,kv 
yap llcDKpdTr]s €(f)€pe rr^v aav6L7T7rr]v dvp,0€i8r] Kal 
XP-XeTTriv ovaav, cuj evKoXcos avveaojjLevos irepois, dv 
€K€ivrjv v7TOfjL€veLv cdiadfj' TToXv Se ^eXriov ixdpoJv 
Kal dXXorpicov eyyvpuvaadfievov ^SeXvpiais Kal 6p- 
yals Kal cr/cco/x/iacrt Kal XotSopiais ediaat top dvfjLov 
"qavx^av dyeiv jUt^S' dcrxdXXeiv iv Ta> Xoihopeiadai. 
9. YipaoTrjTa ixkv ovv Kal dve^iKaKcav ovtws 
eoTLV eveTTihel^acrdai tols exOpacs, aTrXor-qra 8e Kal 
lieyaXo(j>poavvr]v Kal ;^p7ycrTdTT7Ta [xaXXov t]^ rats 

F <f)i,Xiais. <f)iXov fiev yap ovx ovtco to eu TTOLelv 

KoXov, d)s alaxpov to p,rj TTOielv Seoixevov exBpov 

^ XotdopLais Stob. Flor. xix. 7 : \oi5opiq.. 
* oSti Madvig : oSre. 

* Tov Reiske : rb : both confirmed by the Syriac version. 

* opyyiv Wyttenbach. 
' fj Amyot (confirmed by the Syriac version) : iv. 

" Source unknown ; the story in Pausanias, v. 14, is not 
to the point. 

* The source of the quotation is not known. 

28 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 90 

dignified and Socratic, or rather Heraclean, if it be 
true that Heracles 

Not so much as to a fly gave heed to words of hatred." 

Indeed, there is nothing more dignified and noble 
than to maintain a calm demeanour when an enemy 
reviles one, 

Passing by a man's scoffs 
Just as swimmers swim past a precipitous rock,* 

but far more important is the practice. If you once 
acquire the habit of bearing an enemy's abuse in 
silence, you will very easily bear up under a wife's 
attack when she rails at you, and without discom- 
posure will patiently hear the most bitter utterances 
of a friend or a brother ; and when you meet with 
blows or missiles at the hands of a father or mother, 
you will show no sign of passion or -VATath. For in- 
stance, Socrates bore with Xanthippe,"^ who was iras- 
cible and acrimonious, for he thought that he should 
have no difficulty in getting along with other people if 
he accustomed himself to bear patiently with her ; 
but it is much better to secure this training from 
the scurrilous, angry, scoffing, and abusive attacks of 
enemies and outsiders, and thus accustom the temper 
to be unruffled and not even impatient in the midst 
of revihng. 

9. In this manner, then, it is possible for us to 
display the quaUties of gentleness and forbearance 
in connexion with our enmities, and also straight- 
forwardness, magnanimity, and goodness better than 
in oiu* friendships. For it is not so honourable to 
do a good turn to a friend as it is disgraceful not to 
do it when he is in need ; but even to forgo taking 

* Xenophon, Symposium, 2. 10. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

0€ Kal TO ri/xcopiav TrapaXivelv ev Kaipo) napaaxov- 
Tos eTTceCKes iari. tov Se Kal vraiaavTi avfXTrad-q- 
aavra /cat Se-qdevn avXAa^ofxevov /cat Trato-tP' ix- 
6 pod /cat oiKelots Trpdyfiaaiv^ iv XP^^9- y^vop,evoLS 
aTTOvhrjv TLva /cat irpoOvpiiav ivSet^dfxevov oart? 
ovK ayaTTO. rrjs evp^eveias owS' errati'et r-qv p^pt^CTTO- 
rrjTa, CKetvog 

€^ dSajjiavTog 
91 T] atSdpov K€xd\K€VTai fxeXatvav Kaphlav, 

Toj Kataapt /ceAeucravrt rds Ilofi7T7]Lov ri/xa? 
avaaraOi^vaL Kara^e^X-qfievas 6 YiiKepcjov " rovs 
YiopL-nrjiov," (f>r]aLV, " dvSpcdvras dvearrjaas, rovg 
Se aovs €7Trj^as." odev ou8' erraivov (f)€LaT€0v 
ovSe TifMTJs Trepl dvSpos ix^pov St/catoj? evSoKipiT]- 
aavTOs. €7Taiv6v re yap ^epei fiel^ova rots €77- 
aivovaiy Kal TTiarLV ex^i TrdXiv iyKoXcov, ois" ov rev 
dvSpa fxiorcov dXXd rrjv Trpd^LV d7TohoKi,pidl,a)V to 
B Se KdXXiarov Kal ;!^/>7jCTt^ajTaToi', dTTOjrdroi KaO- 
Lararai rov ^Oovelv Kal ^iXoig evrvxovai /cat 
KaropdovcTLV ot/cetot? o tovs ix^povs idioOetg 
€TTaLV€Lv Kal fiTj SdKV€a6aL [xrjSe /Sacr/catVetr €v 
■npaTTOVTCov . Kairoi rig dcTK'qais erepa fxcl^ova 
<h(f>eX€Lav €V€pydl,€Tai rat? ij/vxcus iq Stddeaiv Kpeir- 
Tova rrjs dc/jaLpovar^s to hvat,rjXov -qfiajv Kal (J)lX6- 
(f)6ovov ; cooTrep yap ev iroXepco ttoXXcl tcov avay- 
Kaicov dXXws Se <f>avXa)v edovs Xa^ovTa Kal vofiou 
^ Trpdyfiacriv'] xP'Ot'-^''''^^ Hartman. 

" Part of a longer fragment of Pindar ; cf. Pindar, Frag. 
123 (ed. Christ) ; quoted again bj"- Plutarch, Moralia, 558 a. 

" Plutarch repeats this story in Moralia, 205 d ; lAfe of 
Caesar, chap. Ivii. (p. 734 e), and Life of Cicero, cliap. xl. 
(p. 881 d). Cf. Suetonius, Caesar, 75. 

30 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 90-91 

vengeance on an enemy when he offers a good oppor- 
tunity is a handsome thing to do. But in case a man 
shows compassion for an enemy in affliction, and 
gives a helping hand to him when he has come to be 
in need, and displays some concern and zeal in behalf 
of his children and his household aifairs when they 
come to want, I say that whosoever does not feel 
affection for such a man because of liis kindliness, or 
does not commend his goodness. 

Hath a black heart 
Forged from adamant or else from steel." 

When Caesar gave orders that the statues in honour 
of Pompey, which had been thrown down, should be 
restored, Cicero ^ said to him, " You have restored 
Pompey 's statues, but you have made your own 
secure." Wherefore there must be no scanting of 
commendation or due honour in the case of an enemy 
who has justly gained a fair repute. For such an 
attitude vvins greater commendation for those who 
bestow it, and inspires confidence, when later a man 
makes a complaint that he does so, not because he 
hates the person, but because he disapproves of the 
action. But best of all, and most advantageous, is 
the fact that a man is farthest removed from en\'ying 
the good fortune of liis friends or the success of his 
relatives, if he has acquired the habit of commending 
his enemies, and feeling no pang and cherishing no 
grudge when they prosper. And yet what other 
process of training produces greater benefit to our 
souls or a better disposition, than does that wliich 
takes from us all our j ealousy and our proneness to 
envy ? Just as many of the things which are neces- 
sary in war, but bad under other conditions, when 
they once acquire the sanction of custom and law, 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(91) Svva[i,(,p ovK earc paStco? OLTTCoaaadai Kal ^Xairro- 
fxevovs, ovTcos 17 ^x^pa avvetadyovaa rto fiiaei, 
(f)d6vov, ^-qXoTVTTLav eTn\ai,peKaKiav jxvrjaLKaKLav 
evaTToXeiTTet. irpos Se tovtols Kal iravovpyia koX 
C o.TTa.Tr) Kal iTTi^ovXij, SoKovaa fxrj ^avXov elvat, [mtjS* 
aSiKov Trpos exdpov, av lyyivqTai, irapafxeveL Sva- 
aTToiXXaKTOs' etra p^/jcovrat Trpos tovs (f)tXovs avTol 
V7TO avvqdelag, av [mtj ^uXd^covrat, npos rovs i^- 
dpovs. €L7T€p ovv opdws 6 Ilvdayopas, iv dXoyots 
^ipois idit^cov (x)[jl6tt]tos d7re;^eCT^ai /cat TrXeove^las, 
opveoiv T6 drjpevTas TraprjTeLTO Kal ^oXovs covov- 
fjLcvos t^^uwt' CKcXevev d(f)i€vai,, Kal vrarros" rjfiepov 
t,a)ov <j>6vov dTTTjyopeve, ttoXv StJttov aefxvorepov 
D icTTLV iv St,a(f>opais Trpos dvdpwTTovs Kal (f>iXov€i- 
Kiats, yevvatov i^dpov ovra Kal SiKaiov Kal difjevSrj, 
rd fjLoxd'Tjpd Kal dyewrj Kal Travovpya Trddrj KoXd- 
t,eLv Kal TttTretm TTOielv, ottcos iv rois Trpos rovs 
c/)iXovs avfju^oXalois TTavTaTraacv drpefifj Kal dTT- 
ix'TjTat, Tov KaKovpyelv. TiKavpos ix^pos "^v Aofii- 
riov Kal Karrjyopos. olKerrjs oSv tov Aofxtriov 

TTpO TTJS SlKTjS rJK€ TTpOS aVTOV (hs ^X^iV Tl, jXT^VVaaL 

rojv Xavdavovroiv iKelvov, 6 S' ovk etacrev enreZv, 
dXXd (TvXXa^d)v TOV dvdpcoTTOV aTT-qyaye Trpos tov 
SecrTTOTrjv. Karcovi Se Movp-qvav Sicokovtl Srjpio- 
KOTTias Kal avvdyovTi tovs iXiyxovs ef edovs 

' Of. Moralia, 729 e. 

* For the facts see Cicero, Oration for King Deiotartis, 1 1 
(31). 
32 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 91 

cannot easily be abolished by the people even though 
the people are being injured by them, so enmity 
introduces envy along with hatred, and leaves as a 
residue jealousy, joy over others' misfortunes, and 
vindictiveness. ^Ioreover, knavery, deceit, and in- 
trigue, which seem not bad or unjust when employed 
against an enemy, if once they find a lodgement, 
acquire a ])ermanent tenure, and are hard to eject. 
The next thing is that men of themselves employ 
these against their friends through force of habit, 
unless they are on their guard against using them 
against their enemies. If then Pythagoras " was 
right when, in trying to accustom men to refrain 
from cruelty and rapacity in connexion with dumb 
animals, he used to intercede with fowlers, and buy 
up catches of fish and direct that they be released, 
and forbid the kilUng of any domesticated animal, 
it is surely a grander achievement by far, in disagree- 
ments and contentions with human beings, for a 
man to be a noble, honest, and ingenuous enemy, 
and to repress and put down his base, ignoble, and 
knavish propensities, so that in his deahngs vdih his 
friends he may be always steadfast and may keep 
himself from wrongdoing. Scaurus was an enemy 
of Domitius and his accuser before the law.* Now a 
servant of Domitius came to Scaurus before the 
trial, claiming to have information on some matters 
that had escaped Scaurus 's knowledge, but Scaurus 
would not let him speak, and caused the man to be 
arrested and taken back to his master. When Cato 
was prosecuting Murena for corrupt political prac- 
tices and was getting together his evidence, there 
followed him, in accordance with the usage of the 



89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7Tap7]KoXovdovv ol Tct vpaTTOfjieva TTapacfivXaTTOvre? . 
E rroXXoLKLs ovv avrov rjpcoTCov et ri fxeXXei crqixepov 
crvvayeiv r] Trpaynareveadai Trpos Trjv KaTTjyopLav 
et 8e firj (f>aL'q, Tnarevovres diTTJeaav. ravTa jxev 
ovv avTOV rrjs So^-qs e^et reKpLi^pLov /jLeyicrrov 
aAAa jJLell^ov Kal KoiXXicrroVy on rco St/cato) p^pT^cr^at 
/cat TTpos ixdpovs iOiaOevres ovoirroTe jxtj rrpoa- 
evexOco/xev ddiKws Kal Travovpyojs tols crvvTJOeaL 
/cat (fiiXoLs. 
10. 'E77et Se 

Traaat?^ KopvdaXXiai XPV ^o(f)ov iyyeveadai 

Kara rov Si/xojviStjv, /cat Trdaa (j>vai£ dvdpcoTTOV 
(f>€p€L ^iXoveiKLav /cat t,r)XoTVVLav /cat <f)d6vov, 

F Keveocfjpovcov dvSpcov iratpov, 

COS (fiTjai HivSapos, ov fJberpLCJS dv rt? (h^eXoZro 
TcDv TTadwv rovrcov TTOtovfxevos els rous i^dpovg 
aTTOKadapaeis Kal d7TO(7Tp€(f)OJV coartep dyj^rovs 
TToppcoTarco tojv iraipcDV Kal oiKeLCov. Kal rovro, 
COS €oiK€, avviScov ttoXltlkos dvrip ovofxa Arjjjios,'' 
ev Xto) T'^s' Kparovuiqs jxepihos ev ardaei yevo- 
fxevos, Traprjvet rots iralpoLs p-rj Trdvras i^eXdaai 
Tovs avriaraaLacFavras , dXX VTToXnriad ai rivas, 
9- " OTTCos," ^<f>^, " fJ''^ Trpos TOVS (f>iXovs dp^cofxeda 

^ irdaais Bergk : TrdcraKri. 

* 6vo/.ia AoM-oi, which has but sUght ms. authority, is con- 
firmed by the Syriac version : ^OvofidSri/xos in most mss. A^/xos 
was used as a proper name, but there is no evidence for 
'Ovo/xdorjfjos except here and Aforalia 813 a. 

" Explained more fully in the Life of Cato Minor, chap. 
xxi. (p. 769 b), where the story is repeated. 

* Repeated by Plutarch in Moralia, 809 b, and in the Life 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 91-92 

time," men who watched what was being done. 
Very often they would ask him if he was intending 
that day to gather evidence or to do any work on 
the case, and if he said " No," they believed him 
and went away. In these facts may be found the 
greatest proof of Cato's repute ; but it is a greater 
thing, and indeed the noblest, that, if we acquire 
the habit of practising honesty in deahng even with 
our enemies, we shall never deal dishonestly and „ 
knavishly -nith our intimate associates and friends. 
10. But since 

On every lark a crest must grow, 

as Simonides * puts it, and since all human nature 
bears its crop of contention, jealousy, and envy, 

Boon comrade of rattle-brained men, 

as Pindar " says, a man would profit in no moderate 
degree by venting these emotions upon his enemies, 
and turning the course of such discharges,** so to 
speak, as far away as possible from his associates 
and relatives. This fact, as it seems, a statesman, 
Demus by name,^ apprehended : when he found 
himself on the vvinning side in a civic strife in Chios, 
he advised his party associates not to banish all their 
opponents, but to leave some of them behind, " in 
order," he said, " that we may not begin to quarrel 

of Timoleon, chap. xxx\ii. (253 e), with much the same 
application. Cf. Bergk, Poet. l/yr. Graec. iii. p. 418j 
Simonides. No. 68; Diehl, Anthologia Lyrica, ii. p. 62; 
Edmonds, Lyra Oraeca (in L.C.L.), ii. p. 278, all differing 
in their reading of this one line. 

' Frag. 212 (ed. Christ). 

"* Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, i. 4. 6. 

' Cf. Moralia, 813 a, where the story is repeated almost 
word for word. i >> 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(92) Bta(f)€p€crdai, ra)v ixdpcbv TTavraTraaiv aTToXXa- 
yevTes." ovkovv koL rjfjiajv KaTavaXLcrKOfxeva ravra 
ra TTadr) irpog rovs ix^povs "^ttov €voxXi]cr€i. rols 
^iXois. ov yap " K€pap,et" Set " Kepafiea (f>dov€Lv" 
ouS " aoiSov doiScp" Kad^ 'HaloSov, ovhe yeirova 
^rjXovv oi58' aveipLOV ouS' dSeA^ov " els d<f)€vos 
CTTevSovra " /cat TvyxdvovTa xP'^^^t^jv Trpayp-aTOiv. 
oAA' et fJLTjSels rpoTTOs iariv dXXos dTraXXayTJs 

B epihcov /cat ^Qovcxiv /cat (f)iXov€t,Ktajv, eOi^e creavrov 
SaKveadai tojv ix^pojv evr)p.epovvT(x)v , /cat Trap- 
o^vve /cat p^aparre to ^iXoveiKov iv e/cetVot? d-qyo- 
fievov. coOTTep ydp ol ;^a/3tep'Te? yecopyol to. poha 
/cat TO. la jSeArto) ttolclv vofil^ovat crKopoSa /cat 
Kpofifjiva Trapaj)vrevovT€s {oLTTOKpLverai, ydp et? 
€K€lva Trdv oaov evecrri rfj rpo(f)fj Spip,v /cat Sucr- 
coSes) ,ovT(i) /cat o ex^pos dvaXapL^dvcov KaiTrepicnraJv^ 
TO KaKorjdes /cat ^daKavov, evfievdarepov irapi^ei 
ae Toi? (^iXois ev TrpdrrovaL /cat dXvTTorepov. Sto 
/cat TO.? dfiiXXas Trpos €K€lvovs earl TTOirjreov vnep 
h6^r]s rj dpx^js rj TTopLUfiajv hiKaicov, firj SaKVO/xe- 
vovs fxovov, dv TV nXeov rjfxdjv cxcocriv, dXXd /cat 

C Trdvra TTapa(f>vXdTrovTas e^ c5v ttXIov exovai, /cat 
TTeipoifxevovs VTrep^aXiadai rats €7rtju.eAeiai? /cat 
<f)iXo7Toviais /cat ro) aai<j)poveiv /cat Trpoaex^iv 
eavToXs, cos QefXLaTOKXrjs eAeyev ou/c eai* avrov 
KadevSeiv rrjv iv MapaddJvc MtATtaSou vlk7]v. 6 
fiev ydp evTVX^a Stac^e'/aetv auToiJ tov ixOpov "qyov- 
fievos iv dpxats t] avvrjyopiais ^ TToXireiais f) Trapa 
^ TrepiffirQv Bases and F.C.B. ; wepUirtiiv. 

" The references are to the Works and Days. 25-26 and 27. 

* Cf. Plutarch, Life of Themistocles, chap. iii. (p. 113 b), 
and Moralia, 84 b and 800 b. 
S6 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 92 

with our friends, through being completely rid of 
our enemies." So also in our o'W'n ease, if our 
emotions of this sort are expended upon our enemies, 
they ■«'ill cause less annoyance to our friends. For 
" a potter " must not " en\y potter," nor " a minstrel 
a minstrel," as Hesiod '^ pute it, nor must there be 
any feeling of rivalry against a neighbour or relative 
or brother who is " winning his way towards riches " 
and meeting with prosperity. But if there is no 
other way of getting rid of strifes, envies, and con- 
tentions, accustom yourself to feel the sting of 
resentment when your enemies enjoy health and 
happiness, and whet your contentiousness to a sharp 
jagged edge on these. For just as skilled gardeners 
believe that they improve their roses and \'iolets by 
planting beside them garhc and onions (since what- 
ever pungency and malod rousness there is in what 
the plants feed on is all drawn off into the vegetables), 
thus also yovir enemy, by taking up and diverting 
to himself your malice and jealousy, will render you 
more kindly and less disagreeable to your friends 
in their prosperity. For this reason it is ■with our 
enemies that we must also engage in rivalry for 
repute or office or honest money-getting, not only 
feehng the sting of resentment if they get the 
advantage of us, but also watching carefully every 
means by which they get the advantage, and trying 
to surpass them in painstaking, dihgence, self- 
control, and self-criticism : after the manner of 
Themistocles, who said that Miltiades' victory at 
Marathon would not let him sleep.* For he who 
thinks that it is by mere good luck that his enemy 
surpasses him in pubhc offices, in pleading cases, in 
state administration, or in his standing with friends 

87 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(92) (f>iXois /cat rjyeixoGW, e/c rov irpdrreiv ri kol 
tpTjXovv €15 TO ^acrKalvetv TravraTraaL Kai ddvixetv 
KaraSvofjievo?, dpyto tco cf)d6vcp Kal dtrpaKroi 
avveariv 6 8e fir) rv(j)Xovfi€vos Trepl to [XLaovfxevov 
aAAa /cat ^lov Kal rjdovs Kal Xoycov Kal epyoiv 
yiyvojxevos dearrjs St/cato? rd TrXelara /caroj/rerat 
D Twv ^T]Xovp,€vajv ef iTTifxeXeias Kal Trpovoias kol 
TTpd^ecov )(pr)aTa)v TrepLyLyvofieva rots K€KT7]fj.evoi,s, 
Kai TTpos ravra avvreivcov eTraoKrjaet, rd (fjiXorcixov 
avTov /cat ^lAo/caAov, rd Se x'^afidjSes iKKoipei /cat 
padvfxov. 

11. Et 8e TLvas ol i^Opol KoXaKevovTeg rj Trai/- 
ovpyovvres rj SeKa^ovreg fj f.uadapvovvre's ala-)(pas 
/cat aveXevdepovg Sokovotl KapTrovadai SwdfJieLg iv 
avXats T] 77oAtTetats", ovk ivoxXijaovatv -qp-ds dXXd 
^aAAov ev(f>pavov(n, rrjv avrojv iXevdepiav Kal to 
Kadapdv Tov ^iov /cat dvv^piaTOV avrtridevTas' 
E " aTTas " ydp " d vnep^ yrjs Kal vnd yrjs ;YPUCTos' 
aperrjs ovk dvrd^tos " /cara YlXdrojva, Kal to tov 
JldXcovos ^X^''^ ^^'' ^^^ TTpox^f'Pov 

dXX rip,€Zs avTols ov Siap,€nffdp,€da 
rijs dpcTrjs rdv ttXovtov 

ovSd ye ^ods SeSetTri'tCT/xevcoP' deaTpoiV ovhk rifias 

Kal TrpoeSpias Trap* evvovxois Kal TroAAa/caty /cat 

aarpaTreias^ ^aatXeojv ^tjAcotov ydp ov^ev ovSe 

F KaXdv i^ alaxpov ^v6p,evov . dXX eirel TV^Xovrai 

^ virep] eirl Plato. 

^ (raTpairdas F.C.B., and so apparently Shilleto in his 
translation : aarpawelais. 

" Cf. the note on 90 a supra. 

* Piato, Laws, p. 728 a ; quoted also bj' Plutarch, Moralia, 
1124 E. 
38 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 92 

and leading men, and who from activity and emula- 
tion sinks down into a state of utter jealousy and dis- 
couragement, has abiding vnth him an envy that 
is inert and ineffectual. If, however, a man is 
not blind " in regard to the object of liis hatred, but 
makes himself an honest observer of the other's life, 
character, words, and deeds, he will discover that 
most of the successes which excite the envj- of others 
come to those who have won them as the result 
of painstaking, forethought, and fair conduct, and 
so, bending all his energies in this direction, he 
will put into practice his own ambitions and high 
aspirations, and will eradicate his listlessness and 
indolence, 

1 1 . But even if our enemies by flattery, knavery, 
bribery, or hirehng service appear to reap their 
reward in the form of dishonourable and sordid in- 
fluence at comi; or in the government, they will not 
be a source of annoyance but rather of joy to us 
when we compare our own freedom, the simplicity 
of our hfe, and its immunity from scmrilous attack. 
For " all the gold on earth and beneath the earth is 
not worth so much as virtue," as Plato ^ says, and we 
must always keep ready in mind the sentiment of 
Solon « : 

But we will not take in exchange 
All of their wealth for our virtue, 

nor yet the acclamations of spectators who have 
dined at our expense, nor honours such as front seats 
among eunuchs and concubines, and royal governor- 
ships ; for nothing enviable or noble ever springs 
from dishonour. But since " love is blind regarding 

* Quoted more fully in Moralia, 78 c, and as here, 472 e. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(92) TO (f>iXovv TTepl TO (f)iXovix€vov, <x)s (f)rjat,v 6 YlXdrcov, 
Kol [xdXXov rjfuv oi ixdpol Trapep^oucriv aladrjaiv 
dcrxJjfJ^ovovvTes, Set fi'^re to ■)(alpov ecj) ois" afiap- 
Tavovaw dpyov etvai /xi^re to Xvvovfxevov e^' ots 
KaTopdovaiv, dAA' iTTiXoyi^eaOat, 8t' dfi(f>oTepu)v 
oTTcos TO, jxev (f)vXaTr6{X€vo(, ^eXTioves cofiev auTcDi', 

Ttt 8e jLlt/iOU/ieVOl fXT] )(€tpOV€S> 



40 



HOW TO PROFIT BY ONE'S ENEMIES, 92 

the loved one," as Plato " says, and it is rather our 
enemies who by their unseemly conduct afford us an 
opportunity to view our own, neither our joy at 
their failxu-es nor our sorrow at their successes ought 
to go without being employed to some purpose, but 
we should take into account both their failures and 
successes in studying how by guarding against the 
former we may be better than they, and by imitating 
the latter no worse. 

• A reminiscence from Plato; see the note on 90 a twpra. 



41 



i 



n 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS 
(DE AMICORUM MULTITUDINE) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch's essay on friendship may possibly have 
been offered on some occasion as a lecture, but 
there is nothing to prove or disprove this assumption. 
From what we know of Plutarch's relations to his 
friends we can well beheve that he was singularly 
happy in his friendships, and hence well fitted to 
speak on the subject. He was familiar, too, with the 
literature deaUng with friendship, and the result 
is an essay well worth reading. Cicero's essay on 
friendship (De amicitia) may profitably be compared 
with Plutarch's. 

Two or three emendations of a more radical nature 
have been adopted in the text, in the effort to make 
it intelligible: for example, in 96 a the translation 
probably gives the right sense of the passage, as 
Wyttenbach seemed to see, but whether the emend- 
ation is right is more doubtful. Even more doubt- 
ful is Paton's -pcxrei niv^iv, based on an even more 
dubious emendation of IvrdvatrdaL in the quotation 
from Euripides ; for Plutarch would not be apt to 
refer to an aorist middle by a present active form. 
In these matters Plutarch was more careful than 
Paton. 



45 



93 nEPI nOAYOIMAS 

1. ^vleviova rov SerTaXov oloyuevov ev Aoyot? 
LKavcijg yeyvfxvdcrdai Kal tovto St] to vtto tov 
B ^EfiTTcSoKXeovs XeyoiJLevov 

ao(f>Lr]s^ €7T* aKpoiai da^il^eiv 

•fipdyrriaev 6 TiCOKpaTrjs ri aperrj cotlv oLTTOKptva- 
jjLevov 8' Irajxcbs eKeivov Kal -npox^tpcos on Kat itai- 
hos icTTLV dpeTT] Kal Trpea^vTOV Kal dvSpos Kat 
yvvaLKOs Kal ap)(ovTO£ /cat IhicoTOV Kal SecrTTOTOV 
Kal depaTTovTOs, " ed y'," elirev 6 HcoKparr]?, 
" on fxiav dpeTrjv alrridels ajx-qvos dperwv k€ki- 
VTjKas," ov KaKOJS r€Kf.LaLp6fJi€vos on p/r]h€p,lav 
etSo)? dpe-r^v 6 dvdpoiTTOs^ ttoAAo.? wvofia^ev. dp 
ovv ovxl Kal rjfjiiv dv tis eTTixXevdaeiev on pnqheTTOi 
C piiav (f)iXiav KeKT-qfievoL ^e^aiios ^o^oy^e^a fxr] 
Xddcofxev els ■noXv(^iXiav efiTrearovres ; ax^Sov yap 
ovSev Scac/iepofxev dvdpcoTTOV koXo^ov Kal TV(f)Xov, 
(fjo^ovixevov fjLT] Bpidpecos d iKaToyx^tp Kal "Apyos 
6 Trai'OTTTrjs yiirqrai. Kairoi rov ye irapa rd) 

^ ao(piiijs in Sextus Empiricus ; trofpias. 
* 6 dvdpwiros] afOpwiros Hercher : avOpwiro^, 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS 

1 . Mexo," the Thessalian, who felt that he had had 
a good training in debating, and, to quote Empe- 
docles' familiar expression, was 

Haunting the lofty heights of wisdom,* 

was asked by Socrates what virtue is ; and when 
he replied impulsively and promptly that there is a 
virtue appropriate to a child and to an old man, to a 
grown man and to a woman, to a public official and 
to a private citizen, to a master and to a servant, 
Socrates exclaimed, " A fine answer I for when asked 
for one virtue you have stirred up a whole swarm of 
virtues," '^ inferring, not badly, that it was because 
the man knew not a single \-irtue that he was naming 
so many. And might not we also be subject to 
ridicule because we, who are not yet in secxire 
possession of one friendship, are afraid that we may 
unwittingly become involved in a multitude of 
firiendships ? We hardly differ at all from a man 
who, being maimed or bUnd, is afraid that he may 
become a Briareus of the hundred hands or an Argus 
all-seeing. And yet we commend above measure 

* Plato, Ueno, 71 e. 

* From a longer fragment ; cf. Diels, Fragment e der 
Vorsokrafiker, i. p. 225. 

* C/. Moralia, 441 b. 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(93) MevdvSpcx) veavioKov UTrcp^ucS? iTraivovfiei/ ciVovra 
davfiaarov ocrov vofj,L^€iv 

dyaOov eKaarov, dv exj] (f>iXov OKidv. 
2. ^vavTLov^ Se /x.€Ta ttoAAcDj^ aAAcoi' ov^ rJKiara 
y €xs (fiiXias KTrjaiv rjfjuv^ rj rrjs TToXv^iXias ope^is, 
ojOTTep aKoXdarajv yvvaiKcov, rco ttoXXukis Kal 
D TroAAor? av/jLTrXeKecrOai rcbv TrpcoTwv Kparelv pur] 
SwapLCVois dpieXovpiivcDV /cat dTToppeovrcov pLoiXXov 
8' wairep 6 rrjs 'Ytpt7TvXr]s Tpo^ipios els tov 
XeLpLcova Kadlaas eSpcTTCv 

erepov e0' ireptp atpofxevos 
dypevpL* dvOeojv 'qSopieva ipvxd 
TO vqTTLOV aTrXrjaTOV^ ^X^^> 
ovrcos cKaarov rjpucov Sio, to (fnXoKaivov Kal dtfjL- 
Kopov 6 TTpoa^aros del Kal dvdcov eTrdyerai, Kal 
IxeTaridrjai TToAAas' opLOV Kal aTeXels dpxds Trpdr- 
Tovras (fiiXias Kal avvqdeias, epcori rov Stco/co/xe- 
vov TTapepxop,ivovs rov KaraXapi^av6p,€vov. 
E Upcorov p,€v ovv oiairep dj) iarias dp^dp,evoi, 
rrjs rov ^lov <f>T]p,r]s rjv vrrkp <j>iX(jiv ^e^aUav 
dTToXiXoLTTev rjpXv, rov puaKpov Kal rraXaiov alcova 
fxdprvpa ajxa rov Xoyov Kal avpi^ovXov Xd^copiev, 
iv u) Kara t,€vyos <f>i,Xias Xeyovrai Qrjarevs Kal 
Heipidovs, ^Ax^XXevs Kal UdrpoKXas, ^Opearrjs Kal 

^ ivavTiov Wyttenbach : alnov. 

* ^lilv added by F.C.B. 

' AirX-qaTov Moralia, 661 f. : &xpr]ffTov. 

" The Epiclerus. Kock, Com. Attic. Frag, iii., Menander, 
No. 554. See also Plutarch, Moralia, 479 c, where four 
lines of the play are quoted, and AUinson, Menander (in the 
L.C.L.), p. 493. 

' C/. Lucian, Toxaris, 37. 

48 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 93 

the youth in Menander's play " who says that any 
man counts it a marvellous good thing 

If he but have the shadow of a friend. 
2. One thing which stands out among many others, 
as particularly antagonistic to our acquisition of 
friendship, is the craving for numerous friends, which 
is like that of Ucentious women, ^ for because of our 
frequent intimacies with many different persons we 
cannot keep our hold on oiir earher associates, who 
are neglected and drift away. A better comparison, 
perhaps, is the nurshng of Hypsipyle, who seated 
himself in the meadow, and 

One after another caught up 
Handfuls of flowers with jojrful heart. 
But with childhood's yearning unsated.* 

So it is with all of us : because anything new attracts 
us but soon paUs on us, it is always the recent and 
freshly blooming friend that allures us and makes 
us change our minds, even while we are busy ■«ath 
many beginnings of friendship and intimacy at the 
same time, which go but Httle further, since, in our 
longing for the person we pursue, we pass over the 
one already \vithin our grasp. 

In the first place, then, let us begin at the hearth- 
stone, as the saying is, with the story of men's 
Uves which history <* has left us regarding steadfast 
fiiends, and let us take as witness and counsellor 
in our discussion the long and distant ages in which 
are mentioned, as paired in the bond of friendship, 
Theseus and Peirithoiis, Achilles and Patroclus, 

• Presumablyfrom the /fypsi/jyi* of Euripides; c/. Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 754. Cf. also Plutarch, 
Moralia, 661 f. 

*• Plutarch is considering Greek history only. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

UvXdSrjs, Oim'a? /cat Adficov, ^KnafxeivcovSas Kac 
YleXoTTiSas. avuvofjiov yap 'q ^tAta ^wov ovk 
ayeXaXov iariv ovSe KoXoLwSes, kol to dXXov 
avTOV rjyetadai tov (jiiXov kol Trpoaayopevetv 
eraXpov cos erepov, ovSev iariv rj fxerpcp (fitXcag 
rfj SuaSt ;^/3a))MeVwi', ovre yap SovXovg ovre ^I'Aou? 
ecrrt KTrjaaadai ttoXXovs gltt' oXiyov vo/jLtajJiaros. 
F TL ouv vopnafia ^tAta?; evvoia Kal X^P'-^ H-^"^ 
aperfjs, cov ovSev e;(et aTravLcorepov rj (f)V(ns. odev 
TO a<f)68pa ^iXeiv /cat (fjiXeladai irpog ttoXXovs ovk 
eaTLV, aAA' wcTTTep ol Trora/xot ttoAAo,? ax^oreis Kal 
/cararo/xa? Xafji^dvovTes dadevels Kal XctttoI peov- 
OLV, ovTCt) TO (fjiXetv iv i/jvxfj G<f)ohpov 7Te(f)VK6s et? 
TToXXovs fiepL^opievov i^afiavpovTat. 8t,6 Kal tojv 
t,a)(x}v TO <l>iX6TeKVOV tols {xovotokols laxvpoTepov 
94 epi(f)veTai, Kal "Ofxrjpos dyaTrrjTOV vlov dvo/x.a^ei 

" jXOVVOV Tr]Xvy€TOV," T0VT€GTL tov tols fJLlJT ^ 

exovaiv eTepov yovevai iirjd^ e^ovai yey€vr)p.€Vov. 

3rr< \ CV V I l\ e ^ It « >> \ t ■> J- ^ 

. iov oe cpLAov rjfieLS /xovvov puev ovk agtov- 

fji€v elvac, jLter' aAAwi' 8e " TiqXvyeTos " tls Kal oipi- 

yovos eaTCO, tov dpvXovfjLcvov eKelvov xpov(p tcov 

dXoiv cwyKaTe8r]8oKcos fieSipivov, ovx dxnrep vvv 

TToXXol (j)iXoi Xeyofievot avpLinovTes drra^ rj avcr(f)ai- 

piaavTes rj avyKV^evaavTcs rj avyKaToXvaavTes , 

€K TTavhoK€Lov Kal TTaXaiaTpas Kal dyopds (fiiXiav 

avXXeyovaiv. 

^ fi-qT Schellens: ixt], 

" Iliad, ix. 482 ; Odyssey, xvi. 19. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 482 b ; Cicero, De amicitia, 19 (67) ; 
Aristotle, Eth. Nicom. viii. 3. 

50 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 93-94 

Orestes and Pylades, Phintias and Damon, Epa- 
meinondas and Pelopidas. For friendship is a 
creature that seeks a companion ; it is not like cattle 
and crows that flock and herd together, and to look 
up>on one's friend as another self and to call him 
"brother" as though to suggest " th'other," is 
nothing but a way of using duality as a measure 
of friendship. It is impossible to acquire either 
many slaves or many friends ■with Uttle coin. What 
then is the coin of friendship ? It is goodwill 
and graciousness combined with \'irtue, than which 
nature has nothing more rare. It follows, then, that a 
strong mutual friendship >vith many persons is im- 
possible, but, just as rivers whose waters are di\ided 
among many branches and channels flow weak and 
thin, so affection, naturally strong in a soul, if por- 
tioned out among many persons becomes utterly 
enfeebled. This is the reason why, in the case of 
animals, love for their young is more strongly im- 
planted by nature in those that give birth to but one 
at a time ; and Homer's " name for a beloved son is 
" the only one, child of our eld," that is to say, bom 
to parents who neither have nor can ever have 
another cluld. 

3. We do not maintain that our friend should be 
" the only one," but along \vith others let there be 
some " child of oiu: eld " and "late-begotten," as it 
were, who has consumed with us in the course of time 
the proverbial bushel of salt, "* not as is the fashion now- 
adays, by which many get the name of friend by 
drinking a single glass together, or by playing ball 
or gambhng together, or by spending a night under 
the same roof, and so pick up a friendship from inn, 
gymnasium, or market-place. 

VOL. II c ^i 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(94) 'El/ gg roLs tGjv TxXovo'uxiv koX rjycixoviKiov 
B oLKiais TToXvv 6-)(Xov Kol dopv^ov aCTTTa^OfXeVOiV 
Kal Se^iovfievcov /cat hopv^opovvratv 6pa)i'T€s ev- 
SaLfiovL^ovGL rovs TToXv^iXovg . /catVot TrXeiovds ye 
fivias iv Tots oTTTavioLs avTcov opcocriv. dAA' ov9^ 
aural rrjs Xi^veLag ovt' iKelvot, rrjs -x^peias cttl- 
XLTTOvarjs TTapajxivovaiv . inel S' rj dXrjdcvrj <^tAta 
rpta ^Tyret /xaAtcrra, rrjv dperrjv cos KaXov, Kal rrjv 
avvqdeiav cos rjSv, /cat Trjv -^peiav (x>s dvayKoiov 
(Set ydp aTTohi^aadai Kpivavra /cat p^atpetv avvovra. 
/cat ;\;p7yo-0at Sed/xevov, a Ttavra irpos Trjv ttoXv- 
(fyiXtav vnevavTiovTai, /cat fxdXiard ttcos to Kvpico- 
Tarov rj /cptcrt?), aKeirreov 8rj -npajrov el Svvarov 
C iarriv iv ^pax^l XP^^V ^oKLfidaai ;;^opeuTas" avy- 
Xopevao[jL€vovs, eperas opLoppodrjaovTas, OLKeras 
XP^fJ-drcov eTTiTpoTTOVs ^ tckvcov TTatSay coy oils 
icrofjievovs , ixrJTC ye ^iXovg ttoXXovs els dycova 
Trdarjs rvx^^S avvaTToSvaofievovs , cov eKaaros avros 
6^ avTov^ 

TTpdaacov^ ev rlOrjaLV els fieaov, 
rov Svarvxovs re Xayxdvcov ovk axderai. 

ovT€ vavs ydp eTTL roaovrovs eXKerat, p^et/xtDi'as' els 
OdXarrav, ovre ;!(a)ptotS' dpiyxovs Kal At/xecrt npo- 
^dXXovaiv epKrj Kal ;^co/xaTa ttjXlkovtovs Trpoa- 
D SexdfievoL kivSvvovs /cat roaovTovs, oacov eiray- 
yeXXerai <f>iXia Kara(f)vy7jv Kal ^o-qdeiav, opdcos 

^ Probably the first line had avrov re as the beginning, as 
Xylander saw, but Plutarch was apt to fit his quotations to 
his own words. 

2 irpdaawv, the regular form in tragedy : irpaTTwv. 

" Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 366. 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 94 

In the houses of rich men and rulers, the people 
see a noisy throng of visitors offering their greetings 
and shaking hands and playing the part of armed 
retainers, and they think that those who have so 
many friends must be happy. Yet they can see a 
far greater number of flies in those persons' kitchens. 
But the flies do not stay on after the good food is 
gone, nor the retainers after their patron's useful- 
ness is gone. But true friendship seeks after three 
things above all else : \'irtue as a good thing, 
intimacy as a pleasant thing, and usefulness as a 
necessary thing, for a man ought to use judgement 
before accepting a friend, and to enjoy being ^^ith 
him and to use him when in need of him, and all 
these things stand in the way of one's ha\ing many 
friends ; but most in the way is the first (which is 
the most important) — the approval through judge- 
ment. Therefore we must, in the first place, con- 
sider whether it is possible in a brief period of time 
to test dancers who are to dance together, or rowers 
who are to pull together, or servants who are to be 
guardians of property or attendants of children, let 
alone the testing of a multitude of friends who are 
to strip for a general contest \vith every kind of 
fortune, each one of whom 

Puts his successes with the common store. 
And shares in bad luck, too, without distress." 

For no ship is launched upon the sea to meet so many 
storms, nor do men, when they erect protecting walls 
for strongholds, and dams and moles for harbours, 
anticipate perils so numerous and so great as those 
from which friendship, rightly and surely tried, 

5$ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(94) /cat ^e^aiiog e^eraadeZaa- rcbv S' ave^eraarois 
TTapappvdvTCov ojairep vopnGpidrwv ahoKifxiov 
iXcyxofJievcov 

OL fiev eaTeprjjjLevoi 
XOiipovoLV, ol 8' €xovT€s evxovrai (jivyeiv. 

earl Se tovto p^aAeTTov /cat ov paSiov to (j>vyeZv ■^ 
diTodeadaL hvcrapearovfJiivriv ^iXiav. oAA' waTrep 
airiov ^Xa^epov /cat hvax^pcivopievov ovre kot- 
ex^tv OLov T€ firj Xvttovv /cat hLa<f)deZpov ovt e/c- 
PdXXecv otov etarjXdev dAA' elSexdes /cat avp,- 
7recf)vpixevov /cat dXXoKOTOV, ovtco ^lAos" TTOvrjpos 
iq avveari Xvttojv /cat Xv/JLaLvofievog ,^ iq ^ta jLter' 
E cx^po-S /cat SvGpLevcias axTTrep x^^V '^^^ iieneae. 

4. Ato Set jjLr) paStws TrpoaBexeodai pi-qSe koX- 
Xdadai rot? ivTvyxdvovau nrjSe (fiiXelv tovs Sicti- 
Kovrag, dXXa tous d^lovs c^tAta? BicoKeiv. ov yap 
alpereov TrdvTOJS to paSicog dXtdKopLevov. /cat yap 
aTTapLvrjV /cat ^aTOV eTnXajJi^avofxevqv VTrep^dvTeg 
/cat SLCoadfievoi ^ahit,opL€v eTrl ttjv iXaiav /cat Ty]v 
dfiTTeXov. ovTCOS del" fxrj tov €VX€p<J^S TTepnrXeKo- 
fjievov TTOieZadai avvrjd-q /caAov/ dAAa rot? d^tot? 
a-JTOvSrjs /cat co^eAt/xot? avTOVs TrepiTrXeKearOat 

F SoKLfid^ovTag . 

5. "ClcTTTep ovv 6 Zeu^i? aiTLCop,€VCov avTov 
Ttvcov OTL t,coypa^eZ ^paSecDS, " o/xoXoya)," €t77ev, 
" iv TToXXo) xpovo) ypd(f)€LV, /cat yap ei? ttoXvv," 
OVTCO (f)iXiav Set /cat avv-qdeiav aa)t,eiv rrapa- 

^ Xvfiaivofievos Hercher : Xvirovfievos. 

* del] del Wyttenbach. 

* KaXdv : Kai (plXov Wyttenbach. 

" From some play of Sophocles ; it is cited again by 
54 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 9^ 

promises a refuge and protection. But when some 
thrust theirfriendshipupon us without being tried,and 
are found to be hke bad coins when put to the test, 

Those who are bereft rejoice. 
And those who have them pray for some escape." 

But here is the difficulty — that it is not easy to 
escape or to put aside an unsatisfactory friendship ; 
but as harmful and disquieting food can neither be 
retained without causing pain and injury, nor ejected 
in the form in which it was taken in, but only as a 
disgusting and repulsive mess, so an unprincipled 
friend either causes pain and intense discomfort by 
his continued association, or else with accompanpng 
enmity and hostility is forcibly ejected like bile. 

4. We ought therefore not to accept readily chance 
acquaintances, or attach ourselves to them, nor 
ought we to make friends of those who seek after 
us, but rather we should seek after those who are 
worthy of friendship. For one should by no means 
take what can be easily taken. In fact we step over 
or thrust aside bramble and brier, which seize hold 
upon us, and make our way onward to the ohve and 
the vine.'' Thus it is always an excellent thing not 
to make an intimate acquaintance of the man who 
is ready ^^ith his embraces, but rather, of our o^vn 
motion, to embrace those of whom we approve as 
worthy of our attention and useful to us. 

5. Just as Zeuxis,*' when some persons charged 
him with painting slowly, retorted by saying, " Yes, 
it takes me a long time, for it is to last long," so it is 
necessary to preserve friendship and intimacy by 

Plutarch in Moralia, 768 e ; cf. Nauck, Trap. Graec. Frag., 
Sophocles, No. 779. » Cf. Moralia, 709 e. 

• Cf. Plutarch, Life of Pericles, chap. xiii. (p. 159 d). 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xa^ovras iv ttoAAo) Kpid^laav. ap' ovv KpZvai fiev 
ovK ecrrt ttoXXovs (jiiXovs pahiov, ovveZvaL Se ttoX- 
Aot? ojjiov paScov, •^ /cat rovro dSvvaTov ; Kal p/qv 
OLTToXavaLS iuTLV rj avv^deca rrjs ^tAta?, /cat to 
TJSiarov iv to) avveivai Kal avvhirfpLepevGiv 

ov p,€v yap t^cooi ye (fiiXcov ajravevdev eraipcov 
^ovXas el,6p.evoL ^ovXevaopiev. 

95 Kal Trepl rod 'OSvacrecos 6 MeveXaos 

ovSe K€v aXXo 
dfip,€^ SteKpivev ^tAeot'Te re repTTOfxevo} re, 
TTpiv y ore Sr] davdroco [xeXav v€(f)os dfX(f)€KdXvi/je. 

rovvavTLov ovv colkcv t] KaXovfiivr] TroAu^tAta 
TTOLCLV. 7] fiev ydp avvdyei Kal avviarr^aL Kal 
avvexei KaraTTVKvovGa rat? o/xiAtai? /cat (f>iXo- 
<f)poavvais 

COS S' OT* OTTO? yaAa XevKov iyoixcfiaxjev Kal eSrjae 

B Kar* 'E/u,7re8o/cAea {roiavTTjv ydp rj (f)iXia ^ovXerai 
TTOtetv ivoTTjra Kal avpTT-q^Lv) , rj 8e TToXvcfjtXia 8t- 
iarrjaL Kal dTToaTra /cat aTroarpecfiei, tco neraKaXelv 
Kal p€ra(f)€p€LV dXXore irpos dXXov ovk eaxra Kpd- 
aiv ovhk KoXXrjatv evvoias iv rfj avvrjOeLO. Trept- 
^vdeicnj Kal Trayeiaj) yeveadai. tovto S' €vdvs 

^ &\\o I A/J-jJ-e] rjjjL^as \ dWo Homeric mss. 

" Homer, Tl. xxiii. 77 ; the words are spoken by the ghost 
of Patroclus to Achilles. 

* Homer, Od. iv. 178 ; Plutarch quotes the first two lines 
in Moralia, 54 f. 

' Probably adapted by Empedocles from Homer, II. v. 
902 ; cf. Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 239. 

5Q 



ox HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 9t-95 

adopting them only after spending a long time in 
passing judgement upon them. Is it, then, true 
that while it is not easy to pass judgement on a large 
number of friends, yet it is easy to associate with a 
large number at the same time, or is this also im- 
possible ? Now it is a fact that the enjoyment of 
fiiendship lies in its intimacy, and the pleasantest 
part of it is found in association and daily com- 
panionship : 

Never in life again shall we take counsel together 
Sitting apart from our comrades." 

And in regard to Odysseus, Menelaus says : 

Else there were nothing 
\\Tiich could have parted us twain in the midst of our 

love and enjoyment ; 
No, not till Death's dark cloud had wrapped its 

shadow aroimd us." 

Now what is commonly called ha%'ing a multitude of 
friends apparently produces the opposite result. 
For friendship draws persons together and unites 
them and keeps them united in a close fellowship 
by means of continual association and mutual acts 
of kindness — 

Just as the fig-juice fastens the white milk firmly and binds it, 

as Empedocles " puts it (for such is the unity and 
consolidation that true friendship desires to effect) ; 
but, on the other hand, ha\ing a multitude of friends 
causes disunion, separation, and divergence, since, 
by calhng one hither and thither, and transferring 
one's attention now to this person, now to that, it 
does not permit any blending or close attachment 
of goodwill to take place in the intimacy which 
moulds itself about friendship and takes enduring 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(95^ VTTO^dXXei /cat ttjv nepl ras" virovpyias dvcofxaXlav 
/cat SvacDTTiav rd yap evxp'qcrra ttjs (fitXtas Sva- 
^^prjara yiyverai hid tt^v 7ToXv(f)LXi.av. 

" dXXov rpoTTOV " ydp " aAAojf^ iyeipet (fypovrls 
dvdpcoTTCov" 

OVTC ydp at (f)vaeLs rjixcov em ravra rat? opfxaXs 
peTTOvcLV, ovT€ Tvxo-t'S 6[xorp67TOis del GvveapLev ol 
C Te TCJV TTpd^eojv /catpot Kaddirep rd TTvev/xaTa tovs 
fiev (}>€povai roZs 8' avrnTiTTTOvcn. 

6. KatVot /car rravres d/xa rcov avrcbv ol (fiiXoL 
heoivraL, x^Xeirov i^apKeaat Trdat, ^ovXevofievois t] 
TToXLrevopLevoLS ^ (f)iXoTLpLOVjxlvoi? -q VTrohexopLevois . 
av S' ivl Katpcp hiaffyopoLS TrpdyfiaaL /cat Trddeai 
7TpocrTvyxdvovT€s 6[xov TTapaKaXdJOLv 6 jxev irXeoiv 
avvaTToS-q ixelv , 6 Se Kpivop.evo'S avvSiKeLv, 6 8e 
Kptvcov cruvSt/ca^etf, o Se TnTrpdoKcov -q dyopdl,oiV 
avvhioLKelv, 6 Se yaficov avvdveiv, 6 8e ddirrajv 
avfiTTevdelv, 

TToAt? 8' ofxov fxev dvfXLafxdrojv yefxr], 
ofjLov Se TTaidvcov re /cat arevayixdrcov 

D rj 7ToXv(f)iXia. vraat pikv d}xrj-)^avov TrapeZvai, /XTySert 
8' droTTOv, iul 8' inrovpyovvra TrpoGKpoveiv ttoX- 
XoLs dvtapov 

ouSets" ydp dyaiTwv avTOs dfieXelO^ rjSecos. 

^ &\\uv Crusius : &\\ov. 

" Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 721, Adespota, No. 99. 

* The language here seems to be an amplification of 
Aristotle. Ethica Nlcom. ix. 10. 

« Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannvs, 4 ; cited by Plutarch also 
in Moralia, 169 d, 445 d, and 623 c. 
58 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 95 

form. This at once suggests also the inequality 
there must be and embarrassment about rendering 
services, since the very useful elements in friendship 
are rendered practically useless by having many 
friends. For 

In divers men solicitude excites conduct diverse.* 

For neither do our natures tend in the same direction 
as our impulses, nor do we, day in and day out, meet 
•with the same sort of fortune ; and the occasions 
which prompt our various actions, like the wnds, 
help some friends on their way, and are adverse to 
others. 

6. But if all our friends want the same things at 
the same time, it is hard to satisfy all, in either their 
counsels, their public Ufe, their ambitions, or their 
dispensing of hospitahty. And if at one and the 
same time they chance to be occupied in diverse 
activities and experiences, and call upon us at the 
same instant, one to join him on a voyage to foreign 
parts, another to help him in defending a suit, 
another to sit with him as judge, another to help 
him in managing his buying and selhng, another to 
help him to celebrate liis wedding, another to mourn 
with him at a funeral,'' 

The citj' is with burning incense filled ; 

Full too of joyous hymns and doleful groans • 

is the possession of a host of friends. It is impos- 
sible to be \^ith them all, and unnatural to be with 
none, and yet to do a service to one alone, and 
thus to oflPend many, is a source of vexation ; 
For fond affection does not brook neglect •* 

' A line fr^m Menander, cited also in Moralia, 491 c ; c/. 
Kock, Com. Attic. Frag. iii. p. 213. 

VOL. II c 2 59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(95) KatVoi TOLS afxeXeias /cat padvfjLLas rajv (f>iX(jov 
TTpaorepov ^€povai, /cat ra? rotavTas aTToXoyias 
dfjL7]VLTOJS Bexovrat, rrap^ avrwv " e^eXadofjbrjV " 
" -qyvoTjaa." 6 8e Xeycov " ov Trapearqv aoi Slktjv 
exovTt, TTapLaTajJi'qv yap ere/DO) ^lXco,' /cat " TTvper- 
Tovrd ct' ovk etoov, tco SelvL yap (jiiXovs iaricovrt 
avvr]a)(^oXovpLriv " alriav rrjs dfxeXeLas rrjv irepcov 
E irrifieXeiav TToiovpievos oi) Auei ttiv /xefupLV, dXXd 
TTpocreTTL^aXXcL t^rjXoTVTriav. dXX ol ttoAAoi rds 
TToXv(f)iXias d hvvavrai Trapex^iv fiovov (Ls eoiKe 
OKOTTOvaiv, d 8' dvTaTTanovai TrapopaJaL, /cat ov 
pLVTjfxovevovaiv on Set tov ttoXXols els d Setrat 
Xpcjofievov TToAAot? Seojjievois dvOvnovpyeXv. waTrep 
odv 6 Bptdpecos eKarov xepalv els TrevrrjKOVTa 
(f)opa)V yaarepag ovSev -qpLcov ttXcov et^^e rcov dno 
Svelv x^epoZv [xtav KoiXiav Slolkovvtojv, ovtcos €v 
rep (f)LXois ;(p^CT^at ttoXXoXs^ /cat to XeLTovpyelv 
TToAAot? eveari, /cat ro crvvaycovidv /cat to avv- 
aaxoXetadai /cat ovyKafiveiv. ov yap lEivpLTriBrj 
TTeiareov Xeyovri 

XP'^v ydp p-erplav els diXXijXovs 
0tAtW dvrjrovs dvaKipvaadai 
F /cat pLT] Trpos aKpov fiveXov ijjvxfjs, 

evXvra S' eti^at deXyrjrpa^ (f>pevcbv, 
(1770 t' (jjaaadaL /cat ^vvrelvai, 

KadaTrep noSa veojs evStSd^Tt /cat TTpoadyovri rats 
Xpeiais ttjv ^tAiav. dAAa rovro fiev, w ^vpnrihr], 

1 iv T(fi <pi\ois xpwGcLi TToXXois is perhaps more likely than 
Halm's iv Tip voXkoh <pi\ot.s xP'Jo-^oi : iv tois (pi'KoLS xpW^/^ov. 

* fjLerplav . . . tpiXlav : fierpias . . . <pi\lai Euripides, 
Eippoli/tus, 253. 

* OiXyrjrpa, ibid. 256 : ffTepyrjOpa. 

60 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 95 

Yet people are more tolerant of acts of negligence 
and remissness on the part of their friends, and they 
accept from them ^vithout anger such excuses as 
" I forgot," " I didn't know." But the man who 
says, " I did not appear A\ith you when your case 
was in court, for I was appearing with another 
friend," and " I did not come and see you when you 
had fever, for I was busy helping so-and-so to enter- 
tain some friends," thus alleging, as the reason for 
his inattention, his attention to others, does not 
absolve himself from blame, but only aggravates 
the trouble by arousing jealousy. But most people, 
apparently, look at the possession of a host of friends 
merely from the point of view of what such friend- 
ships are able to bestow, and overlook what these 
demand in return, forgetting that he who accepts 
the services of many for his needs must in tiu-n 
render hke service to many in their need. There- 
fore, just as Briareus in purv^epng for fifty bellies 
with an hundred hands had no advantage over us 
who manage one stomach with what two hands pro- 
vide, so in making use of many friends is involved 
also serving many, and sharing in their anxieties, 
preoccupations, and troubles. For no credence is 
to be given to Euripides * when he says : 

In the friendship which mortals with each other form 
Moderation should rule, and it never should reach 
To the soul's inmost marrow ; and easy to loose 
Should the spells ever be that are laid on the mind 
So to thrust them aside or to draw them close, 

thus easing off" one's friendship or hauUng it close 
according to exigencies, like the sheet of a ship's 
sail. But let us, my dear Euripides, turn the applica- 

• Uippolytua, 253. 

61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fieTadojfxev iirl ras e^dpas, koI KeXevcjOfiev " fic- 
rpcag " TroielaOai ras Staipopas Kal " jJirj rrpog aKpov 
fxveXov i/jv)(rjs, evXvra 8' etvai " [xtarj Kal opyas 
OG Kat ixeixifji/jLoipias Kal virovoias' eKetvo 8e pidXXov 
rjfXLV TTapaivGL to YlvOayopiKOV " pLrj ttoXXols e/x- 
^dXXeiv Se^idv," Tovreart, /xri ttoXXovs TToieladat 
(jitXovs /xTjSe TToXvKoivov fXTjSe TTavSrjfiov daTrd- 
Ceadai (f)LXiav, Kal Trpos €v' d.v ns J} fxerd 77oAAa)v 
7TaOa>v eicrtoucra/ d>v to p-rf arvvaycovidv /cat 
avvd-)(deadai Kal avp.TTOvelv Kal avyKLV^vveveiv 
Trdi'v Svaoiarov tols eXevQepoLs Kal yevvaiois 
iariv. 

To Se rov (70(f)ov ^iXcovos dXt-jdes, os Trpos tov 
eiTTovra p^rfheva e^^'^ e^dpov " eot/ca?," ei^''?. 
" ai) p,rjSe ^IXov e;^eiv." at yap exOpai rat? 
^tAtats evdus eiraKoXovdovoL Kal ovpTrXeKOvrai,, 
B €TT€i7Tep (7) ovK eoTL <j)iXov pLT) avvaScKeladai ^TjSe 
avvaSo^elv /xrjSe avvaiTex^dveaOaf ol yap €)(dpoL 
rov (f>iXov €v6vs v(f>opa)vraL re Kal p,Laovaiv, ol Se 
(j>iXoL TToXXdKis ^dovovui T€ Kal !^T]Xorv7Tovai /cat 
7T€ptaTTcoaLV. a)cr7T€p ovv 6 TO) Tt/XTjo-io. Trept rrjs 
diTOLKLas Sodels XP'^^P^S Trporjyopevae 

ap,i]va /xeAtCTo-acor rdxa tol Kal a(/)'fJK€s eaovTai' 
ovTcos ol (/)lXcov ^TjTovvTes eapiov eXadov ex^pcov 
a(f>r]KLaZs TrepLTreaovres. 

Kat OVK tcrov dyet aradpLov ixOpov fivrjcnKaKia 

^ Kal TTpbi fv &VTIS S ■ • • el(nov(ra F.C.B. (cf. Aristotle, Magna 
Moralia, ii. 16) : koI vpbi ivavrlrfv (or ivavriav) ij (or rj) . . . 
tlcLovaav (or eiaLodcra.). 

^ /XT) Hartmaii : n^v. 

' (Tfi^vi . . . iwovTat Reiske. 

<• Cf. Moralia, vol. i. 12 e and the note. 
62 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 95-96 

tion of this advice to our enmities, and advise the 
use of "moderation" in our disagreements, "not 
reaching the soul's inmost marrow," and that hatred, 
anger, complainings, and suspicions be " easy to 
loose," and commend rather to us the Pythagorean " 
maxim, " not to clasp hands with many " ; that is, 
not to make many friends nor to welcome a common 
and indiscriminate friendship, or even a friendship 
with one person, if the coming of any friendship into 
one's life brings with it many afflictions, wherein 
refusal to share the other's anxieties, burdens, toils, 
and dangers is altogether intolerable for free-born 
and generous persons. 

There is truth in the remark of the wise Chilon,* 
who, in answer to the man who boasted of having no 
enemy, said, " The chances are that you have no 
friend either." For enmities follow close upon 
friendships, and are interwoven with them, inasmuch 
as (7) it is impossible for a friend not to share his 
friend's wrongs or disrepute or disfavour ; for a man's 
enemies at once look vvith suspicion and hatred upon 
his friend, and oftentimes his other friends are 
envious and jealous, and trj' to get him away. As 
the oracle given to Timesias '^ about his colony 
prophesied : 
Soon shall your swarms of honey-bees tiu-n out to be hornets, 

so, in like manner, men who seek for a swarm of 
friends unwittingly run afoul of hornets' nests of 
enemies. 

Besides, the resentment of an enemy and the 
gratitude of a friend do not weigh equally in the 

* Cf. Moralia, 86 c, and Aulus Gellius, i. 3. 

• C/. the story told of Timesias by Plutarch, Morcdia, 
812 a. 

63 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(96) /cat <f>lXov X<^pt?. opa Se rovg OiAcotou koX 
C Tlapfjuevtcovos (f)iXovs Kat oIkcIovs a BiedrjKev 
AXe^avSpos, Si rovs Atcovos AtovvaLos tovs 
HXavTov Nepcov /cat tovs Jlrjiavov Ti^epios arpe- 
^Xovvres /cat aTTOKrivvvovTes . (l)s yap rov Yipiovra 
TTJs dvyarpos ovBev 6 ^(^pvaos ovh^ 6 7T€7tXos a»</>eAet, 
TO Se TTvp avacjidev al(^VLhiu)s TTpoaSpa/JiOVTa /cat 
TTepiTTTV^avTa /careVaucre /cat avvaTTcvXeaev, ovtojs 
eVtot ToJv (j)iXojv ovhkv aTToXavaavTes evTVXovvTcov 
ovvaTToXXvvTaL SvaTVxovai. /cat tovto juaAtcrra 
TTaaxovaiv ol (JuXogo^ol^ /cat ;!^a/5tej/T6S', o)S ©>?- 
o-eus Toi UeLpidu) KoXa^ofxevo) /cat SeSe/xeVo* 

aiSou? d;;^aA/C€UTotCTtr e^eu/crat TreSat?,* 

D cv Se to) AotjLta) cf)rjaLV 6 QovkvSlStjs tovs dpeTrjs 

{xaXiaTa ixeTaTTOiovp-evovs avvaTToXXvaQai toIs <f>i- 

Xois voaovcriv 'r)(f)€i8ovv yap acfxJbv avTcbv tovTes 

TTapa TOVS iTTiTrjSeiovs. 

8. "Odev ovTco TTjs dpeTTJs a^etSett' ov TrpocriJKov 

aAAor' ctAAot? avvSeovTas avTrjv Kat av/jLirXeKovTas, 

dXXd TOLS d^LOis TTjv avTTjV^ Koivoiviav (bvXaTTetv, 

TOVTeoTt ToZs ofxolios (fyiXeiv /cat KOivcovelv hvvafxe- 

vois. Kol yap St] tovto iravraiv fxlyLOTOv eaTiv 

evavritoixa irpos Tr)v TToXv^iXlav, oti ttj (fyiXiq. 

^ (f>i\b<ro(poi\ (j)i.\6(j)L\oi Michael, (piXlffropyoi Sauppe; but 
cf. 112 D infra for some justification of the ms. reading. 

* aldovs . . . TT^Sats is the reading in the other three 
places in which Plutarch quotes this line (mss. here have 
TreSats . . . TroSas), but it is not impossible that Plutarch 
may have adapted the line to suit his context, which seems 
to require axa^Keurois trvve^evKrai of Stephanus, 

* avTr]v] avTTJs several Jiss. 

" Rubellius Plautus ; cf. Tacitus, Annals, xiv. 57 ff., and 
Dio Cassius, Ixii. 14. 
64 



ON HAVING MAN^ FRIENDS, 96 

balance. See what treatment Alexander meted out 
to the friends and family of Philotas and Parmenio, 
Dionysius those of Dion, Nero those of Plautus," and 
Tiberius those of Sejanus,^ torturing and killing 
them. For as the golden cro^vn and the robe of 
Creon's daughter did not help Creon,*' but, as he 
suddenly ran to her and clasped her in his arms, the 
fire, fastening upon him, burned him up and de- 
stroyed him as well as his daughter, so some persons 
■without deriving any benefit from their friends' good 
fortunes, perish with them in their misfortunes. 
This is the experience especially of men of cultmre 
and refinement, as Theseus, for example, shared 
with Peirithoiis his punishment and imprisonment, 

Yoked fast in duty's bonds not forged by man,* 

and Thucydides * asserts that in the pestilence those 
who had the highest claim to virtue perished with 
their friends who were ill ; for they did not spare 
themselves in going, as they did, to visit those who 
had claims on their friendship. 

8, For these reasons it is not a fit thing to be thus 
unsparing of our virtue, uniting and intertwining 
it now •with one and now vnth another, but rather 
only with those who are quaUfied to keep up the 
same participation, that is to say, those who are 
able, in a like manner, to love and participate. For 
herein plainly is the greatest obstacle of all to having 
a multitude of friends, in that friendship comes into 

* Cf. Tacitus, Annals, v. 7 ff., and Dio Cassius»lviii. 1 1-12. 
' Euripides, Medea, 1136 ff. 

** A line of Euripides, probably from the Peirithoiis, cited 
hj Plutarch also in Moralia, 482 a, 533 a, and 763 f. Cf. 
Isauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 595. 

* Thucydides, ii. 51. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yeveais Si ofiotorrjTos icmv. ottov yap /cat ra 
dipvxo^ ras /it^eis" Trpos ra dvofxoLa Trotetrat fierd 

E ^ta? dvayKa^o/Jieva Kal dwAa^et /cat dyavaKreX 
(f)evyovTa dir' d?^'>jXo}v, tols 8e ovyyeveaL /cat 
ot/ceiot? ofMOTTadel Kepavvvfieva /cat TrpoaUraL rrjv 
KOLVcoviav Xeiois /cat /xer' evpLevetas, ttcjs olov re 
(fiiXiav rjdeai Stacj^opotg iyyeveadai /cat nddecnv 
avofiOLOts /cat ^tot? irepas Trpoaipeaeis exovaiv; 
7) fi€V yap TTepl i/jaXfiovs Kal (f)6pfJLiyyas dppiovia 
St dvTLcficxjvojv ex^t- TO avp,<f)ijovov , d^vr-qaL /cat 
^apvTr](nv dpLcoayeTTCos ofioLOTrjros iyyiyvopiivr)s' 
TTJs 8e (I)lXlk7Js crv/jLcfiCovLas ravr'qg /cat dpp.ovia'S 
ovhkv dvojjLOLov ovS' dvcofiaXov ouS' dviaov elvai 
Set jxepos, dAA' ef aTrdvTOjv ofxoLOJS exovrajv 

J" d/xoAoyeti^* /cat opio^ovXeZv'^ /cat dyuoSo^eti^^ /cat 
avvopiOTradelv ,^ ojarrep puds ^^xrjs iv TrXeioai 
Bi'rjpr]pievr]s acopLaai. 

9. Ti? ovv iariv ovtcos eTTiTTOVOs /cat puerd^oXos 
/cat TraPToSaTTos" dvOpcoiros, coare ttoXXoZs eavrov 
e^opLOiovv /cat TTpoaappLorreiv /cat /at) /carayeAar 
Tou ©edyi'iSos' Trapaivovvros 

TTOvXvTTohoS VOOV^ ^^X^ TToXvXpOOV ,^ OS TTOTL 7T€Tpr}, 

TTJ irep 6pLiXrj(Trj ,^ roZos IheZv €cf)dvr] ; 

/catTOt Tov TToXvTToSos at /xera^oAat ^ddos ovk 

exovaiv, aXXd Trepl avrrjv yiyvovTai ttjv im,- 

<f>dv€Lav, OTVcjiOTrjTi Kal fxavoTrjTi rds dTToppoias tcov 

97 TrXrjaia^ovTCOv dvaXapifidvovaav at Se <f)iXiai rd 

^ d^i'i'xa] SXoya Wyttenbach. 

* Hartman would read all these as indicatives, bfioXoyet, 
etc. 

' iro\virov 6pyqv . . . iroXvirXoKov . . . t^ irpoffOfJuKrja'ri, in 
the Mss. of Theognis and also Athenaeus, p. 317 a. The 

66 



I 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 96-97 

being through Ukeness. Indeed, if even the brute 
beasts are made to mate \\iih others unlike them- 
selves only by forcible compulsion, and crouch aside, 
and show resentment as they try to escape from each 
other, while -with animals of their own race and kind 
they consort with mutual satisfaction, and welcome 
the participation with a ready goodwill, how then 
is it possible for friendship to be engendered in differ- 
ing characters, unlike feelings, and hves which hold 
to other principles ? It is true that the harmony 
produced on harp andl}Te gets its consonance through 
tones of dissonant pitch, a hkeness being somehow 
engendered between the higher and the lower notes ; 
but in our friendship's consonance and harmony there 
must be no element unlike, uneven, or unequal, but 
all must be ahke to engender agreement in words, 
counsels, opinions, and feehngs, and it must be as if 
one soul were apportioned among two or more bodies. 
9. What man is there, then, sa indefatigable, so 
changeable, so universally adaptable, that he can 
assimilate and accommodate himself to many persons, 
without deriding the advice of Theognis " when he 
says : 

Copy this trait of the cuttle-fish, which changes its colour 
So as to seem to the eje like to the rock where it clings ? 

However, the changes in the cuttle-fish have no 
depth, but are wholly on the surface, which, o'wing 
to its closeness or looseness of texture, takes up the 
emanations from objects which come near to it ; 

« Verses 215-6, cited by Plutarch also in Moralia, 916 c 
and 978 e. 

majority of mss. of Plutarch have roXi^porot instead of 
voKvxpoov. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(97) rjdr) ^Tyrouai avve^oixoiovv /cat ra Trddrj Kal rovs 
Xoyovs Kal ra eTrtTTyScu/zaTa Kal rag Sta^eaetj. 
Uparrecos tivos ovk cvtvxovs oySe Trdvv )(pr](7Tov 
TO epyov, aXX ^ vtto yo-qreias eavTov els crepov 
elSos e^ irepov fieraXXaTTOvros iv Tavrto rroXXaKts, 
^lAoAoyois" ovvavayLyvwaKovTOs Kal TraAatCTrat? 
avyKOVLOfievov Kal (JitXod-qpois crvyKwr^yerovvTos 
Kal ^iXoTTorais avpLi^iedvaKopbivov Kal ttoXitikols 
avvapxo.tp€(ndt,ovTog , IStav rjdovs eariav ovk exov- 
Tos. COS 8e Trjv dax'^lJ^drLaTOV ol <f>v(nKol Kal 
B dxp(i>P'O.T0v ovaiav Kal vXrjv Xeyovaiv vnoKeifievrjv 
Kal Tperrofjiev'qv vcj)' aVTTJs vvv p,€v <f)XeyeadaL vvv 
8' i^vypaiveadai, rore 8' i^aepovadai Trrjywadai 
8' av6t,s, ovrois apa rfj TroAuc^tAia i/jux^jv vtto- 
Kelcrdat Se-qcret, iroXvTraOfj Kal TToXvrpoTTOv /cat 
vypdv Kat, pahiav jxeTa^dXXetv. dXX' rj (fjiXia crrd- 
aifjLov Ti ^Tyret /cat ^e^aiov rjdos Kal dp^erdTrroiTov 
iv /xta X^P^ '^^'' ovvrjd&La' Sio /cat arrdviov /cat 
hvQevperov ecrrt <f>iXos jSe^atoj. 

^ Hartraan would omit dW. 



I 



ON HAVING MANY FRIENDS, 97 

whereas friendships seek to effect a thorough-going 
likeness in characters, feelings, language, pursuits, 
and dispositions. Such varied adaptation were the 
task of a Proteus," not fortunate and not at all 
scrupulous, who by magic can change himself often 
on the verj' instant from one character to another, 
reading books -with the scholarly, rolling in the dust 
with wrestlers, follomng the hunt with sportsmen, 
getting drunk with topers, and taking part in the 
canvass of pohticians, possessing no firmly founded 
character of his own. And as the natural philo- 
sophers say of the formless and colourless substance 
and material which is the imderlying basis of every- 
thing and of itself turns into everything, that it is 
now in a state of combustion, now liquefied, at 
another time aeriform, and then again sohd, so the 
possession of a multitude of friends will necessarily 
have, as its underlying basis, a soul that is very im- 
pressionable, versatile, phant, and readily change- 
able. But friendsliip seeks for a fixed and steadfast 
character which does not shift about, but continues 
in one place and in one intimacy. For this reason 
a steadfast friend is something rare and hard to find. 

• Homer, Od. iv. 383 ff.; Virgil, Georgica, iv. 387 S. 



69 



i 



CHANCE 
(DE FORTUNA) 



I 



INTRODUCTION 

In default of any information regarding Plutarch's 
short essay on Chance, we can only guess that it 
may have been delivered as a lecture, although 
Hartman denies such a possibility. The argmng of 
such subjects has always had a certain attraction for 
mankind until comparatively recent times, but the 
development of a more exact knowledge regarding 
psychology has in later years checked such dis- 
cussions. Yet a knowledge of psychology will not 
detract from the interest and enjoyment of anyone 
who will read this essay. 



73 



(97)0 HEPI TYXHS 

1. Tv^T) TO. OvrjTOJv vpayyiaT , ovk ev^ovXla. 

7TOT€pov ouSe BLKaLoavvq to. dvrjrcov TTpdy/xaTa ouS' 
LaoTr]s ovSe aoi(f)poavirq ovhe KoafjLtorrjs, aAA' e/c 
rvx^js fiev /cat 8ia rv-)(rjv 'AptoreiST^S' ivcKaprlp'qae 

D rfi irevia, ttoXXcov xp-qixdrcov Kvptos yeviadai 
Svvdfievos, Kal Hklttlojv K.apx'r]S6va iXcbv ovSev 
OVT kXa^ev ovt* etSe tcov Xa(f)vpcov, e/c rvx'fjS 8e 
icat Sta Tvx'Tjv OiXoKpdrrjs Xafioiv ;(;puCTtov nrapd 
OiAiTTTToy " TTopvas /cat Ix^vs rjyopaS^e," Kal 
AaadivTjs /cat ^vdvKpdr-qs dTtojXeaav "OXvvOov, 
TTJ yaarpi fierpovvTcg /cat rot? atCTp^tcrrois" rrjv 
evSai/JLOviav " ; aTro tvxt]S 8' o fiev (^lXlttttov 
^AXe^avSpos avTos re tcov alxP'O-XcoTOiv dTretp^ero 
yvvaiKiJjv /cat rovs v^pit,ovras €K6Xat,€v, 6 he 
UpcdpLOV SaifjiovL KaKip /cat tvxD ;j(/37jaa/Ltep'os 
avveKOLfidro rfj rov ^evov yvvacKL, /cat Xa^wv 

E avTTjv iveTrXrjae TToXefjLOV /cat KaKcbv rds hvo Turret - 
povs; ei ya/3 ravra ylyveraL Sta rvx'fjv, ri KOjXvei 

" From Chaeremon : Nauck, Tj-a^. Graec. Frag. p. 782. 
C/". Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, v. 9 (25). 

'' C/. Plutarch's Life of Aristides, chap. xxv. (p. 334 b). 

" Cf. Plutarch's Moralia, 200 b. 

•* Demosthenes, Or. xix. {Be falsa legatione), 229 (p. 412). 

74 



CHANCE 

1. Man's ways are chance and not sagacity.* 

Is it true also that man's ways are not justice 
either, or equahty, or self-control, or decorum, but was 
it the result of chance and because of chance that 
Aristeides * persevered in his poverty when he could 
have made himself master of great wealth, and that 
Scipio,"^ having captured Carthage, neither took nor 
saw any of the spoil ? Was it the result of chance 
and because of chance that Philocrates,** ha\ing 
received money from Philip, " proceeded to spend 
it on trulls and trout," and was it due to chance 
that Lasthenes and Euthy crates lost Olynthus, 
" measuring happiness by their bellies and the most 
shameless deeds " ? « Was it the result of chance that 
Alexander,^ the son of Philip, forbore to touch the 
captive women himself and punished those who 
offered them insult, and, on the other hand, was it 
because the Alexander who was the son of Priam 
yielded to the dictates of an evil genius or of chance 
that he lay -vvith the Avife of his host, and by her 
abduction filled two of our three continents with 
war and woes ? For if these things happen because 

The money was the price of treason according to Demo- 
sthenes. 

' Demosthenes, Or. xviii. (Z)e CO mna), 296 (p. 324). These 
men also I )emosthenes puts in hLs list of traitors. 

' Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. xxi. (p. 676 b flF.). 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/cat ras yaXdg /cat tovs rpdyovs /cat tovs TnO-q- 
Kovs avvex^adai (f)dvai Sta rvxf]v Tois Aip^vetats /cat 
rat? OLKpacriais /cat Tat? ^cofjioXoxiais ; 

2. Et 8 eart GOi(j>poavvri /cat SiKaLoavvrj /cat 
avhpeia, ttcos Xoyov e;)(ei /xt^ eti^at (I)p6vqaiv, et Se 
<f>p6vriaLs, TTcbs ov /cat ev^ovXtav; rj yap aco^po- 
avvT) (/)p6vr](jLs TLs iariv ws (f>acrt,, /cat i^ hiKaLoavvrj 
Trjs cf>povTJcr€(os Setrat irapova-qs' fiaAXov Se 7-171^ 
ev^ovXcav ye rot, /cat (f)p6v7jaLV iv p.€V "qhovals 
ayadovs Trapexofievr^v iyKpdreiav /cat aa)(f>poavvriv 
KaXovfjcev, iv 8e /ctP'Swotj /cat Trdrot? Kapreplav /cat 
avhpayadiav, iv Se Kotvcovquacri /cat TToXireiais eu- 
vopLLov /cat SiKaLoavvrjv. odev et to. t-^j ev^ovXias 
F epya T'ijs' rvx^^s StKaiovixev etvat, eoTCo tvx'Tjs Kal 
ra T-jyj St/caioayj^S" /cat ra tt^j oax^poavvris , /cat 
i^ At'a TO kX€ttt€lv Tvxyjs e<JT(o /cat to ^aAAarTto- 
TOfielv /cat TO aKoXaaraiveiv, /cat [xedifxevoi rcov 
OLKciiov Xoyia/jLcov els ttjv tvxt]v eavrovs d(f)a)[j.ev 
ojanep vtto TTvevpiaros ttoXXov Kovioprov rj avpcfyeTov 
iXavvofievovs /cat^ hia^epopievovs • ev^ovXias tol- 
wv jjLTj ovarjs ovBe ^ouXrjv eiKos elvai Trepl rrpaypid- 
Tcov ovSe aKeifjLV ovSe t,rjrrjaLv tov crvpL<f)epovros, 
dXX eXr^prjaev eiTTwv 6 Ho(f)OKXrjs on 
98 TTdv TO t,y]Tovp.evov 

aXuirov, e/c^eyyet Se rafxeXovpievov 

Kal TToXiv av TO. TTpdypLara Scaipcov 

TO. p,ev StSa/cra piavddvco, rd S' evperd 

t,rjTa}, rd S' evKrd irapd decov fiTT]adpL'qv . 

^ Kal Wyttenbach following Xylander and Amyot : ^. 

" Cf. Moralia, 441 a and 1034 c. 
* Oedipus Tyrannus, 110. 

76 



CHANCE, 97-98 

of chance, what is to hinder our saying that cats, 
goats, and apes because of chance are given over to 
greediness, lustfuhiess, and mischievous tricks ? 

2. If self-control, justice, and bravery exist, how is 
it possible to reason that intelligence does not exist ; 
and if intelhgence exists, must not sagacity exist 
also ? For self-control is a kind of intelligence, they 
say, and justice requires the presence of intelhgence.** 
Or ra^er, that particular sagacity and intelhgence 
which render men \artuous in the midst of pleasures 
we call continence and self-control, in perils and 
labours we call it perseverance and fortitude, in 
private deahngs and in public life we call it equitv 
and justice. Wherefore, if we impute the works of 
sagacity to chance, let the works of justice and of 
self-control be also ascribed to chance, and, by 
Heaven, let thieving, stealing purses, and hcentious 
Uving all be ascribed to chance, and let us abandon 
all oiu- reasoning processes and resign ourselves to 
chance, to be driven and carried, as dust or rubbish 
by a violent wind, hither and thither. If, then, 
sagacity does not exist, it is a fair inference that 
there can be no sagacious planning about what is 
to be done, and no consideration or searching for 
what is to the best advantage, but Sophocles'' in- 
dulged in idle talk when he said : 

Whatever is pursued 
May be achieved ; neglected it escapes ; 

and so too in another place where he tries to dis- 
tinguish different classes of actions : 

Wliat can be taught I learn ; what can be found 
I seek ; but God I ask to answer prayer." 

* From an unknown play of Sophocles ; Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Sophocles, No. 759. 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(98) ri yap evperov •^ tl fxadrjTov iartv av6 puivoig , el 
TTavra Trepaiverai Kara tvx'tjv; ttolov 8' ovk av- 
atpelrai ^ovXevrvpLOv TToXecos rj ttolov ov KaraXverai 
avvihpLov ^aaiXecog, el vtto ttj tvxjj ttolvt' eariv, 

TjV TV^XriV XoL^OpoVpLeV, CU? rV(f)Xoi TTepLTTLTTTOlTeS 

B avTrj; tl 8' ov jj-eXXofiev, orav coaiTep ofxpuara rrjv 
ev^ovXiav eKKoiJjavres avraJv rov ^iov TV<f)XrjV 
XeLpayojyov Xafi^dvcofxev ; 

3. Kat'rot 0e/)e Ae'yeiv tlvo. rjixciJv ws Ti))cq ra 
Twv ^XeTTOVTCOV TTpa.yp.ara, ovk oifjLs oi58' " op.p.aTa 
(f)a)U(f)opa, (f>rjaL Y\Xdra)v, /cat TV'xy] to. tojv 
aKOVovTOJV, ov SvvapLS dvTLXrjTTTLKrj vXrjyrjs dipos 
St' diTos /cat iyK€cf)dXov TTpoa(f)€pop.€vrjs- KaXov rjv, 
<os €oiK€V, evXa^eladaL rrjv aladrjOLv. dXXd p,r]p 
rrjv otjjLV /cat aKorjv /cat yevaLV /cat 6a(f)p7]aLV /cat 
TO, AotTTCt p.epr) rov acofxaros rdg re Svvdp,€Ls^ 
avrcov VTTiqpeaLav ev^ovXLas Kal (f)povqa€a)s rj 

C (f)V(ns rjveyKev rjp,LV, /cat 

" vovs opfj /cat vovs a/couetj raAAa " 8e " Ka>(f>d 
Kal rv(f)Xd." 

Kal ojOTTep riXiov firj ovros evcKa ra)v aXXcov 
dcrrpcov ev(f)p6vi]v dv rjyop.ev, co? (f>r](TLV 'Hpd- 
/cAetTO?, ovrojs eveKa rcov aladiqaecjv , el p^rj vovp 
p,r)he Xoyov 6 dvdpa>TTOs ea)(eVy ovSev dv Ste^epe 
rep ^LU) rdjv drjplcov. vvv 8' ovk (ztto rvxr}S ovh^ 

* rdi re Swdyueij Wj ttenbach and one ms. correction : 

" Cf. Kock, Com. Alt. Frag. iii. p. 121, Menander, No. 
417. * In the Timaeus, p. 45 d. 

« Cf. Plato, Timaeus, p. 67 b. 
■* From Epicharmus ; cited by Plutarch also in Moralia, 

78 



CHANCE, 98 

For what is there wliich can be found out or learned 
bv mankind if the issue of all things is determined 
by chance ? And what dehberative assembly of a 
State can there be which is not abolished, or advisory 
council of a king which is not dissolved, if all things 
are under the dominion of chance, which we reproach 
for being blind because we, like blind men, stumble 
against it ? " How can we help doing so when we 
pluck out sagacity, as it were our own eyes, and take 
as our guide in hfe a blind leader ? 

3. Yet, suppose someone among us should say that 
the act of seeing is chance and not vision nor the 
use of " light-bringing orbs," as Plato * calls the 
eyes, and that the act of hearing is chance and not a 
faculty apperceptive of a vibration in the air which 
is carried onward through ear and brain.'^ If such 
were the case, it were well for us, as it appears, to 
beware of trusting our senses ! But, as a matter of 
fact, Nature has conferred upon us sight, hearing, 
taste, smell, and our other members and their 
faculties to be ministers of sagacity and intelligence, 
and 

Mind has sight and mind has hearing ; all the rest is 
deaf and blind."* 

Precisely as would be our case if the sun did not exist, 
and we, for all the other stars, should be passing our 
life in a continual night, as Heracleitus * affirms, so 
man, for all his senses, had he not mind and reason, 
would not differ at all in his life from the brutes. 

336 B and 961 a. Cf, Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 
i. p. 123. 

• Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 97 ; Bywater, 

E. 13. A slightly different version of the saving is given 
y Plutarch, Moralia, 957 a. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(98) avToixdrcos TrepUafiev avriov /cat Kparovfjicv, dAA' 
o Ilpoix7]devs, TOvrioTiv 6 Xoyiafxos, atTio? 

iTTTTOiv ovo)v t' op^ettt /cttt Tavpcov yovas 
Sous avriSovXa^ /cat ttovcov cKSeKTOpa 

D /car' AtCTp^yAov. eTret tvxJ} ye /cat (f>vaei, yeviaecDS 
dfieivovL rd TrAetcrTa TcDr dXoycov Kexp'rjraL. rd fiev 
ydp ciuTrAtCTTat Kepaai /cat dSoyat /cat Kevrpoig, 

" avrdp ixtvoLS,^ " <f)rjalv 'EjLtTreSo/cA^S', 

" o^v^eXels ;^atTat vwrots €7n7T€(f>piKaac ," 

rd 8' yTToSeSerat Kat ■f]jji(f)UaraL ^oAtat /cat Ad;^i'ats' 
/cat ;^7]Aats' /cat oTrAats- d770/c/)dTOts" fiovos S' c) di'- 
dpcoTTos /card rdv OAdTcui'a " yy/xv'd? /cat dt'OTrAo? 
/cat dvuTToSeTos'' /cat darpcoTos " vtto Ti]s (fivaecos 
dTToAeAetTTTat. 

dAA' €V StSouaa irdvra jxaXdaaaeL rdSe, 
E TOi' AoytCT/xdv /cat tt^i' cTTifxeXeiav /cat tt^i' irpovoiav. 

7] ^po-xv fiev adevos dvepos' dXXd 
TTOt/ctAta TTpaTTiBcov 
ScLvd p,€v (f)vXa* TTovrov 
xdovLcov T depLcov re 
SdfxvaTai ^ovXevjxaTa. 

Kov(f>6Tarov Ittttoi /cat ci/curaTOV, dvOpcoTTO) Se 

Olovai' fidx(-P'Ov Kvcov /cat dvfMoeiSes, dAA' dt'- 

^ avriSouXa from Moralia, 964 f : dvTidupa. 

''■ ixivois Stephanus and possibly one ms. : fx'''"*' 

* dvoirXoi Kal avvTrdderos] &oir\os Kal a.vvw65r)Tos Plato siss., 
which also have the words in different order. 

* <j)v\a added from Moralia, 959 d ; not in mss. 

" From the Prometheus Unbound of Aeschylus ; Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag., Aeschylus, No. 194. The lines are 
again quoted by Plutarch, Moralia, 964 f. 
80 



1 



CHANCE, 98 

But as it is, we excel them and have power over 
them, not from chance or accidentally, but the cause 
thereof is Prometheus, or, in other words, the power 
to think and reason, 

Wliich gives the foal of horse and ass, and get 
Of bull, to serve us and assume our tasks, 

as Aeschylus " puts it. Certainly, in so far as chance 
and nature's endowment at birth are concerned, the 
great majority of brute animals are better off than 
man. For some are armed with horns, or teeth, or 
stings, and Empedocles says, 

But as for hedgehogs 
Growing upon their backs sharp darts of spines stand 
bristling," 

and still others are shod and clad with scales or hair, 
with claws or homy hoofs. Man alone, as Plato * 
says, " naked, unarmed, with feet unshod, and with 
no bed to he in," has been abandoned by Nature. 

Yet by one gift all this she mitigates,'' 

the gift of reasoning, diligence, and forethought. 

Slight, of a truth, is the strength of man ; and yet 
By his mind's resourcefulness 
Doth he subjugate the monsters 
Of the deep, and the purposes 
Of the denizens of earth and air.* 

Horses are the lightest and swiftest of foot, yet 
they rim for man. The dog is pugnacious and 

* Diels, Fragmente der Vorgokratiker, i. p. 252. 

* Protagoras, 321 c. 

" Author unknown, but perhaps Euripides ; ef. Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, No. 367 ; cited again by 
Plutarch, Moralia', 959 d. 

* From the Aeolua of Euripides; Nauck, Trag. Oraee. 
Frag., Euripides, No. 27. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

opojTTov (l)vXdTTeL' 'q^vrarov Ixdvg Kal rroXvaapKOV 
vs, avdpojTrcp^ Se Tpo(f)r) Kal oipov iari.. tl /Ltet^ov 
i\i(f>avTO£ 7] (f>o^€pci}T€pov ISetv; dAAa Krai touto 
iraiyviov yiyovev dvdpcoTTOV /cat deafia ttou- 
Tj-yvpiKov, opx'^creLs re p,avddvei /cat ')(opeias /cat 
7TpocrKvvT]a€ts, ovK dxpT](yTOj? rwv roLovTOJV nap- 
F €LaayofjL€va)v, oAA' tva fxavdavcofxev ttov tov dv- 
dpcoTTOv rj (f)p6vr)ais aipei /cat rivojv inrepdvo) Trotet, 
/cat TTcD?* KpareZ TrdvTOJv Kal TrepiearLV. 

ov yap ■jTvyp.dxoi, elfxev dfivfjioves ovbe TToXaiarTai, 
ovSe' TToal KpaiTTVws deofxev, 

dX\* iv TTaai tovtois drvxearepot, tojv drjpnov 
iafiev ipLTTeLpia 8e /cat fxvrjpr] Kal ao^ia /cat rex^ 
Kar* *Ava^ay6pav acfxjov* r* avrcov p^pcojLte^a /cat 
^XiTTOfxev Kal d{xeXyofjL€V Kal <j>€popi€v /cat dyop-ev 
avXXa/jL^dvovres' ooar ivravOa fj,r]hev rrjs tvxt]S 
aXXd Trdvra rrjs ev^ovXlag elvai /cat rrjs Trpovoias- 
99 4. 'AAAo. jxrjv Kal rd reKTOvcov S-qirov " Trpay- 
fiara dvrjTcov " eari, Kal rd ^^aA/coTfTrcov /cat 
olKohopLcov Kal dvSpLavroTTOidjv , iv ols ovoev 
avTopudro}^ ovh cog ervx^ Karopdov^xevov optofiev. 
OTL ydp TOVTOIS^ Ppax^td ns TrapepTTLTrret tvx'Q> 

^ cLvdpunrLfi Hercher : dvOpuirois. 

* TTcDs] TrXeluj most Mss., perhaps cornipted from tI del. 
' dXXd Homeric mss. 

* atpdiv] epyuj Saiippe : ipiiii Bernardakis ; but as most >iss. 
read n for r', a dative in -ovti (or -(ovtl) would be in better 
keeping : ffap^ir S. A. Naber. 

* Toi'Totj] most MSS. have cro0(^, following Epicurus as 
quoted by Diogenes Laertius, x. 144. 

" Plutarch has several good stories about elephants in 
Moralia, 968 flF. 
82 



< 



CHANCE, 98-99 

spirited, yet it watches over man. Fish is most 
savoury, and the pig very fat, yet for man they are 
nourishing and appetizing food. What is bigger than 
an elephant or more terrible to behold ? But even 
this creature has been made the plaything of man, 
and a spectacle at public gatherings, and it learns 
to posture and dance and kneel." Such presentations 
are not without their use ; indeed, they serve a 
purpose in that we may learn to what heights man's 
intelligence raises him, above what it places him, 
and how he is master of all things, and in every way 
superior. 

No, we are not invincible either in boxing or wrestling. 
Nor are we swift in the race.* 

Indeed, in all these matters we are not so fortunate 
as the animals ; yet we make use of experience, 
memory^ wisdom, and skill, as Anaxagoras <= says, 
which are ours, and ours only, and we take their 
honey, and milk them, and carry and lead them at 
will, taking entire control over them. In all this, 
therefore, there is no element of chance at all, but 
solely and wholly sagacity and forethought. 

4. Moreover, under the head of " man's ways " '^ 
would fall, no doubt, the activities of carpenters, 
copper-smiths, builders, and statuaries, wherein we 
see nothing brought to a successful conclusion 
accidentally or as it chances. That chance may 
sometimes contribute shghtly to their success,* but 

* Adapted from Homer, Od. viii. 246. 

• C/. Diels, Fragment e der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 409. 
** Cf. the first line of chap. i. gupra. 

' From Epicurus ; cf. the quotation in Diogenes Laertius, 
X. 144. 

VOL. II D 83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(99) T<^ Se TrXelara Kal fxeyiara ratv epycov at Texi'CLi 
crvvTeXovai St' ayTcDv, Kal ovtos VTToBeSrjXcoKe 

^dr els oSov Srj rrds 6 ;;^etpajva^ XecLs, 
OL rr]v A.LOS yopycoTTLv 'Kpydvrjv ararols 
XiKvoiat Ti pooTpeTTeade. 

B rrjv yap ^Kpydvqv /cat rrjv ^AOrjvdv at rexvai 
Trdpehpov ov rrjv Tvxt]v e)(ovGL. eva^ puevTOL (fyaalv 
iTTTTOv ^ojypa^owra toXs p,ev oAAoi? Karopdovv 
etSeCTt Kal ;^pco/xa(n, tov 8' d^pov rriv Trepl ru> 
XpiXivcp KOTTTopev-qv x^vvoTTjra Kal to cruve/cmTT- 
Tov dadpa prj Karopdovvra ypdcfyeiv re TToXXdKis 
/cat e^aXei^eLV , reXos 8' vtt' opyrjs Trpoa^aXelv rep 
TTtva/ct rov CTToyyov axnrep elxe rcov SappdKCov 
avdnXecDV, rov 8e TrpoaTreaovra 6avp,a(Tra>s ivano- 
/xa^at /cat TTOirjcraL ro Seov. rovr' evrexvov rvxf]S 
p,6vov LaropeZrai. Kavoai Kal ar ad pals Kai p.e- 
rpoLS Kal dpidp^oZs Tiavraxov p^ptuv'Tat, Iva p,rjhap.ov 

C ro eLKrj Kal ojs ervxe rots epyois eyyeviqrat. /cat 
piriv at rex^ai puKpai rives elvat Xeyovrai <l>povii]- 
aeis, pidXXov 8' drroppoiaL (f>povrjaeojs /cat avorpLp,- 
p,ara evhiearrappieva rals XP^^^''^ Trepl rov ^iov, 
SiOTtep alvlrrerai ro irvp vtto rov Ilpop,rj9ea)S 
p,eptadev dXXo dXXr} BiaaTraprjvaL. /cat yap rrjs 
(jipov-qaeois p-opia Kal OTrdapiara puKpd dpavo- 
p.evrjs Kal KaraKepp,arL^op,€vr]s els rd^eis^ 
KexooprjKe. 

^ fva] NedX/fT? Madvig. 
* rd^eis] rds Trpd^eis Nikitin and Larsen. 

" Perhaps from Sophocles ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Sophocles, No. 760. 'EpydvTi is an epithet applied to Athena 
as patron of the arts. 
84 



CHANCE, 99 

that the arts through themselves bring to perfection 
the most and greatest of their works, is plainly sug- 
gested by this poet : 

Into the highway come, all craftsmen folk. 
Who worship Labour, stern-eyed child of Zeus, 
With sacred baskets placed about." 

For the arts have Labour, that is Athena, and not 
Chance as their coadjutor. Of just one artist,'' 
however, it is related that in painting a horse he had 
succeeded in nearly every respect in the dra'w'ing 
and colours, but the frothy appearance of the foam 
from champing the bit, and the rush of the foam- 
flecked breath, he had tried again and again to paint, 
but •without success, and each time had wiped it 
out, until finally, in a rage, he threw his sponge 
just as it was, full of pigments, at the canvas, and 
this, as it struck, transferred its contents in some 
amazing manner to the canvas, and effected the 
desired result. This is the only recorded instance 
of a technical achievement due to chance. Rulers, 
weights, measures, and numbers are everjnshere in 
use, so that the random and haphazard may find 
no place in any production. Indeed, the arts are 
said to be minor forms of intelligence, or rather off- 
shoots of intelligence, and detached fragments of it 
interspersed amid life's common necessities, as it is 
said in the allegory regarding fire, that it was di\ided 
into portions by Prometheus and scattered some 
here and some there. For thus, when intelligence 
is finely broken and di\ided, small portions and frag- 
ments of it have gone to their several stations. 

* Nealces, according to Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxv. 36 (104). 
Dio Chrysostom {Or. Ixiii. 4) says it was Apelles, and 
Valerius Maximus (viiL 11. 7) says " a famous painter." 

85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1)9) 5. QavnaaTov ovv iari, ttojs at [ikv rexvon, rrjs 
TvxrjS ov Seovrai irpos ro oiKetov reXos, -q 8e Tracrcov 
fxeycaTrj /cat Tekeiorarrj t^x^^ '^'^^ "^^ Ke(f)dXaiov 
TTJs avdpcoTTivrjs €V(f)r]fjiLas Kal SiKaicoaecos ouSeV 
ear IV. aAA' ev eTTLrdaet, fiev ;)^op8a>P' /cat dveaei 
cv^ovXia TLs ianv 'f]v fjLovaLKrjv KaXovcri, /cat irepl 
aprvaiv oipcov t]v fiayeipiKrjv ovo/jLa^o/jLev, /cat Trept 
D TrXvaLV LfiaTLOJV rjv yva^iKriv tovs Se TratSa? /cat 
VTToSeladat /cat TrepL^aXXeadaL 8t8aa/co/xer /cat ttj 
Be^Lo. XapL^dveiv rov oi/jov rfj 8' dpiaTepa Kparetv 
rov dprov, cos ovSe tovtcov yiyvofxevcov (xtto rvxi]S 
dXX iTTLcrrdacois /cat Trpoaoxrjs heofievcov rd 8e 
fjLeyicTTa /cat KvpLwrara vpos evSaip.oviav ov 
TTapaKaXei ttjv (/jpovqcnv, oj38e fierex^L rov Kara 
Xoyov Kal TTpovoiav; oAAa yi^v pikv oySetj uSart 
hevaas d<f>rJK€v, (hs diro TVXf]S /cat avrofidrcos 
irXivdoiv eaopievcxiv, ou8' epta /cat ok-utt) KTrjcrdpievog 
Kddrjrai rfj rvxjj rrpocrevxdfJievos Ifidriov avrco /cat 
VTroS-qixara yeveadai' ;;^/ductiov 8e ttoXv avfi(f>oprjaas 
E Kal dpyvpiov Kal TrXrjdos dvSpaTTo^cov Kal ttoXv- 
Ovpovs auAa? TT^pi^aXopievos Kal /cAiVaj Trpoadefievos 
TToXureXels Kal rpaire^as oterai ravra <^povr^aeo}S 
avrw jjiTj TrapayevofidvTjs evhaipioviav eaeadai Kal 
^iov dXvTTOv Kal /Lta/captov /cat dfxerd^Xr^rov ; 

^Hpcora Tt? ^I(f)LKpdrrjv rov arpar-qyov, coarrep 
i^eXeyxcov, rig eariv; " ovre yap OTrXiriqs ovre 
ro^onqs ovre ireXraar-qs •" KaKelvos " 6 rovroig," 

" Cf. Moralia, 5 a and 440 a. 

* Cf. Moralia, 100 c, infra. 

' This story also in Moralia, 187 b and 440 b. 

8i6 



CHANCE, 99 

5. It is therefore amazing how, if the arts have no 
need of chance to accomphsh their owTi ends, the 
greatest and most perfect art of all, the consummation 
of the high repute and esteem to which man can 
attain, can count for nothing ! But in the tighten- 
ing and loosening of strings there is involved a certain 
sagacity, which men call music, and also in the pre- 
paration of food, to which we give the name of 
cookery, and in the cleaning of clothes, which we call 
fulling ; and we teach our children to put on their 
shoes and clothes, and to take their meat ^ith the 
right hand and hold their bread in the left, on the 
assumption that even these things do not come by 
chance, but require oversight and attention.** But 
can it be that those things which are most important 
and most essential for happiness do not call for 
intelligence, nor have any part in the processes of 
reason and forethought ? But nobody wets clay 
with water and leaves it, assimiing that by chance 
and accidentally there will be bricks, nor after pro- 
viding himself ^i^ith wool and leather does he sit 
down with a prayer to Chance that they tium into 
a cloak and shoes for him ; and when a man has 
amassed much gold and silver and a multitude of 
slaves, and has surrounded himself with spacious 
suites of rooms, and, in addition, has furnished them 
with costly couches and tables,'' does he imagine that 
these things, without the presence of intelligence 
in himself, will be happiness and a blissful life, free 
from grief and secure from change ? 

Somebody asked Iphicrates <= the general, as though 
undertaking to expose him, who he was, since he 
was " neither a man-at-arms, nor archer, nor tar- 
geted " ; and he answered, " I am the man who 

87 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

€(1)7], " TTaaiv eTnrdrTOJV Kal xP<^f^^^os." (6.) ov 
r ;i^puatov rj (f>p6vr](yLs icrriv ouS' dpyvpLOV ovSe Sofa 
ovoe ttAovtos ovo uyteta ovo lctxvs ovoe KaAAos. 
Tt ovv iari; ro ndai tovtols /caAaJ? ;^p7jcr^at 
Swdfievov Kal St' o tovtcov eKaarov t^Sj) ytyt'erai 
Kai evho^ov /cat dx^eXinov dvev Se toutou 8uaxp7](JTa 
/cat aKapna Kal ^Xa^epd, Kal ^apvvei Kal Kar- 
aiaxvuei tov KeKrrjpLevov. rj ttov KaXcos 6 'HfftoSou 
UpofjiTjOevs rip 'EvT-t^Ty^et Trapa/ceAeuerat 

jLtTy TTore ScSpa 
Ze^aaOai Trap Zt^vo? ^OXvjjlttlov dAA' aTTOTTejjiTTetv, 

100 TO. TV)(ripd Xiyoiv /cat to. cktos, cos et TrapeKeXevero 
p,rj avpit,eLV^ dpiovaov ovra p-r]^^ dvayiyvdiaKeiv 
dypdp.paTOV ftryS' iTTTTeveiv dvnmov, ovroi irapa- 
KeXevop-evos avro) p,ri dp\eiv dvorjTOV ovra /xTjSe 
TrAouretP' dveXevOepov prjSe yap-elv Kparovp-evov 
VTTo yvvaiKog. ov yap p,6vov "to ev Trparreiv 
irapd TTjv d^iav d(f)opp,r) tov KaKOjg <f}poveXv tols 
dvoT^TOLS ytyverai," a*? Ar]p,oa6evr}5 elTrev, dXXa to 
evTv^eiv TTapd ttjv d^iav dtfjopp/r] tov /ca/ccas" 
TTpdrTeiv TOLS /xt) (fypovovcnv. 

^ ffvpiS^eiv] Xuptfeij' Hercher. 



83 



CHANCE, 99-100 

commands and makes use of all these." (6.) Intel- 
ligence is not gold or silver or repute or wealth or 
health or strength or beauty. What then is it ? It 
is the something which is able to make good use of 
all these, and something through whose agency each 
of these is made pleasant, noteworthy, and profit- 
able. Without it they are unserviceable, fruitless, 
and harmful, and they burden and disgrace their 
possessor. It is surely excellent ad\ice that Hesiod's* 
Prometheus gives to Epimetheus : 

Never to welcome 
Any gifts from Zeus of Olympus, but always return them, 

meaning the gifts of chance and external advantages; 
as if he were advising him not to play the flute if 
ignorant of music, nor to read if illiterate, nor to ride 
if unused to horses, thus advising him not to hold 
public office if a fool, nor to be rich if miserly, nor to 
marry if ruled by a woman. For not only is it true, 
as Demosthenes* has said, that " undeserved suc- 
cess becomes a source of misconception for fools," 
but undeserved good fortune also becomes a source 
of misery for the unthinking. 

• In the Works and Days, 86. 
* OlyrUhiac I. 23. 



89 



VIRTUE AND VICE 
(DE VIRTUTE ET VITIO) 



d2 



I 
! 

i 



INTRODUCTION 

Plittarch's essay on Virtue and Vice is an excellent 
sermon which has not been overlooked by Christian 
preachers. 



93 



(100) B nEPI APETHS KAI KAKIA2 

1. Ta Lfxdna So/cet depfxalvecv top dv6pcoTTOV, 
ovK avra St]7tov depixalvovra /cat Trpoa^aXkovra ttjv 
depixoTTjTa {Kad* iavro yap eKaarov avrajv ijjvxpov 
ecTTLV, fj Kal TToXXaKis Kavp,aTLt,6p,€V0i Koi TTVper- 

C Tovres ef irepcov erepa fxeraXa/ji^dvovaLv) , dAA' tjv 
o avdpojTTOs dvaSiScoaiv e^ eavrov depixorrjra, rav- 
rT]v 1] eaOrjs rep acofiaTi TrpoaTreaovaa avvex^i- Kal 
TTepiaTeXXei, Kal Kadecpyvvixevrjv elg ro aajfxa ovk 
ea ttoXlv aKeSdwvadat. ravro Sr] rovro rols 
TTpay/xaaiv virdpxov i^aTrard. rovs ttoXXovs, cos, 
av oiKiag pteydXas TTepi^dXojvrai Kal TrXrjdos 
avSparroScov Kal y^p-qpdrojv avvaydycxiaiv , rjBeojs 
^Lcjaopivovs. TO S' rjBeojs l^rjv Kal IXapcos ovk 
e^codev iariv, dXXd rovvavrCov 6 dvOpoiirog rots 
vepL avTov rrpaypiacnv rj8ov7]v Kal xctpiv oiOTrep eK 
TTiqyrjs rov yjdovs TrpocrrtdrjaLV. , 

D aWopLevov 8e TTvpos yepapcorepos olkos ISeadai, I 
Kal ttXovtos 7jSta)v Kal So^a XafXTrporepa Kal 
8vvap.Ls, dv TO drro rrjg j/ru;^^? e'x?? y^^os" ottov 
Kal 7T€viav Kal (f)vyr]v Kal yrjpag eAa^pcD? Kal 
'2Tpoar]vcbs TTpos evKoXiav Kal TrpaorrjTa rpoTTov 
<f)€povcnv. 

" Cf. Moralia, 99 e, supra. 

* A dictum of Zeno's; cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 477 a, andj 
Von Arnim, Stoicorum veterum fragmenta, i. p. 50. 
94 



VIRTUE AND VICE 

1. Clothes are supposed to make a man warm, not 
of coxu^e by warming him themselves in the sense of 
adding their warmth to him, because each garment 
by itself is cold, and for this reason very often persons 
who feel hot and feverish keep changing from one 
set of clothes to another ; but the warmth which a 
man gives oiF from his own person the clothing, 
closely applied to the body, confines and enwTaps, 
and does not allow it, when thus imprisoned in the 
body, to be dissipated again. Now the same condi- 
tion existing in human affairs deceives most people, 
who think that, if they surround themselves with 
vast houses, and get together a mass of slaves and 
money, they shall hve pleasantly.* But a pleasant 
and happy life comes not from external things, but, 
on the contrary, man draws on his own character 
as a source ^ from which to add the element of 
pleasure and joy to the things which surround him. 

Bright with a blazing fire a house looks far more cheerful,* 
and wealth is pleasanter, and repute and power more 
resplendent, if with them goes the gladness wlxich 
springs from the heart ; and so too men bear poverty, 
exile, and old age lightly and gently in proportion 
to the serenity and mildness of their character. 

* A verse attributed to Homer ; cf. The Contest of Homer 
and Hesiod, 274. Again quoted Moralia, 162 d. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(100) 2. 'Qs yap apcofxara Tpi^covas eucuSet? koX 
poLKia TTOiel, Tov 8' *Kyxiaov to crco/xa l)(ci>pa 
TTOvqpov i^ehihov 

vcoTov Karaard^ovTa Pvaaivov <j>dpos, 
ovTO) fier dpeTTJs /cat Staira Trdaa /cat ^los dXv- 
TTOs ec7TL /cat eTTLTepTTris, rj 8e /ca/cia /cat ra Aa/XTrpa 
E (f)aiv6iJL€va /cat TroAyreATj /cat aefxvd fxtyvvfjidviq 
XvTTTjpd Kal vavTicoSr) /cat SucrTrpdo-Se/cTa Trapex^i- 
rols KeKrrjfxevois. 

ovTOs fiaKdpios iv dyopS. vojLtt^eTaf 
eTTCiP' 8' dvoi^rj rds dvpas, rpLcrddXios, 
yvvrj Kparel irdvrcjov, eTrtTarret, fjidx^r* der 

KaiToi yvvaiKos ov ;^aAe7rcL>s' dv tls airaAAayeti^ 
TTOvqpds dvTjp <jov, purj dvhpaTTohov Trpos 8e rriv 
iavTOV /ca/ctav ovk eWi ypat/jdfievov aTToXeiifjcv 7]or] 
TTpayfidrcov d<f)€ZadaL /cat dvairaveadat yevojxevov 
Kad' avTOv, dXX del avvoiKovcra rot? oTrXdyxvois 
/cat 7Tpoa7Te(/)VKVia vvKTCop Kal fxed iqixepav 

€uet drep SaAoto^ /cat co/xo) yi^paC SdJKev,^ 

F ^apeia avv€KBr]fxos ovaa 8t' aAa^ovetW /cat TroAure- ■ 

Xrjg avvScLTTVos vtto Xi^veias Kal avyKonos odv- ■ 

vrjpd, (f)povriai Kal puepLfjuvatg Kal ^rjXoTVTnaLS 

eKKOTTTOvaa tov vttvov Kal 8ia(f)deipovaa. /cat yap 

o KadevSovGL tov acofiaTOs vrrvos ioTl /cat ai^a- 

TTavartg, ttjs 8e ipvx'i]S TTTOiai /cat oveipot /cat 

Tapa)(al Sta 8etCTt8atjLtortav'. 

^ da\oO most ms9. 

* Kai ^i/ tiyity • . . ^VKf" Plut. Moral. 5^27 a. For the 
various ms. readings cf. Rzach's Hesiod ad Inc. j 

" From the Laocoon of Sophocles ; cf. Nauck, Trag. j 
Graec. Frag., Sophocles, No. 344.. 

96 



VIRTUE AND VICE, 100 

2. As perfumes make coarse and ragged garments 
fragrant, but the body of Anchises gave off a noisome 
exudation. 

Damping the linen robe adown his back,* 

so every occupation and manner of life, if attended 
by \drtue, is untroubled and delightful, while, on 
the other hand, any admixture of vice renders those 
things which to others seem splendid, precious, and 
imposing, only troublesome, sickening, and un- 
welcome to their possessors. 

This man is happy deemed 'mid public throng. 
But when he opes his door he's thrice a wretch ; 
His wife controls, commands, and always fights." 

Yet it is not difficult for any man to get rid of a bad 
wife if he be a real man and not a slave ; but against 
his own \'ice it is not possible to draw up a waiting 
of divorcement and forthwith to be rid of troubles 
and to be at peace, having arranged to be by him- 
self. No, his \ace, a settled tenant of his very vitals 
always, both at night and by day, 

Bums, but without e'er a brand, and consigns to an 
eld all untimely." 

For in travelUng vice is a troublesome companion 
because of arrogance, at dinner an expensive com- 
panion owing to gluttony, and a distressing bed- 
fellow, since by anxieties, cares and jealousies it 
drives out and destroys sleep. For what slmmber 
there may be is sleep and repose foi* the body only, 
but for the soul terrors, dreams, and agitations, 
because of superstition. 

* Perhaps from Menander ; cf. Kock, Com. Attic. Frag, 
iii. p. 86, and Plutarch, Moralia', 4,71 b. 

• Hesiod, Works and Dayg, 705. 

97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

orav he waTa^ovrd fi rj XvTrr] Xd^r), 
aTToXXv/Ji' VTTo rcbv ivvTTvUov 

<f)r)ai Tis" ovrco 8e Kal (f)66vos Kal <j)6^o^ koX 
dvfios Kal aKoXaaia SLaTid-qcn. jjLed' rjnepav fiev 
yap €gu} ^Xeirovaa /cat ava)(riixaTLt,opi4vri rrpos 
101 erepovs f] KaKta SvacoTretrai Kal -napaKaXviTTei rd 
TTaur], Kal ov TTavrdiTaai. rals op/xat? e/cSiScocriv 
€avT7]v aXX dvTiT€LV€i Kal fjidxeraf, ttoAAcikis" iv 
oe rots vTTvois aTTO^vyovaa So^as Kal v6p.ovs Kal 
TToppcoTdrcD yevofievq rov SeSteVat re Kal atSet- 
aaai, irdaav eTTidvp^tav Kivel /cat eTraveyeipei ro 
KaKorjdes Kal dKoXaarrov. " fxrjTpc re yap ent- 
X^i-P^^ p-tyvvadai," (OS" (fyrjaiv 6 YlXdrcov, Kal 
^pcuaeis ddecTfjiovg TTpoa<f)epeTai, Kal Trpd^ecos ovSe- 
fxids aTTex^Tai, aTToXavovaa rov Trapavofxelv d)s 
avvarov earLv elSwXots Kal <f>d(Tfj,aaLV els ovhep.iav 
rjSovTjv ovSe reXeiojaiv rov eTndvfxovvros reXevrco- 
B cri-v, aXXd Kivelv fiovov Kal hiaypiaiveLV rd rrddrj 
Kai rd voarjpLara Swafxevois- 

3. Hov roivvv ro tjSv rrjs /ca/ctas' eariv, el pbrjSa- 
fjLOv ro d/jiepLfivov Kal ro oXvttov /at^S' avrdpKeia 
firjh* drapa^ia fJiyj^^ rjovx^o-; rals fiev ydp ttJs" 
aapKos rjBovals rj rov crcLp-aros evKpaaia Kal 
vyleia x^P'^^ /^^^ yeveaiv StSojcrf rf] he ^vxj} ovk 
eariv eyyeveuQai yrjdos ovhe X'^pdv ^e^aiov, dv fjirj 
ro evdvfjiov Kal dcf)o^ov Kal dappaXeov axmep 
eSpav rj yaX-rjvrjv aKXvcrrov VTTO^dXrjrai, dXXd Kav 
VTTOfieLhidar) ns eXnlg r] repipis, avrr) raxv ^pov- 
98 



VIRTUE AND VICE, 100-101 

^Vhen grief o'ertakes me as I close ray eyes, 
I'm murdered by my dreams." 

says one man. In such a state do envy, fear, temper, 
and licentiousness put a man. For by day %ice, 
looking outside of itself and conforming its attitude 
to others, is abashed and veils its emotions, and does 
not give itself up completely to its impulses, but often- 
times resists them and struggles against them ; but 
in the hours of slumber, when it has escaped from 
opinion and law, and got away as far as possible from 
feeling fear or shame, it sets every desire stirring, 
and awakens its depra\-ity and licentiousness. It 
" attempts incest," as Plato '' says, partakes of for- 
bidden meats, abstains from nothing which it wishes 
to do, but revels in lawlessness so far as it can, with ■ 
images and visions which end in no pleasure or^ 
accomphshment of desire, but have only the power 
to stir to fierce acti\ity the emotional and morbid 
propensities.*' 

3. Where, then, is the pleasure in vice, if in no 
part of it is to be found freedom from care and grief, 
or contentment or tranquillity or calm ? For a well- 
balanced and healthy condition of the body gives 
room for engendering the pleasures of the flesh ; but 
in the soul lasting joy and gladness cannot possibly be 
engendered, unless it provide itself first with cheer- 
fulness, fearlessness, and courageousness as a basis- 
to rest upon, or as a calm tranquillity that no billows" '^ 
disturb; otherwise, even though some hope or delecta-\ 
tion lure us with a smile, anxiety suddenly breaks-" 

" From some poet of the new comedy ; cf. Kock, Com, 
Att. Frag. iii. p. 444, Adespota, No. 185. 

* Republic, p. 571 d. 

• Cf. Moralia, 83 a, awpra. 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(101) TtSos cKpayeLarjs a)a7T€p iv evSla amXaSos avv- 
eX^^V xal crvverapdxdy] . 
C 4. "Adpoit^e ;)(/[)uaiov, avvaye apyvpiov, olko- 
oofieL TTepiTTaTovs, efnrXrjaov dvSpaTToBcov ttjv olKiav 
/cat ;;^pea>crTcDv riyr ttoXiv dv fjurj rd TrdOr] ttjs 
tpvxrjs KaraoTopearjs Kal rrjv dTrX-qariav Travcrrjs 
Kat (f)6^ct)v /cat (/)povTLS(x)v dTraXXd^rjs aavTov, 
otvov Sfqdels TTvperrovri /cat ;^oAt/ca) /xeAi Trpoa- 
(f)€peLS /cat crtTta /cat dipa /cotAta/cot? erot/Lta^et? 
/cat SvaevrepiKols, ixri ariyovai ainhe pcovvvuevoLg 
aAAa TTpoaoiatpueLpop.evoLS vtt avrcov. ovx opag 
Tovs voaovvras on tcov ^pojfxdrojv rd KaOapicorara 
/cat TToXvTeXeaTara Svax^po-Lvovac Kal ScaiTTvovai 
D /cat irapairovvrai 7Tpoa(f)ep6vTcov /cat ^Lat^ojxevcDV, 
etra, rrjs Kpdaeois pLera^aXovar]? /cat TTvevfMaros 
Xpy]crTOV /cat yXvKeos a'piaros eyyevopevov /cat 
6epp,6Ti]TOs oi/cetas", araarai^Te? dprov Xltov irrl 
Tvpo) /cat KaphdpLcp ;j^at/5ouCTt /cat daixevit^ovaiv 
eadiovres^; Toiavrrjv 6 Xoyos ijJiTTOiet, rfj ipvxjj 
Siddeaiv. avrdpKiqs ear), dv /xa^?;? tC rd KoXdv 
Kayadov iari' rpv^riaeis iv Trevta /cat ^aaiXevaeis 
/cat rov dirpdypLova fiiov /cat lSlcottjv ovSev rjrrov 
ayaTTTjaeLs rj rov €7tl arparrjy iais /cat lyye/xoi^tats" 
ov ^Lcucrrj (f)iXoaoef)T^aas dr^Scos, dXXd Travraxov 
^fjv TjBeoJS p-adiqarj Kal diro Travroiv €V(/)pav€L ae 
E ttXovtos ttoXXovs evepyerovvra Kal rrevia ttoAAo 
jxr] pL€pip.vd)VTa Kal So^a ripicopievov Kal dSofta fjirj 
(f)dovovpievov. 

^ e(xdiovT€i lannotius : ^aOovres. 

' Cf. Moralia, 466 d. 

100 



VIRTUE AND VICE, 101 

forth, like a hidden rock appearing in fair weather, 
and the soul is overwhelmed and confounded, 

4. Heap up gold, amass silver, build stately 
promenades, fill your house -with slaves and the city 
with your debtors ; unless you lay level the emotions 
of your soul, put a stop to your insatiate desires, and 
quit yourself of fears and anxieties, you are but 
decanting ■\\ine for a man in a fever, offering honey 
to a bilious man, and preparing tid-bits and dainties 
for sufferers from colic or dysentery, who cannot 
retain them or be strengthened by them, but are 
only brought nearer to death thereby. Does not 
your observation of sick persons teach you that they 
dislike and reject and decline the finest and costliest 
viands which their attendants offer and try to force 
upon them ; and then later, when their whole con- 
dition has changed, and good breathing, wholesome 
blood, and normal temperature have returned to 
their bodies, they get up and have joy and satis- 
faction in eating plain bread with cheese and cress ? ** 
It is such a condition that reason creates in the soul. 
You will be contented with your lot if you learn what 
the honourable and good is. You will be luxurious 
in poverty, and live like a king, and you will find no 
less satisfaction in the care-free life of a private 
citizen than in the life connected with high mihtary 
or civic office. If you become a philosopher, you will 
live not unpleasantly, but you will learn to subsist 
pleasantly anywhere and with any resources. Wealth 
will give you gladness for the good you will do to 
many, poverty for your freedom from many cares, 
repute for the honoiu*s you will enjoy, and obscurity 
for the certainty that you shall not be envied. 



101 



A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE 
TO APOLLONIUS 

(CONSOLATIO AD APOLLONIUM) 



INTRODUCTION 

The Letter of Condolence to Apollonius, into which 
quotations from earlier authors have been emptied 
from the sack rather than scattered by hand, has in 
comparatively recent years fallen under suspicion 
as being perhaps not the work of Plutarch. The 
suspicion rests mainly on two grounds, the unusual 
length of the quotations, and certain incongruities 
of style. The latter may here be briefly dismissed 
with the remark that for every departure from 
accepted Plutarchean style a striking instance of 
conformity to his style may be cited, so that no very 
positive results are to be obtained in this way. The 
case is much the same with the quotations. Many 
of them are unusually long, although not longer than 
we find in other authors. Some of them, for example 
Euripides, Suppliants 1110 and 1112 (Plut. 110 c), 
show an accuracy of ms. tradition so far superior that 
the reading given by Plutarch is commonly adopted 
by editors of Euripides in preference to the tradi- 
tional reading of the mss. of Euripides. On the other 
hand, the quotation from Plato, Gorgias 523 a (Plut. 
120 e), shows many minor variations from our text of 
Plato ; some of these are interesting in themselves, 
but none of them really disturbs the meaning of the 
passage. 

We learn from the letter almost nothing about 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Apollonius and his departed son, and hardly more 
about Plutarch. It lacks the intimate touch of a 
similar letter wluch was Avritten by Plutarch to his 
Avife (Moralia, 608 a). Indeed we cannot be wholly 
sure that the boy was called Apollonius after his 
father, for one stroke of the pen to change the 
accusative to a vocative (121 e) would cause his 
name to disappear entirely. 

The title of the letter is not found in Lamprias' 
list of Plutarch's works, nevertheless we have refer- 
ence to it at a comparatively early date. 

Some striking similarities between the letter and 
Cicero's Ttisculan Disputations are doubtless to be 
explained by derivation from a common source, and 
this source was doubtless in large part the works of 
the Academic philosopher Crantor. 

In the absence of actual knowledge it is convenient 
to assume an hypothesis (as in the realm of science 
one speaks of " atoms " or " ions " or of the electric 
" current "). If we assume that this is the original 
rough draft of the letter which was to be sent to 
Apollonius, nearly everything can be made to square 
with the hypothesis. In selecting some of the 
quotations Plutarch had put down enough of the 
context, so that later the lines he might finally choose 
to insert could be smoothly interwoven with the 
text, and the text itself was no doubt to be subjected 
to further polish. 

However, we may be profoundly grateful for the 
collection of extracts included in the letter, and, if 
the hypothesis be right, we may also be grateful for 
this glimpse of Plutarch's methods of composition. 

We must bear in mind that this particular form of 
literary composition had developed a style of its 

106 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS 

own, the earliest example perhaps being the 
Axiochus (of Plato ?), and we have records of many 
more now lost. Among the Romans also this form 
of composition was popular, and several examples 
may be found in the works of Seneca. 




i 



107 



F nAPAMYOHTIKOS HPOS 

AnOAAONION 

1. Kat TTttAai aoL avi'i^Xyr^cra /cat crvvrjxd^ardrjv, 
A.itoaX(x)vi€ , aKovaas nepl rfjs tov TTpoa^iXecrrdTOV 

Trdaiv rjixlv viov aov Trpocopov fxeraXXayTJs tov 
piov, veavioKov Koapiiov ttolvv koI aa)(f>povos Kol 
oLa(ji€p6vTOis TO, T€ TTpos deovs Kal TO, TTpos yovels 
102 Kal cI)lXovs ocna /cat Si/cata Sta^yAafai'TOS'. t6t€ 
fiev oSv V7t6 tov TTJs TeXiVTrjs Katpov ivTvyxdvetv 
aoL /cat TrapaKaXelv dvOpcjonlvcos <f>€peLv to cwp,- 
^e^rjKos dvoLKeiov rjv, Trapet/xeVo)^ to re croi/xa /cat 
TTjv 4'^xh^ ^^° "^^ trapaXoyov orvfxi^opds, /cat 
avpLTTadelv S' rjv dvayKalov ovSe yap ol ^cXtlotoi 
t6l)v tarpcDv TTpos Tag dOpoag tcov pevfj,dTCov 
€TTL(f)opds evdus Trpou(j)€pov(n rd? Std tcx)V (fyapjia- 
KOJV ^oiqdeias, aAA' ecDat to ^apvvov Trjs ^X€yp,ovr]s 
hi)(a TTJs TOJv e^coOev ■nepi-)(^piaTO)v imdeaeajs avTO 
8t' avTOV Xa^elv Treifjiv. 

2. 'ETretSi] ovv Kal XP^^°^ ^ TrdvTa TreTralveiv 
B elcodojs iyyeyove Tjj av[ji(f)opa Kal rj irepl ak Sta- 

Oeais dTTaiTeXv eot/ce ttjv Trapd tojv ^lXcjv ^oij- 
Beiav, KaXois ^x^tv VTreXa^ov tcov 7rapap,v9r]TiKdjv 

* TTapei/x^vq) Wilamowitz : vapdfiivov, 
108 



I 



A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE 
TO APOLLONIUS 

1. Even before this time, ApoUonius, I felt for you 
in your sorrow and trouble, when I heard of the un- 
timely passing from life of your son, who was very 
dear to us all — a youth who was altogether decorous 
and modest, and unusually observant of the demands 
of rehgion and justice both toward the gods and 
toward his parents and friends. In those days, close 
upon the time of his death, to \'isit you and urge you 
to bear your present lot as a mortal man should 
would have been unsuitable, when you were pro- 
strated in both body and soul by the unexpected 
calamity ; and, besides, I could not help sharing in 
your feeling. For even the best of physicians do not 
at once apply the remedy of medicines against acute 
attacks of suppurating humours, but allow the pain- 
fulness of the inflammation, without the apphcation 
of external medicaments, to attain some assuage- 
ment of itself." 

2. Now since time, which is wont to assuage all 
things, has intervened since the calamity, and your 
present condition seems to demand the aid of your 
friends, I have conceived it to be proper to communi- 
cate to you some words that can give comfort, for 

" C/. Cicero, Tiuculan Disputations, 29 (63), and Pliny, 
Letters, v. 16. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(102) crot, jxeradovvai Xoycov npog aveaiv rrj? Xvtttjs Kal 
TTavXav Tojv TrevdiKcov /cat fxaraLcov oSvpfioJv. 

" ^vxrjs^" yap " voaovarjs elalv larpol Xoyoi, 
orav Tis if Kaipo) ye fiaXdaaar] Keap." 

Kara yap rov ao^ov ^vpLTTiSrjv 

dXXo Se y'* ctt' oAAt^ <^dpfxaKov Kelrai voaat' 
Xv7Tovp,€vo) pikv fivdo^ cvpievfjs (f)iXcov, 
dyav 8e pLcopaivovTi vov9€rrjp.ara. 

Q TToXXcbv yap ovtcov ifjuxi-KaJv Traddjv, "q Xvttt] to 
)(aX€7Ta)TaTOV Tri^vKev elvai Travrcov 

Sia Xv7Tr]v yap," cfyacri, " Kal fxaviav yiyveadac' 
TToXXolai* Kal voa-qfiaT^ ovk IdaL/xa, 
avTOVS t' dvTjp'qKaai, Bid XvTrqv rives." 

3. To fiev ovv dXyeiv Kal SdKveadai reXevrij- 
aavTog vlov (f)VcnKrjv e^et rrjv dpxrjv rrjs Autttj?, 
Kal OVK e(f>* rjfxiv. ov yap eycoye GvpL(f>e pa pcai rois 
vfivovai T7]v dypiov Kal aKXrjpdv dnddeiav, e^co Kal 
rov Bvvarov Kal rov avfi(f)€povTos ovaav d(f)- 
aip-qaerai yap Tjpcov avrrj r7]v eK rov ^iXeiadai 
J) Kal (f)iXelv evvoiav, rjv Travros pidXXov Siaacpl,eiv 
dvayKalov . ro Be irepa rov pierpov TrapeK(f)epeadai 
Kal avvav^eiv rd Trevdrj irapd <f)vaiv elvai (f)rijxi Kal 
V7TO rijs ev 'qpXv cfiavX-qs yiyveadai Bo^rjs. Bio 
Kal rovro [xev eareov ojg fiXa^epov Kal <j>avXov 
Kal OTTOvBaiois dvBpdoiv "^Kiara vpeTTOV, rrjv Be 

^ 4'vxvA ^pyv^ Aeschylus mss., but \pvxv^ was an ancient 
variant as attested e.ff. by Cicero, Tusc. Dlspiit. iii. 31. 

* dXXo 5^ 7'] dXX' all MSS. but one. 

' Apparentlj' adapted to fit the construction ; the original, 
Kai (x-avia. yiyverai TroXXotffi, is found in Stobaeus, Flor. xcix. 1. 

* TroXXotcrt Stobaeus : iroWoh. 

110 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS. 102 

tlie mitigation of grief and the termination of mourn- 
ful and vain lamentations. For 

Words are physicians for an ailing mind. 
When at the fitting time one soothes the heart." 

Since, according to the wise Euripides,'' 

For divers ills are remedies diverse : 

The kindly speech of friends for one in grief. 

And admonitions when one plays the fool. 

Indeed, though there are many emotions that affect 
the soul, yet grief, from its nature, is the most cruel 
of all. They say : 

To many there doth come because of grief 

Insanity and ills incurable, 

And some for grief have ended their own life.* 

S. The pain and pang felt at the death of a son has 
in itself good cause to awaken grief, -which is only 
natural, and over it we have no control. For I, for 
"my part, cannot concur with those who extol that 
liarsh and callous indifference, which is both impossible 
and unprofitable."* For this will rob us of the kindly 
feeling which comes from mutual affection and which 
above all else we must conserve. But to be carried 
beyond all bounds and to help in exaggerating our 
griefs I say is contrary to nature, and results from our 
depraved ideas. Therefore this also must be dis- 
missed as injurious and depraved and most unbecom- 
ing to right-minded men, but a moderate indulgence 

" Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 379. 

* Nauck, Traff. Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 962. The 
last two lines are cited supra 69 d. 

* From Philemon: cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. ii. p. 512, 
Philemon, No. 106, where additional lines are given. 

"* Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iii. 6 (12). 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(102) fierpcoTTOiOeLav ovk aTTohoKLfjiaareov . " fxrj yap 
I'oaoLjjLev " cf)r]alv 6 dKaSrjfxa'CKOs Kpdurojp, " vocri]- 
aaai 8e Trapelr] tls aXadrjais, etr' ovv repuvoiro ri 
Tcbv rjpLerepcov etr' aTToaTTCpTO ." to yap dvd)hvvov 
Tovr OVK dvev jxeydXiov eyyiyverat fJLLadcov rep 
avdpd)7T(p' redripLcoadaL yap €lkos e/cet jxev adjjxa 

E TOLOVTOV ivravda Se i/jv^'^v. 

4, Out' ovv dTraOels em rcDr tolovtojv avfi- 
<f)op<x)v 6 Xoyog d^Lot yiyveadat rovs ev (fipovovvras 
ovre BvaTTadelg- to p,€V yap dreyKTOV /cat d-qpicbheg, 
TO 8 eKXeXvfxevov Kal yvvaiKOirpeTTes . evXoyiaTOS 
S' o Tov OLKeiov opov e^iov Kal Svvdp-€vos (f>epeiv 
he^tios rd re TTpoa-qvi] Kal rd XvTT-qpd rdjv iv tco 
jSioj ovpL^aLVovroiv , Kal TTpoeiXrjcjxhs on Kaddrrep 
€v SrjfioKpaTLa KXrjpos iam rcbv dpxdJv Kal Set 
Xa^ovTa p.ev dpx^tv drroXaxovra 8e <f)ipeiv dv- 
e7raxdd)s rrjv rvx^jv, ovroj Kal rfj 8Lavop,fj ra>v 
TTpayp,drcov aveyKXrjroJS Kal TreLdrjvicos eTreadai. 
TovTO yap ol p^rj Swdp^evoL TTOieiv ou8e rds ev- 

F Trpayias dv ejLK^pov'OJS" (f)ep€LV SvvaLVTO Kal peTpiOJS. 
Td>v p,€v yap KaXcos Xeyopevcov iarlv iv vtto- 
diJKTjg pepei Kal tovto, 

fiTjS' evTvx'TiP'O. firjhev cSS' earo) p-dya, 
o a' €^€7Tap€L p,€Ll,ov t] xP^^^ <f)poveiv, 
firjS^ dv Ti, avp,^fj Svax^pis, SovXov TrdXiv, 
oAA' avTos alel /xt'/xve, rrjv aavrov <f)vaLV 
aa>t,o}v ^e^aiios, (Lore ;^|0ucr6s" iv irvpi. 

7r€7Tai,S€vp,€VU)v 8' earl Kal aoj^povcuv dvSpiov irpos 

" Cf. Mullach, Frag. Philos. Graec. iii. p. 146 ; Cicero, 
Tusculan Disputations, iii. 6 (12). 

112 



A LETTER TO APOLLOXIUS, 102 

in grief is not to be disapproved. " Pray that we 
be not ill," says Grantor" of the Academy, " but if 
we be ill, pray that sensation be left us, whether one 
of our members be cut off or torn out." For this in- 
sensibility to pain '' is attained by man only at a great 
price ; for in the former case, we may suppose, it is 
the body which has been brutalized into such in- 
sensibility, but in the latter case the soul. 

i. Reason therefore requires that men of under- 
standing should be neither indifferent in such 
calamities nor extravagantly affected ; for the one 
course is unfeehng and brutal, the other lax and 
effeminate. Sensible is he who keeps within appro- 
priate bounds and is able to bear judiciously both the 
agreeable and the grievous in his lot, and who has 
made up his mind beforehand to conform uncom- 
plainingly and obediently to the dispensation of 
things ; just as in a democracy there is an allotment 
of offices, and he who draws the lot holds office, while 
he who fails to do so must bear his fortune without 
taking offence. For those who cannot do this would 
be unable sensibly and soberly to abide good fortune 
either. 

Among the felicitous utterances the following 
piece of advice is to the point : 

Let no success be so unusual 

That it excite in you too great a pride. 

Nor abject be in "turn, if ul betide ; 

But ever be the same ; preserve unchanged 

Your nature, like to gold when tried by fire.' 

It is the mark of educated and disciphned men to 

* Such Stoicism was required by the stricter Stoic school, 
but the philosophers of the Academy would have none of it. 
. * From an unknown play of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 963. 

118 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

103 T€ TO.? SoKOuaas evTV^ias top avrov eit-ai, Kai Trpos 
Tct? arv)(^ias (jyvXd^ai yevvaicos to TrpeTTOv. Tfjs yap 
evXoyicrrias epyov iarlv iq (fivXa^aadai ro KaKov 
eTTL(f>ep6jxevov r^ ScopOioaaadai. yevofxevov r] <JV- 
arelXai npos ro ^paxvraTov ^ TrapaaKevd^eiv avro) 
TTjv VTTOfxovrjv dppeva /cat yevvaiav. /cat yap rrepL 
rdyadov tj (f)p6vrjais TrpaypLareverat, Terpaxa>S, t) 
KTCofjieinrj rdyadd rj (^vXarrovaa r^ av^ovaa rj XP^' 
pbivT] Se^iojs. ovToi rrjs <j>poviqaeois /cat rci>v dXXojv 
dperaiv cIctl Kavoves, ols Trpos dpL(j)OT€pa XPV^'''^^^' 
B " ovK ear IV " yap " oar is irdvr' dvrjp evSaifiovet 
Kal in] Ai'a 

ro rot, XP^O}^ oj3/c cctti fxri XP^^^ TTOielv. 
5. "Clarrep yap ev (f>vroLS rrork [xev TToXvKapTTiai 
yiyvovrai TTore S' dKapiriai, Kal ev l^coois irork fxev 
rroXvyoviai TTore Se /cat dyoviai, Kal iv daXdrrrj 
euSiat re Kal x^^P-a>v^S, ovrca /cat ev fSico TroAAat Kat 
TTOt/ctAat TTeptardaeis yiyvop-evai Trpog rds evavrtas 
TTepidyovai rovs dvdpwTTOVs rvxas- et? as Sia- 
^Xeijjas dv ris ovk dneiKorcos eLvoi, 

OVK inl irdaiv a' e(f>vreva^ dyadoZs, 
G *Aydfi,ep,vov, 'Arpevs- 

Set 8e ae ;i^atpetv /cat XvTretadaL' 
dvrjTos yap e^uj. Kav /jltj av 9eXr)s, 
rd dedjv ovroi ^ovX6p,ev ^ earat 

/cat TO VTTo ^evdvhpov prjdev 

^ ^ovXdfiev' Euripides mss. ; ^ovXafxivuv. 

• From the Stheneboea of Euripides, ibid. No. 661. 

^ Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Adespot. No. 368. 
114 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 103 

keep the same habit of mind toward seeming pro- 
sperity, and nobly to maintain a becoming attitude 
toward adversity. For it is the task of rational 
prudence, either to be on guard against evil as it 
approaches, or, if it have already happened, to 
rectify it or to minimize it or to provide oneself 
with a virile and noble patience to endure it. For 
wisdom deals also with the good, in a fourfold way — 
either acquiring a store of goods, or conserving them, 
or adding to them, or using them judiciously. These 
are the laws of wisdom and of the other virtues, and 
they must be followed for better fortune or for 
worse. For 

No man exists who's blest in everything," 
and truly 

What thou must do cannot be made " must not." ' 

5. For as there are in plants at one time seasons 
of fruitage and at another time seasons of unfruit- 
fulness, and in animals at one time fecundity and at 
another time barrenness, and on the sea both fair 
weather and storm, so also in life many diverse cir- 
cumstances occur which bring about a reversal of 
human fortunes. As one contemplates these re- 
versals he might say not inappropriately : 

Not for good and no ill came thy life from thy sire, 

Agamemnon, but joy 

Thou shalt find interwoven with grief; 

For a mortal thou art. Though against thy desire 

Yet the plans of the gods will so have it.* 

and the words of Menander ^ : 

* Euripides, Iphigenia at Avlis, 29 ; ef. Moralia, 33 e. 

* Cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. iii. p. 155, No. 531, and 
AUinson, Menander (in L.C.L.), p. 478. 

VOL. II B 115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(103) ct yap eyevov av, rp6(l>tix€, rchv Trdvroiv piovos, 
or* eriKTev rj fnjr-qp ct', e^' a) re^ StareAetv 
TTpaTTCov^ d jSouAet Kal 8i€vrvx(Jov aei, 
KoX TOVTO rcov decov tls co/jLoXoyrjcre aoi, 
opOcos dyavaKTets' eari yap ct'* iifievapievos, 
droTTov re TreTTOirjK . et 8 inl toXs avroZs vofxois 
i^" otaTTcp Tjixels earracrag tov depa 
D TOV Koivov, Iva aoL /cat rpayLKcorepov AaAcS, 
olareov d/xeivov ravra /cat Xoytareov. 
TO Be K€(j>dXai,ov tojv Xoyuiv, dvdpcoTTOS el, 
ov [xeTa^oXrjv ddnov irpos v^os /cat ttoXiv 
TaTTeLVOTTjra t,(x)OV ovhev XapL^dvei. 
/cat /LtctAa St/catcos" dadevicrTaTOV yap ov 
(Jivaei, fxeyiaTOLS oLKovopLGLTai Trpayfiaatv, 
oTav TTeaji 8e, TrAetaTa awTpi^et /caAa. 
av 8' ov9' VTTep^aXXovra, Tpo(/)t/x', dircoiXeGag \ 



E 



ayaOa, ra vvvl* r'' eCTrt //.erpta CTot /ca/ca. 



wctt' dvd fieaov ttov /cat to Aoittop' ov^ <f)ipe. 

oAA' OfJiCOS TOIOVTOJV OVTOiV TCOV TTpayfxdTOJV eVLOL 

hid T7]v d(f)poavvriv ovrois eiaiv d^eArepot /cat 
K€vavx€ts, coCTTe piiKpov eTTapOevTes tj 8td xP'^lP-dTOiv 
irepiovaiav d(f)dovov rj 8td p^eyedos dpx'fjs y) 8td 
Ttva? TTpoedpias TToAtTt/cd? •?) 8td Tupds /cat 8o^a? 
F CTraTTetAeti' rots "^ttool /cat i^v^pti^etv, ovk ivdvpov- 
fievoi, TO TTJs TVXfJS doTaTov Kal d^e^aLov, ov8 on 
paStcos Ta vijjrjXd yiyveTai TaTreivd /cat Ta ;\;^a/xaAd 
TrdAti' vipovTai Tats o^vppoTTOis pLeQiOTapeva ttjs 
Tvxy]S fxeTa^oXaXs. t^rjreZv ovv iv d^e^aiois ^e- 
§ai6v Tt XoyL^op^evcov cctti vepl twv TrpaypidTOiV 

OVK OpOiOS' 

^ re Schacfer: ye. 
* irpdrruv (the regular form) Kock : irpdcra-wv, 

116 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 103 

If you alone, young master, at your birth 
Had gained the right to do whate'er you would 
Throughout your life, and ever be in luck. 
And if some god agreed to this with you. 
Then you have right to feel aggrieved. He has 
Deceived and strangely treated you. But if 
Upon the selfsame terms as we, you drew 
The primal breath of universal life 
(To speak you somewhat in the tragic style). 
You must endure this better, and use sense. 
To sum up all I say, you are a man, 
Than which no thing that lives can swifter be 
Exalted high and straight brought low again. 
And rightly so ; for though of puny frame. 
He yet doth handle many vast affairs. 
And, falling, ruins great prosperity. 
But you, young master, have not forfeited 
Surpassing good, and these your present ills 
But moderate are ; so bear without excess 
What Fortune may hereafter bring to you. 

But, in spite of this condition of affairs, some persons, 
through their foolishness, are so silly and conceited, 
that, when only a little exalted, either because of 
abundance of money, or importance of office, or 
petty political preferments, or because of position 
and repute, they threaten and insult those in lower 
station, not bearing in mind the uncertainty and in- 
constancy of fortune, nor yet the fact that the lofty 
is easily brought low and the humble in turn is 
exalted, transposed by the s\\ift-moving changes of 
fortune. Therefore to try to find any constancy in 
what is inconstant is a trait of people who do not 
rightly reason about the circumstances of life. For 

' a added by Grotius. 

* rd vwi Bentley : rd vvv. 
' t' Hercher: 5'. 

• hv added by Bernardakis. Perhaps rh \wi}p6v (Nauck) 
or t6 puv Xvrovv (Grotius) would be better. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Tpoxov" yap " TTepLareixovTos dXXod' rjrepa 
dipls VTTepde ylyver^ dXXod' rjripa." 

6. Ys.pa.TLarov Srj npos aXviriav (jidppLaKov 6 Aoyoj 
Koi 7] hid Tovrov TrapaaKevq irpos Trduas rov ^iov 
Ta^ pL€Ta^oXds. XPV 7^9 ^^ p-ovov eavTov etSeVai 
dvrjTov ovra ttjv (f>vaLV, dXXd /cat on 6v7]tix> avy- 
KX-qpos eari ^ico /cat Trpdyp^aai paSicos p^ediarapbivoLS 
10 1 TTpos rovvavTLOV. dvdpcoTTOJV yap ovrojs dvrjrd p,kv 
/cat i(f>T]p.€pa^ TO. awp-ara, OvrjraL Se tvxo-I'^ Kal 
Ttddr] /cat Trdvd" dTrAcD? rd Kara rov ^iov, direp 

ovK eari (f)vy€Lv ^porov ovh vnaXv^ac 

TO TTapaTTov aAAa 

Taprdpov TTv9p.rjv Trie^ei a' d<f)avovs a(f)vpr]XdTois 
dvdyKais' 

CO? (jirjaL IltVSapos'. odev opdojs 6 ^aXrjpevs A-qfjii^- 
rpios eiTTOVTOs Eu/DtTrtSoy 

o 8' oX^os ov ^e)Saio? oAA' icfy-qp^epos 

Kal OTl 

piKp^ drra ra' a^aXXovra, /cat p.i rjfxepa 
rd p.€v KadeiXev vipodev rd S' 17/3' dvw 

B rd p-kv dXXa KaXios €^r] Xeyeiv avrov ^eXriov S' 
l^eti' ar/ et //,•)) p,iav ■qp.epav oAAct ariyp/qv etire 
Xpovov. 

^ Kronenberg would read Ka<f>-^fj.€pa . . . 5' ai njxai re, 
making iambic verses of dvyfra. . . . irddr). 
^ d»'d7^als] SeafMoU avdyKai Bergk. 

* IxiKp' drra ra Bemardakis : /uLiKpdTara (ojs fiiKpa rh Stobaeus, 
Flor. cv. 1). 

* Ixf '" ^»'] ^'' ^X^"* Wyttenbach, ^x*"' ^^ Hercher : tXxev 6v 
(or 6.v). 

118 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 103-104 

The wheel goes round, and of the rim now one 
And now another part is at the top." 

6. Reason is the best remedy for the cure of grief, 
reason and the preparedness through reason for all 
the changes of life. For one ought to realize, not 
merely that he himself is mortal by nature, but also 
that he is allotted to a Ufe that is moii^l and to con- 
ditions which readily reverse themselves. For men's 
bodies are indeed mortal, lasting but a day, and mortal 
is all that they experience and suffer, and, in a word, 
everything in life ; and all this 

May not be escaped nor avoided by mortals * 

at all, but 

The depths of unseen Tartarus hold you fast by hard- 
foiled necessities, 

as Pindar <* says. Whence Demetrius of Phalerum 
was quite right when, in reference to a saying of 
Euripides ^ : 

Wealth is inconstant, lasting but a day, 
and also : 

Small things may cause an overthrow ; one day 
Puts down the mighty and exalts the low,* 

he said that it was almost all admirably put, but 
it would have been better if he had said not " one 
day," but " one second of time." 

• Author unknown ; cf. Bergk, Poet. hyr. Gr. iii. p. 740. 

* Homer, //. xii. 326. 

• Pindar, Frag. 207 (ed. Christ). ' Phoenissae, 558. 

* See note a on next page. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(104) kvkXos yap avros KapTTtjxoLs re yfjs <f>x}r6ls 

yevec ^ por ojv re} rols piev av^erai ^Log, 
TCxyv he (f)dlvei, re KOLKdepL^erac ttoXiv. 

6 8e UlvSapos ev aXkois 

rt he ris; tl S' ov tis; oKids ovap 

dvdpCDTTOS 

ificftavrLKCos a(f)6hpa Kal (J3i\oTe)(ycos VTrep^oXfj 
)(pr]adpevos rov rwv dvOpconajv ^iov ehr^Xcjjae. ri 
yap GKids dadevecrrepov ; to he ravTTjs ovap ouS' 

C dv eK(f)pdaai tls erepos^ hvvrjdeLrj aa(f>a)s. tovtols 
S' eiTopievos Kal 6 Vipdvrcop 7Tapap.vdovp.evos enl 
TTJ Twv reKvuiV TeXevTTJ rov 'iTTTro/cAea <f)rjaL' 
" ravra yap Trdoa avTTj -q dp^aia <f>iXoao(^ia Xeyei 
re Kal TrapaKeXeverai. cov ei h'q ri d'AAo p.r) diro- 
hexopeda, ro ye TToXXaxT] etvai, epycohr] Kal hvoKoXov 
rov ^iov dyav dXrjdes. Kai, yap el pirj (JjvaeL 
rovrov ex^t rov rponov, vtto y' rjpojv elg rovr' 
d(JH.KraL hia^dopds . rj t' dhrjXos avrr] rvxf] irop- 
pojdev rjpuv Kal er dir dpx^js 'qKoXovd'qKev ovh' 
i<f)* ivl vyieZ, <f)vopevoLS re piiyvvrai ns ev Trdai 
KaKov pLOipa' rd yap rot arreppara evdvs dvrjrd 
ovra ravrrjs KOLVcjvel rijs alrlag, e^ rjg d(f)vta p,ev 
ifwx'^S, vocroL re Kal K-^hea Kal pLoZpa Ovrjrcov 
eKeZdev rjpXv epirei. 

D Tov hrj X^P''^ erpaTTop^eda hevpo; lv* elheiiqpev 
on Kaivov drvxelv ovhev dvdpcoTTCp dXXd Trdvres 

^ 6v7)tQiv re yevea most Mss. and Stobaeus, Flor. cv. 19. 
* ^repos] eT^pws Meziriacus. 

" Both this and the preceding quotation are from the Ino 
120 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 104 

Alike the cycle of earth's fruitful plants 

^\nd mortal men. For some life grows apace. 

While others perish and are gathered home.* 

And elsewhere Pindar ^ says : 

Somebody ? Nobody ? Which is which ? 
A dream of a shadow is man. 

Very vividly and skilfully did he use this extrava- 
gance of expression in making clear the Ufe of man- 
kind. For what is feebler than a shadow ? And a 
dream of it ! — that is something which defies any 
clear description. In similar strain Grantor," en- 
deavoiu-ing to comfort Hippocles upon the death of 
his children, says : " All ovu- ancient philosophy states 
this and urges it upon us ; and though there be 
therein other things which we do not accept, yet at 
any rate the statement that hfe is oftentimes toil- 
some and hard is only too true. For even if it is 
not so by nature, yet through our own selves it has 
reached tliis state of corruption. From a distant 
time, yes from the beginning, this uncertain fortune 
has attended us and to no good end, and even at our 
birth there is conjoined ^^ith us a portion of e\il in 
everj-thing. For the very seed of our life, since it is 
mortal, participates in this causation, and from this 
there steal upon us defectiveness of soul, diseases of 
body, loss of friends by death, and the common 
portion of mortals." 

For what reason have we turned our thoughts in 
this direction ? It is that we may know that mis- 
fortune is nothing novel for man, but that we all have 

of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, 
i Nos. 4:30 and 415, where additional lines are given. 
; * Pyth. viii. 135. 

* Cf. Mullach, Frag. Philos. Graec. iii. p. 147. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(104 ravTO treiTovdaiicv . " aaKoiro? yap rj TV)(^rj," cfy-qalp 
o Q€0(f)paaTog, " /cat 8et,vrj TrapeXeadai ra npo- 
7Te7TOV7]fieva /cat pLerappZipai rrjv hoKOvaav ev-qpLcpiav , 
ovheva Kaipov exovcra raKTOv." ravra Se /cat aAAa 
TOiavra /cat Kad' eavrov e/cacrroj Xoyiaaadai pahiov, 
/cat aXXiov oLKovaai TraXaicov /cat ao(f)(x)v dvhpiov 
cov TTpoJTOs fxev iaTLV 6 dilos "OfJLTjpos, eiTTcLv, 

ovSev OLKtSvoTepov yaia Tp€(f)€L dvOpwrroio. 
ov p.ev yap ttot4 (f)rjac KaKov TreLGeadai OTriacroi, 
0(l>p' dpeTrjv Trapexcuai deol /cat yovvar* opdoprj' 
oAA' ore Br] /cat Xvypd deol /xa/cape? reXeovai,^ 
E /cat rd (f)epei d€Kat,6fjL€vos tctXtjotl dvpiut 
Kai 

TOLOS yap VOOS COTLV ^TTLX^OVLCOV dvdpCOTTOJV, 

olov €77* -q/xap dyrjai TraTrjp dvSpcov re deojv re 
/cat iv dXXois 

TvSeiS-q fi€yd9ufi€, tlt] yeverjv ipeelvei^; 
olrj 7T€p ^vXXojv yeveij, toLt) 8e /cat dvhpibv. 
<f>vXXa rd /xeV t' dvcfios ap, St? X^^^> ctAAa Se 

d' vXr) 
TqXedocuaa (jivei, eapos S' eTnylyveTat u)prf' 
CO? dvhpcov yeverj rj p,ev (f)V€c^ rj S' diroXrjyet." 

r TavTTj S oTt KaXwg ixp'^o'o-TO rfj clkovl rod dvdpco- 
TTeiov piov SrjXov i^ <Lv iv aAAoi totto) <f>rjalv ovroj, 

^ rf\4ov<Ti] TeKiaucn Homer, a 133. 

* w 7/] ^'prj many Homeric siss. 

■ <p ei] the original reading was undoubtedly (pvtd', i.e. 



" Frag. 73 (ed. Wimmer). 
» Od. xviii. 130. « Od. xviii. 136. 



122 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 104 

had the same experience of it. For Theophrastus <* 
says : " Fortune is heedless, and she has a wonderful 
power to take away the fruits of tjur labours and to 
overturn our seeming tranquillity, and for doing this 
she has no fixed season." These matters, and others 
like them, it is easy for each man to reason out for him- 
self, and to learn them from wise men of old besides ; 
of whom the first is the divine Homer, who said * : 

Nothine more wretched than man doth the earth support on 

its Dosom, 
Never, he says to himself, shall he suffer from evil hereafter. 
Never, so long as the gods give him strength and his knees 

are still nimble ; 
Then when the blessed gods bring upon him grievous 

affliction. 
Still he endures his misfortune, reluctant but steadfast in 

spirit. 

And: 

Such is the mood of the men who here on the earth are 

abiding. 
E'en as the day which the father of men and of gods brings 
upon them." 

And in another place : 

Great-hearted son of Tydeus, why do you ask of my fathers ? 
As is the race of the leaves, such too is tliat of all mortals. 
Some of the leaves doth the wind scatter earthward, and 

others the forest 
Budding puts forth in profusion, and springtime is coming 

upon us. 
Thus is man's race : one enters on life, and another's life 

ceases."* 

That he has admirably made use of this image of 
human life is clear from what he says in another place, 
in these words : 

* n. vi. 145. 
VOL. II K 2 123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

SeiXcov, oi (f)vXXoiaiv ioiKores, a'AAore fxev re 
^a(f)Xey€€s reXedovaiv dpovp7]s Kaprrov eSovres, 
oAAoTe 8e (l)6ivv6ovaLV aKiqpioL, ovSe ris aA/CT^.* 

105 ^ificovlSrjs S' o Tcov fxeXcov TTOcrjT'qs, HavaavCov 
Tov ^acrcXecos ratv AaKeSaLjxovLcov fMeyaXav^ovfid- 
vov avvexoJs ^ttl rats avrov Trpd^eai /cat KeXevovros 
dTTayyelXai tl avrcp ao<f>6v fxerd ;^AeuaCT/xou, avvels 
avTou rrjv V7Teprj(f)avLav crvve^ovXeve p-epLvijadat ort 

^LXiTTTTos S' o Tcuv Ma/ccSovcDV ^aatXevs rpitjjv 
avTip TTpoaayyeXdevTCDV evrvxT^P'O.TCov v(f)' eva 
Kaipov, vpcoTov pev otl redpiTTTTCp v€VLKr]K€V 'OXvp,- 
TTia, Sevrepov S on Ilappieviojv 6 arparrjyos p-d-XJ] 
B AapSavels evLKrjcre, rpirov S' on dppev avro) 
TTa^hiov eKVTjaev^ 0Xvp.7nds, dvareivas els tov ov- 
pavov rds p^etpas" " & Salpov," etTre, " p.erpc6v n 
TOVTOLs dvrides eXarrcopa," elScas on roZs p,eydXoLs 
evTvx'Qp-o.cri' (f)dovelv 7Te(f>VKev 7) tux''?* 

Qrjpapievrjs 8' o yevopevos ^Ad-^vrjcrt tcov rpid- 
Kovra Tvpdvvojv, avpLTreaovcrr^s rrjs oi/cta? iv fj 
pLcrd TrXeiovcDV eheLTTvei, piovos acodels /cat rrpos 
TrdvTCov evSaipovi^opLevos , dvac/xMvrjaas pLeydXrj rrj 
<f)Ct)VT], " (li Tuxf]," elnev, " els riva p.e Kaipov dpa 
^uXdrreis ; " pier ov ttoXvv Se XP^^°^ /cara- 
arpe^Xwdels vtto tcov auvTvpdwcov eTeXevTrjaev. 

^ TTToXe/xl^eii] TTToXf/x/fw (TTToXe/i/fw) of Homer, # 463, is 
adapled to fit the construction. 

^ oiiS^ TLs dX/cT?] dXXd rdxio^Ta kt\. Homer. 

* iiajyiaev] riroKev 17 in one MS., perhaps rightly. 

" II. xxi. 463. * Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 21. 

•^ Cf. Moralia 111 c and Plutarch's Life of Alexander, 
chap. iii. (p. 666 a). 
124 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 104-105 

To fight for the sake of mortals 
Wretched, who like to the leaves, at the one time all ardent 
Come to their fitting perfection, and eat of the fruit of their 

acres ; 
Then again helpless they i)erish, nor is there aught that can 

help them." 

Pausanias, king of the Lacedaemonians, who per- 
sistently boasted of his own exploits, mockingly 
urged the lyric poet Simonides to rehearse for him 
some ^vise saying, whereupon the poet, being fully 
cognizant of his conceit, advised him to remember 
that he was only human.* 

Phihp, the king of the Macedonians, happened to 
have three pieces of good news reported to liim all 
at once : the first, that he was \-ictor at the Olympic 
games in the race of the four-horse chariots ; the 
second, that Parmenio, his general, had vanquished 
the Dardanians in battle, and the tliird, that 
Olympias had borne him a male child ; whereupon, 
stretching out his hands toward the heavens, he 
said : " O God, offset all this by some moderate mis- 
fortune ! " For he well knew that in cases of great 
prosperity fortune is wont to be jealous.* 

While Theramenes, who afterwards became one 
of the Thirty Tyrants at Athens, was dining >\'ith 
several others, the house, in wliich they were, col- 
lapsed, and he was the only one to escape death ; but 
as he was being congratulated by everybody, he 
raised his voice and exclaimed in a loud tone, " O 
Fortune, for what occasion are you reserving me ? " 
And not long afterward he came to his end by 
torture at the hands of his fellow tyrants.** 

•* He was condemned to drink hemlock, according to the 
usual tradition ; c/. Xenophon, Hellenicaj ii. 3. 54-56, and 
Aelian, Varia Hutoria, ix. 21. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(105) 7. 'YTT€p(f)va)s Se (^atVerat irepl ttjv TrapapLvOtav 
C o TTOLrjTTjs evSoKLfJieiv, TTOL'qaas Tov 'A;)^tAX€a Xeyovra 
irpos TOV UplapLov rJKovra cttl Xvrpa rod "EiKTopos 
ravTC' 

oAA aye o-q /car ap eL,ev ein Upovov, oAyea o 

€jJ,7T7]5 

iv Ov/JLcp KaTaKeZadaL idaofxcv dxvviJievoL TTcp' 
ov yap Tis rrpfj^Ls TreAerat Kpvepolo yooio. 
ciJS" yap i7T€KXd)(javTO deol SetAotCTt ^poToZai, 
^cveLV d)(yvp,lvoLS' avrol Se t d/crjSees' eiat. 
SoLol yap T€ TTidot, /cttTa/cetarat iv Ato? ovoet 
Scopcov Ota StScocrt, KaKcov, erepos Se iacov. 
o) jxev K dpipieL^as Bcoj) Zeus" repTTiKepavvos, 
D aAAore /neV re /ca/coi o ye Kvperai oAAore 8' 

CCT^Aoi' 

J) Se /ce TcDv Xvypwv Scorj, Xco^tjtov edr)K€ 
Kai i KaKT) ^ov^pcoGTis eTTL x^ova Slav iXavvet, 
(f>otTa 8' ovT€ Oeolat reripievos ovre ^poTolaiv. 

6 8e piGrd Tovrov Kal rfj So^rj /cat rep xpovo), Kairoi 
rajv Movawv dvayopevcov eavrov p,adrjTr]v 'HcrioSoj, 
/cat OUTOS iv TTiQcp Kadelp^as rd /ca/cct, rriv 11 av- 
hwpav dvoi^aaav dTTO(f)atvei a/ceSdcrat to ttXtjOos c'Ttl 
TTaaav yrjv /cat OdXaTTOv, Xiyoiv caSe* 

dAAd yvvY] x^eipeacri ttlOov p^iya TTcbpi d(f>€Xovaa 
E ioKehaa' dvOpcoTTOLai 8e pL-qcraTO K-qhea Xvypa. 

» Homer, II. xxiv. 592 ; cf. also Moralia, 20 f and 22 b. 

■• Such is the meaning of the passage as here quoted from 
Homer ; but in two other places {De audiendis poftis, 24 b, 
and De exilio, 600 d) Plutarch follows Plato (Republic, p. 
379 d), who wrote K-qpuiv IfjLTrXeioi, 6 fxev iadXCiv avrdp 6 deiXuf, 
thus making one urn of evil and one of good. Metrical 
considerations make it more than probable that the line 

126 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 105 

7. The Poet" is regarded as extraordinarily success- 
ful in besto^Wng consolation, where he represents 
Achilles as speaking to Priam, who has come to 
ransom Hector, as follows : 

Come then and rest on a seat ; let us suffer our sorrows to 

slumber 
Quietly now in our bosoms, in spite of our woeful afflictions ; 
Nothing is ever accomplished by yielding to chill lamenta- 
tion. 
Thus, then, the gods have spun the fate of unhappy mortals. 
Ever to live in distress, but themselves are free from all 

trouble. 
Fixed on Zeus' floor two massive urns stand for ever. 
Filled with gifts of all ills that he gives, and another * of 

blessings ; 
He on whom Zeus, god of thunder, bestows their contents 

commingled 
Sometimes meets with the good, and again he meets only 

with evil. 
Him upon whom he bestows what is baneful he makes wholly 

wretched ; 
Ravenous hunger drives him o'er the earth's goodly bosom. 
Hither and thither he goes, unhonoured of gods or of mortals. 

Hesiod, who, although he proclaimed himself the 
disciple of the Muses, is nevertheless second to 
Homer in reputation as well as in time, also confines 
the evils in a great urn and represents Pandora as 
opening it and scattering the host of them over the 
whole land and sea. His words " are as follows : 

Then with her hands did the woman, uplifting the urn's 

massive cover. 
Let them go as they would ; and on men she brought woeful 

afflictions. 

found in Plato was not taken from Homer, but it is only fair 
to say that these considerations could have had no weight 
with Plutarch. 

• Works and Days, 94 ; cf. also Moralia, 115 a and 127 d. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fiovvrj S' avTodi 'EAtti? iv dpprJKTOtaL hofxoKnv 
evSov €fM€iv€ tridov vtto ;(etAecnv, oi}8e dvpat^e 
e^eTTTrj' vpoadev yap eTreAAa^Se^ TrcD/xa ttlQoio. 
aXXa Se p.vpia Xvypa Kar' dvdpcoTTOVs dXdXrjTai. 
irXeirj pL€v yap yala /ca/ccDv, irXeir] he ddXaacra. 
vovaoi, S' dvdpcoTTOLcrtv e<^' rjp-eprj at S' cttI vvktI 
avTOfiaroi (f)OLTa>aLy /ca/ca dvrjrolcn (j>epovaai 
(Tiyfj, eTTet cfxDvrjv i^eiXero ixrjTUra Zeyj. 
^ 8. *A7Tr]pTrjp,evcos Be tovtols 6 KcopuKos eirl rdv 

BvcnradovvTcov eirl raZs roiavrais avfX(^opaXs ravrl 

Xeyei • 

el TO. SaKpv' rjpXv tcSv KaKcov '^v <f)dppLaKov, 
dei^ 6^ 6 KXavaas rod TTOveZv enavero, 
TjXXarTOjjieaO' dv BdKpva, Bovres ;)(puCTtov. 
vvv 8' ov TTpocfexei, rd Trpdypiar ouS' dTTO^XeTrei 
els ravra, BecnroT* , dXXd ttjv avrrjv oBov, 
idv re KXdrjs dv re fx-q, TTopeverai. 
Ti ovv TrXeov TToiovfiev' ; ovBev rj XvTrrj S' l^et 
106 wairep rd SeVSpa' ravra* KapTTOV rd BaKpva.^ 

6 Be 7Tapa(jLvdovfj,€vos ttjv ^avdrjv BvoTradovaav 

AlKTVS (f)r]GL- 

BoK€Ls Tov "AiBrjv adjv Tt (f)povrii[,eLV yocov 
Kai TratS' dvijcreiv tov aov, el deXois areveiv ; 
TTavaai' ^Xerrovaa S' els rd tcov TreXas KaKa 
pdojv yevoC dv, el Xoyit^eadai deXois 
oaoL re BeafjLols eKfxeix6xdr}VTai^ ^porcbv, 

^ ^TT^yOi^aXe most mss. of Hesiod. 
^ del Stobaeus, Flor. cviii. 1 : alei, 

' ri Si] woieTs TrXiov . , . rb bivSpov ... 7-6 SaKpvov StobaeuS 
cviii. 1 and cxxii. 19. 

* ravra F.C.B. : tovto. 

* iKixefi6xOr]i'Tai] i/x/xefxax^evvTai Beiitley. 

128 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 105-106 

Hope alone where it was, with its place of abode yet un- 
damaged, 

Under the rim of the urn still tarried; nor into the open 

Winged its way forth ; for before it escaped she had put on 
the cover. 

More are the woes unnumbered among men now freely 
ranging. 

Full is the land now of evils, and fuU of them too is the 
ocean : 

Illnesses come upon men in the daytime, and others at night- 
time ; 

Hither and thither they go, of themselves brmging evils to 
mortals ; 

SUent they go, since the wisdom of Zeus has deprived them 
of voices. 

8. Closely allied with this are the follo\ving words 
of the comic poet *» spoken with reference to those 
whose grief over such calamities is excessive : 

If only tears were remedy for ills, 

And lie who weeps obtained surcease of woe, 

Then we should purchase tears by giving gold. 

But as it is, events that come to pass, 

My master, do not mind nor heed these things. 

But, whether you shed tears or not, pursue 

The even tenor of their way. What then 

Do we accomplish by our weeping ? Naught. 

But as the trees have" fruit, grief has these tears. 

And Dictys, who is trying to console Danae in her 
excessive grief, says : 

Think vou that Hades minds your moans at all. 
And wi'll send back your child if you will groan ? 
Desist. By viewing close your neighbour's ills 
You might" be more composed, — if you reflect 
How many mortals have to toU in bonds, 

• Philemon, in the Sardius ; cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. 
ii. p. 497, Philemon, No. 73. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(106) ocroL TC yrjpdaKovcnv 6p<f)avol tckvcov, 

rovs T e/c jxeyiarov^ oX^ias rvpavvlSos 
B TO fjLTjSev ovras. Tavrd ae OKOTTeZv ;^pec6»'. 

KcAeuei ydp avTrjv ivdvpieladai ra tcov Xaa /cat /xei^cu 
ovarv^ovvTOiV, ojs iao/xevrjv eXa<f)poT€pav. 

9. ^vravda ydp dv ris iXKvaeiG koI ttjv tov 
ZiWKparovs (jjojv^v, r-qv olopLevqv, el cruveiaeviyKai- 
jjLCV els TO KOLVov rds drvxlct?, oiore SieXeadai, to 
laov eKaoTOVy darp-evios dv tovs nXeiovs Tds avTcov 
Xa^ovTas dTTcXdelv. 

ExpijcraTo 8e ttj TOiavrrj dycoyfj /cat *AvTLp,axos 
o 7Ton]Trjs. aTTodavovarjs ydp ttjs yvvacKog avT<p 
AfSiys", TTpos Tjv (f)i,XoaT6pycos e*X^* Trapap^vdiov ttjs 
XvTTTjs avTw eTToirjae ttjv iXeyetav rqv KaXovp.€vrjv 
C AvSrjv, €^apLdp,r](jdp,evos Tds rjpcoLKds avp^opds, 
Tois aXXoTpioLs KaKoZs eXdTTO) ttjv eavTov ttoicjv 
XvTTrjv. cScrre KaTa^aves elvai otl 6 napap^vdov- 
fxevos TOV XeXvTTTjpievov /cat heiKvvojv kolvov /cat 
TToXXwv TO crupL^e^-qKOs koX tcov /cat eTepois crvp,- 
^e^-qKOTCov eXaTTOv' ttjv So^av tov XeXvTrrjpevov 
IxedtcrTTjai /cat Toi,avT7]v Tivd TTOiet ttlcttiv auroj, oti 
eXaTTOv 7} TjXiKov a>€TO TO avpL^e^rjKos eoTiv. 

10. '0 S' AlaxvXos KaXdJs eoiKev eTTnrX'qTTeLV 
Tois vopiit,ovaL TOV ddvaTOV elvai KaKov, Xeycov tSSe* 

CO? ov St/cato)? ddvaTOV ex^ovaiv ^poToi, 
oairep pieyiaTov pvp,a tcov ttoXXcov KaKcbv. 

TOVTOV yap airepupi'^aaTo /cat 6 eiTTcov 

^ IxiyiffTov Elmsley: ixiyiar-qs. 
' (XaTTov Reiske and one ms. : iXdrrova. 

" From the Dictys of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Euripides, No. 332. 

130 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 106 

How many reft of children face old age. 
And others still who from a prosperous reign 
Sink down to nothing. This you ought to heed." 

For he bids her to think of the lot of those who are 
equally unfortunate or even more unfortunate than 
herself , \^ith the idea that her grief \^ill be Ughtened. 

9. In this connexion might be adduced the utter- 
ance of Socrates ^ which suggests that if we were all 
to bring our misfortunes into a common store, so that 
each person should receive an equal share in the dis- 
tribution, the majority would be glad to take up 
their own and depart. 

The poet Antimachus, also, employed a similar 
method. For after the death of his wife, Lyde, whom 
he loved very dearly, he composed, as a consolation 
for his grief, the elegy called Lyde, in which he 
enumerated the misfortunes of the heroes, and thus 
made his own grief less by means of others' ills. So 
it is clear that he who tries to console a person in 
grief, and demonstrates that the calamity is one 
which is common to many, and less than the calamities 
which have befallen others, changes the opinion of the 
one in grief and gives him a similar con\iction — 
that his calamity is really less than he supposed it 
to be. 

10 Aeschylus" seems admirably to rebuke those 
who think that death is an evil. He says : 

Men are not right in hating Death, which is 
The greatest succour from our many ills. 

In imitation of Aeschylus some one else has said : 

* Not original with Socrates, cf. Herodotus, vii. 153; 
attributed to Solon bj' Valerius Maximus, vii, 2, ext. 2. 

• From an unknown play ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Aeschylus, No. 353. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

D c5 ddvare, Tratav larpos jU,dAoi?. 

(106) " XifXTju" yap ovTcos " 'AtSa? dvidv.^" 

fieya yap ecrri to fxerd TTeLcrjxaTOs redapprjKOTOs 
elirelv 

TLs o eari, SouAoj tov Oaveiv d(f)povris <jov; 

/cat 

"Aihrjv 8' ex<J^v ^orjdov ov rpep^oj OKids. 

Tt yap TO -xaXeTTov iari /cat to Svaavicbv /cat iv tco 
Tedvdvai; to. yap tov OavaTOV /XTjTroTe /cat Xtav 
■f]pxv ovTa cwvrjdi) /cat avfjL(f)vrj TrdXiv ovk oiS' otto;? 
SvaaXyrj 8o/cet eit'at. ti yap OavpiaaTOV et to T/LtTy- 
Tov TeTp.T]Tai, el to ttjktov TeTrjKTai,, et to KavoTOv 

E K€KavTai, el to (f)6apT6v e^dapTai; ttotc yap iv 
■qpXv avTolg ovk eoTLV 6 ddvaTos; Kai, fj (f)r]cnv 
'Hpa/cAeiTOS", " rauTO* y' eVt 1,cl)v /cat TedvqKos 
/cat TO eyprjyopos /cat to KaOevhov /cat t'eov /cat y?^- 
paLov TdSe yap fxeTaTrecrovTa eKelvd eaTi,, KaKelva 
irdXtv p,€Ta7T€a6vTa TavTa." (Ls yap e'/c tov ainov 
TrrjXov SvvaTai tis TrXdTTCOv ^a)a avyx^lv /cat ttoXiv 
TrXdTTeLv Kai avyx^lv /cat Tovd^ ev Trap* iv volcIv 
dSiaXeLTTTCos, ovtoj Kai rj cftvcns e/c tt^s avTrjs vXrjg 

E TraAat fiev tovs irpoyovovs 'qp.wv dvea^ev, eiVa avv- 
ep^et? auTot?^ eyevvrjcre tovs TraTepas, etd^ yjp^ds, 

^ dviSiv Meziriaciis : Af' alav. * to.vtiji Bernays. 

* avvexeh avrois] crvyx^acr^ airois Sauppe. 

" Somewhat similar to a line from the PliUoctetes of 
Aeschylus ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Grace. Frag., Aeschylus, No. 
255. 

* Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Oraec. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 369. 
132 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 106 

O Death, healing physician, come." 
For it is indeed true that 

A harbour from all distress is Hades.* 

For it is a magnificent thing to be able to say with 
undaunted conviction : 

What man who recks not death can be a slave ? • 
and 

With Hades* help shadows I do not fear.* 

For what is there cruel or so very distressing in being 
dead ? It may be that the phenomenon of death, 
from being too familiar and natural to us, seems some- 
how, under changed circumstances, to be painful, 
though I know not why. For what wonder if the 
separable be separated, if the soluble be dissolved, if 
the combustible be consumed, and the corruptible be 
corrupted ? For at what time is death not existent 
in our very selves ? As Heracleitus * says : " Living 
and dead are potentially the same thing, and so too 
waking and sleeping, and young and old ; for the 
latter revert to the former, and the former in turn 
to the latter." For as one is able from the same 
clay to model figures of hving things and to obhterate 
them, and again to model and obliterate, and alter- 
nately to repeat these operations without ceasing, 
so Nature, using the same material, a long time ago 
raised up ova forefathers, and then in close succession 
to them created our fathers, and then ourselves, and 

' From an unknown play of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 95S, and Plutarch, Moralia, 34 b. 

■* Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 370. 

* Uf. Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 95, No. 88. 

133, 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

€LT dXXovs €7t' aAAots" dvaKVKX-qGeL. /cat o rrjs 
yepeaectjs TTOTafjuo? ovtcos ivSeXexios pecov outtotc 
arrjoerai, Kai ttoXlv 6 i^ evavrias avro) 6 ttjs 
(f)dopdg eir' 'A;^epcuv etre Kojkvtos KaXovfxevos 
V7TO rcijv TTOfqrdJv. rj irpcoTrj ovv atria rj Sel^aaa 
r]fxlv TO Tov TjXiov <f)cos, Tj avTY] /cat Tov t,o<f)ep6v 
"AtSrjv ayei. Kiat /XT^TTore touS' eiKcbv ■^ 6 Trepl 
r]iJ.dg di^p, ev Trap* ev rjixepav /cat vvKra TTOLdJv, 
errayajyovs^ t,a)rjs re /cat davdrov /cat vttvov /cat 
eyprjyopcrecos; Sto /cat pLOipihiov XP^'o? efrat Aeye- 
rat TO tirjv, to? dTTo8odrja6p,€vov o ehaveiaavTO 
107 rjfxdjv OL TTpOTTaTopes. o Srj /cat eu/coAcu? /cara- 
^Xrjreov /cat dCTrernKTa)?, orar o Sai^etcras' aTTaLTTJ- 
evyvojpLoveararoi yap dv ovrco (f>av€Lrjp,€v. 

11. Ot)u.at 8e /cat n^i^ (f)vcnv 6pd>aav to t' draK- 
Tov /cat ^pax^xpoviov tov ^lov dSrjXov Tro/'^aat 
TT^v Tou davaTov Trpodeafxlav. tovto yap rjv 
afieivov et yap irpo-pSetpLev, kov Trpoe^eTiJKOvTO 
TLves rats' AuTrat? /cat Trplv aTToOavelv CTedvy^Keaav. 
opa Se /cat roy )Stoy to dSui^pop' /cat rd TroAAat? 
(f)povTLaLV eTT'qvTXrjp.ivov, d? et ^ovXotfxeda /car- 
apid/jLeladai, Xiav dv avTOv KaTayvoLrjfiev, inaXr)- 
devaaifiev 8e /cat tt^v Tra/a' iviois KpoTOvaav So^av 
d)s dpa KpeiTTOv iaTi to Tedvdvai tov ^rjv. 6 
yovv HijjicoviSrjg, 

B " dvdpcvTTOJV," (f>rjCTLV, " oXiyov fxev Kapros, aTrpa- 
KTOL he fieXrjSoves, 
aidjvt, Se TTavpcp ttovos djjL(f)l ttovo). 

^ iirayoiyovs Emperius : iwaywy^^- 

" Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraec. iii., Simonides, No. .S9. 
134 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 106-107 

later will create others and still others in a never- 
ending cycle ; and the stream of generation, thus 
flowing onward perpetually, will never stop, and so 
likewise its counterpart, flo\\ing in the opposite 
direction — which is the stream of destruction, whether 
it be designated by the poets as Acheron or as 
Cocytus. The same agency which at the first 
showed us the light of the sun brings also the darkness 
of Hades. May not the air surrounding us serve to 
symbohze this, causing as it does day and night 
alternately, which bring us life and death, and sleep 
and waking ? Wherefore it is said that life is a debt 
to destiny, the idea being that the loan which our 
forefathers contracted is to be repaid by us. This 
debt we ought to discharge cheerfully and without 
bemoaning whenever the lender asks for payment ; 
for in this way we should show ourselves to be most 
honourable men. 

11. I imagine also that it was because Nature saw 
the indefiniteness and the bre\ity of Hfe that she 
caused the time allowed us before death to be kept 
from us. And it is better so ; for if we knew this 
beforehand, some persons would be utterly wasted 
by griefs before their time, and would be dead long 
before they died. Observe too the painfulness of life, 
and the exhaustion caused by many cares ; if we 
should wish to enumerate all these, we should too 
readily condemn Ufe, and we should confirm the 
opinion which now prevails in the minds of some that 
it is better to be dead than to live. Simonides " at 
any rate says : 

Petty indeed is men's strength ; 

All their strivings are vain ; 

ToU upon toil in a life of no length. 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(107) o 8' dc^VKTOs ofxoJs iTTiKpefxarai ddvaros' 
KCLVov yap taov Xd^ov [xepos ot r dyadoL 
oaris T€ KaKog." 
Wivhapos Se- 
ev Trap iadXov gvvSvo Tn^/xara Satovrai^ ^porotg 
dddvaroL. rd fxev cov ov Bvvavrau vt^ttioi /cdcr/xo) 

(f)€p€lV. 

TiO(f)OKXrjs Se* 

crv S' dvBpa dvqrov el Kare^dno arevcis, 
elScbs TO fxeXXov ovSev el KepSos <f)€pei; 

EuptTTiST^? Se- 
ra dviqrd TTpdypiaT oladd y'* rjv e^et (f)vcnv; 
C SoAccD^ fjL€v ov- TToOev ydp; dXX aKove jxov. 
PpoTols ttTTttCTi Kardavelv d^eiAerat, 
KovK ecTTiv avTcijv* oans e^eTriararai 
rrjv avpiov p,4.XXovaav el ^idxreraL. 
TO Tr]9 TVXf]S ydp d<j>aves ot Trpo^r^aeTai. 
TOiovrov 817 Tov ^Lov Tcbv dvdpcoTTCov bvros olov 
ovroL (f)aai, ircos ovk euSat/tov/^etv jxaXXov rrpoariKei 
rovs diToXvOevras rrjs eV avTa> Xarpeias rf Kar- 
oiKripeuv re Kol dprjvelv, orrep ot ttoXXoI S/acDat St 
dfMadlav; 
D 12. *0 Se ll(x}Kpdrr]g vapaTrX-qatov eXeyev elvai 
TOV ddvaTOv rjTOL rip fiadvrdrcp vttvco 7} dTToBrjiJiia 
jxaKpa /cat TToXvxpovicp i^ rpcrov <j)dopa rivi /cat 
d(f)aviap<x) TOV re acopbaros /cat rrjs iftvxrjs, /car' 
ovSev Se TOVTCOV /ca/cdv etrat. /cat Kad eKaaTov 
eTTeiTopeveTO , /cat TTpcoTOV to) TTpcoTco. el ydp St) 

^ Salovrai. Pindar mss. : daiwvTai. 
* oTadd 7' Cod. Pal. : olSas in all other jiss. 

136 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 107 

Death hovers over them all. 

Death which is foreordained. 

Equal the share by the brave is attained 

In death with the base. 

And Pindar <» says : 

A pair of miseries with each good 

The deathless gods mete out to mortal man. 

The foolish cannot bear them as they should. 

And Sophocles ^ says : 

Mourn you a mortal if he's passed away. 
Not knowing if the future brings him gain ? 

And Euripides " says : 

Know you the nature of this mortal world ? 

I wot not. For whence could you ? But hear me. 

By all mankind is owed a debt to death. 

And not a single man can be assured 

If he shall live throughout the coming day. 

For Fortune's movements are inscrutable. 

Since, then, the life of men is such as these poets say 
it is, surely it is more fitting to felicitate those who 
have been released from their servitude in it than to 
pity them and bewail them, as the majority do 
through ignorance. 

12. Socrates'* said that death resembles either a 
very deep sleep or a long and distant journey, or, 
thirdly, a sort of destruction and extinction of both 
the body and the soul, but that by no one of these 
possibihties is it an e\il. Each of these conceptions 
he piu-sued further, and the first one first. For if 

• Pyth. iii. 82 ; c/. Homer, II. xxiv. 527, quoted supra, 
105 c. 

* From an unknown play ; cf. Nauck, T.G.F., Sophocles, 
No. 761. " Alcestis, 780. " Plato, Apology, p. 40 c. 

' doKw] olfxai Euripides mss. 
* iffTiv ai>TcDi'] IffTi dvrjrQv Euripides mss. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(107) VTTVos TLS icrrtv 6 Odvaros Kal Trepl rovs KaOev- 
hovras fJirjBev ioTi KaKov, SrjXov (Lg ovSe Trepl rovs 
TeTeXevTTjKOTag ei-q av ri KaKov. dXXa yLrjV y on 
rjSicrros icrriv 6 ^advraTos Tt Set Kai Xeyeiv; avro 
yap TO 7Tpdyp,a ^avepov iart TrdoLV dvdpwTTOis, 
jxaprvpel 8e /cat "Op.rjpos €tt* avrov Xdyoiv 

vrjypeTOs T^StaTos", davarcp ayyicrra eocKOJS. 
E dXXaxov 8e /cat ravra Ae'yef 

evd^ "Yttvo) ^vfx^XrjTO, Kacnyv^Tco QavdroLO 
Kai' 

"TfTrroj /cat Qavdrcp SiSvpLaoaiv, 

oifjei, TTjv ojxoiorriTa avToJv SrjXcov rd yap OLOVfia 
TTjV ofjLOLOTrjra p.dXiara 7Ta/3e/i.(/>atVet. ttoXlv re 
TTOV (brtai rov Odvarov etvai " vaA/ceoi' vttvov,' ttjv 
avataUrjaLav rjixcov aivLrrofxevos. ovk a/xovacos o 
eBo^ev aTTOi^i^vaadai, ovS' o etTTcuv rov vttvov ra 
fiLKpd rov davdrov pLvar-qpia" • 7rpo[Xvr]aLs yap 
ovrcos icrrl tov davdrov 6 vttvos. ttovv he ao(^d)S 
/cat o KVVLKOS A.ioy€V7]g KarevexOels els vttvov Kai 
F pbeXXoiv cKXeiTTeiv rov ^iov, Sieyeipavros avrov rov 
larpov Kal TTvOofxevov {xtj rt TTepl avrov etrj ^(aXeTTov, 
" ovSev," e<j)'q' " 6 yap aSeA^o? rov dheXcpov 
irpoXajx^dvei,.^ " 
13. Et ye fiTjv dTToBripiia TrpoaeoiKev 6 davaros, 

' irpoKa/x^dvei Doehner : wpoXafi^di'ei 6 virvos rbv Odvarov. 

« Od. xiii. 80. " II. xiv. 231. 

' II. xvi. 672, 682. '' II. xi. 241. 

« Mnesimachus. Cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. ii. p. 422, 

Mnesimachus, No. 11. Initiation into the lesser mysteries 

188 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 107 

death is a sleep, and there is nothing evil in the state 
of those who sleep, it is e\ident that there is hke\vise 
nothing evil in the state of those who are dead. 
Nay, what need is there even to state that the 
deepest sleep is indeed the sweetest ? For the fact 
is of itself patent to all men, and Homer* bears 
witness by saying regarding it : 

Slumber the deepest and sweetest, and nearest to death 
in its semblance. 

In another place * also he says : 

Here she chanced to encounter the brother of Death, 
which is Slumber, 

and 

Slumber and Death, the twin brothers,* 

thereby indicating their similarity in appearance, 
for t^vins show most similarity. And again some- 
where'* he says that death is a "brazen sleep," 
in allusion to our insensibility in it. And not 
inelegantly did the man * seem to put the case who 
called " sleep the Lesser Mysteries of death"; for 
sleep is really a preparatory rite for death. Very 
wise was the remark of the cynic Diogenes, who, 
when he had sunk into slumber and was about to 
depart this life, was roused by his physician, who 
inquired if anything distressed him. " Nothing," he 
said, " for the one brother merely forestalls the 
other."/ 

13. If death indeed resembles a journey, even so 

(celebrated at Agrae, near Athens, in March) was required 
before one could be admitted to the great Eleusinian festival 
in September. 

f Cf. a similar remark attributed to Gorgifis of Leontini 
in Aeiian, Varia Historia, ii. 35. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ovh^ ovTcos icrrl KaKov jLtT^Trore Se /cat rovvavTiov 
dyaOov. to yap dhovXojTOV rfj^ cra/a/ct Kal toIs rav- 
TTjs irddeaL hidyeiv, v(f>' (Lv /caTaaTTCtj/xevo? o vovs 
TTJs dvrjrrjs dvaTTijXTrXarai (fiXvapias, evSaifiov ri 
108 /cat jxaKapLOV. " fxvptas ju-ev yap rjiMV," (f)Tqaiv o 
HXaTcov, " daxoXCas trapex^t to acofxa 8«x rrjv 
dvayKaiav rpo^'Tqv en 8' iav rives voaoi Trpoa- 
TTeucoaiv, eixTTohit^ovaiv rjpXv rrjv rod ovros diqpav, 
epojTCov Se /cat eTTidvpucbv Kal cfjo^cvv /cat elScoXwv 
TTavToSaTTcJJv /cat (j)Xvapias inTTLTTXr^crtv rjjJLds, ojare 
TO Xeyofievov (Ls dXr^ddis Tcp ovtl vtt' avTov ovoe 
(f>povi]aaL rjfjuv iyyiyveTai ovSeTTor ouSev. /cat 
yap TToXejJLOVS /cat OTaaeis /cat p-dxas ovSev dXXo 
TTapexet t] to acopia Kal at* tovtov eindvpiiai' 8td 
ydp TTjv Tcjv xP'^lH-'^Tcov KTrJGLV TTavres oi iroXepioi 

B yiyvovrai' to, 8e ;^p7^/xaTa dvayKat,6pi€da KTaadai 
hid TO adjpia, SovXevovres Tjj tovtov depaTTeia- 
Kal CK tovtov daxoXiav ayo/xev (j)iXoao^ias Trepi 
Sid TavTa TrdvTa. to 8' eaxaTov navTCov, oti eav 
Tis rjpuv Kal axoXrj yivrjTai an avTOV /cat TpaTTOj- 
ixeda TTpds TO aKoirelv rt, iv TaZs l,r]TT)<j€ai Travra- 
Xov TrapaTTLTTTOV dopv^ov TTapex^i Kal Tapaxr]v /cat 
eKTrXrjTTei, coare pbrj Svvaadai v-n avTov KaOopdv 
ToXrjOe's. dXXd tco ovti rjpXv Se'Set/crai oti el p^eX- 
Xopiev TTOTe KaOapcbs rt etaeadaiy diraXXaKTeov 
avTOV Kal avTTJ rfj ipvxj] deareov avrd to, irpay- 

C fxara' Kal Tore, ws eoiKev, rjpZv earai ov eni- 
6vp,ovpiev Kal ov (f>ap,ev epdv {eari 8e (f>povr]ais), 
eTTeihdv TeXevT-qaojpiev , (hs d Xoyos arjp.aivei, 1,0)01 
^ Tb yap adovXwTov rfj Duebner : touto yap deoocXwrai. 
* ai Plato Mss. : ai d-Trb. There are other minor variations 
from the mss, of Plato, but none which affects the meaning 
of the quotation. 
140 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 107-108 

it is not an evil. On the contrary, it may even be 
a good. For to pass one's time unenslaved by the 
flesh and its emotions, by which the mind is dis- 
tracted and tainted ^vith human folly, would be a 
blessed piece of good fortune. " For the body," 
says Plato," " in countless ways leaves us no leisure 
because of its necessar}' care and feeding. More- 
over, if any diseases invade it, they hinder our 
pru^uit of reaht}', and it fills us with lusts and desires 
and fears and all manner of fancies and folly, so that, 
as the sajing goes, because of it we really have no 
opportunity to think seriously of anything. It is a 
fact that wars and strifes and battles are brought 
about by nothing else except the body and its 
desires ; for all wars are waged for the acquisition 
of property, and property we are forced to acquire 
because of the body, since we are slaves in its 
ser\-ice ; and the result is that, because of these 
things, we have no leisure for study. And the worst 
of all is, that even if we do gain some leisure from 
the demands of the body, and turn to the con-! 
sideration of some subject, yet at every point in our 
investigation the body forces itself in, and causes 
tumult and confusion, and disconcerts us, so that on 
account of it we are unable to discern the truth. 
Nay, the fact has been thoroughly demonstrated to 
us that, if we are ever going to have any pure know- 
ledge, we must divest oiurselves of the body, and 
with the soul itself observe the reahties. And, as it 
appears, we shall possess what we desire and what 
we profess to long for — and that is vvisdom — only, 
as our reasoning shows, after we are dead, but not 

* Phaedo, p. 66 b. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(108) S ov. €1 yap firj olov re fxera rod adjfxaros fJb'qSev 

KadapoJs yvcjvaL, hvolv ddrepov, -^ ovBafxov eari 

Krrjaaadai ro elhivai rj reXevr-qcraai' rore yap 

avTTj Kad' avrrjv earai rj ifjvxrj x^Rf-s tov acofxaros, 

Trporcpov 8' ov. /cat iv a> dv ^cD/xev, ovrojs, <Jt)S 

€oiK€v, iyyvrdrco iaofieOa rov etSeVat, iav on 

jxaXiara pirjSev ofxiXaJfxev rep acop-ari fMTjSe kolvojvu)- 

ixev, on pA] rrdaa dvdyKr], /u,7y8e dva7np,7TXcop,€6a 

rijs rovrov (jivcrecjs, dXXd Kadapevcop,€v an' avrov, 

D ecos dv 6 deos avros aTToXvarj rjpds. /cat ovroj 

fiev d7TaXXarr6p,evoL^ rrjs rov acopuaros d(f)pocrvvr]s, 

(t)s TO CLKos, pLcrd roLovrcov iaopLeda, 8t' rjpicov 

avrcov irdv ro elXiKpives opdJvres' rovro 8 eart, ro 

dXrjdes. piTj Kadapat yap Kadapov i(f>d7Tr€a6ai fir) 

OV oepLLrov ^. 

"Qar' et /cat Trpooeot/ce pLerdyeiv els erepov roTTOV 

6 Odvaros, ovk eari /ca/cof /xT^Trore yap /cat rcjv 

dyaddjv dva(jiaivrjrai, Kaddirep aTreSei^ev 6 EIAa- 

rcov. 8to /cat Trdvv Saifiovlcos 6 HcoKpdrrjs rrpos 

E TOt!? SiKaards roiavr' e<jir]' " ro yap SeSteVat, to 

dvSpes, rov ddvarov ovSev dXXo iarlv t] So/ceir 

ao<f)6v elvai /at) ovra- Sokclv yap ctSevai eariv a 

OVK ol^ev. oiSe pL€v yap ouSetj rov ddvarov ovh 

et rvyxdvei ra> dvOpcoTTco pdyiarov rrdvrojv ov rdv 

dyaddjv, 8e8iaCTt 8' cos ev elSores ort p.iyiarov rtov 

/ca/ccDv iarnv." ovk dTrdSetv 8' eot/ce rovratv oi58 
» » / 

O eiTTOJV 

^ Kadapoi a.TTaWaTTo/j.ei'oi Plato MS3. 
142 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 108 

while we are alive. For if it is impossible in company 
with the body to have any pure knowledge, then one 
of two things is true : either it is not possible to 
attain knowledge anj'^vhere, or else only after death. 
For then the soul Avill be quite by itself, separate 
from the body, but before that time never. And so, 
while we live, we shall, as it appears, be nearest to 
knowledge if, as far as possible, we have no associa- 
tion or communion vrith. the body, except such as 
absolute necessity requires, and if we do not taint 
ourselves %vith its nature, but keep ourselves pure of 
it until such time as God himself shall release us. 
And thus, being rid of the irrationahty of the body, 
we shall, in all likehhood, be in the company of 
others in like state, and we shall behold ^^ith our own 
eyes the pure and absolute, which is the truth ; since 
for the impure to touch the pure may well be against 
the divine ordinance." 

So, even if it be hkely that death transports us 
into another place, it is not an evil ; for it may 
possibly prove to be a good, as Plato has sho^^•n. 
Wherefore very wonderful were the words which 
Socrates " uttered before his judges, to this eflPect : 
" To be afraid of death. Sirs, is nothing else than to 
seem to be wise when one is not ; for it is to seem to 
know what one does not know. For in regard to 
death nobody knows even whether it happens to be 
for mankind the greatest of all good things, yet they 
fear it as if they knew well that it is the greatest 
of evils." From this view it seems that the poet 
does not dissent who says : 

" Plato, Apology, p. 29 a. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fjLrjSels ^o^eiado) ddvarov drroXvatv ttovojv, 

aAAd /cat KaKiJov tcov fMeyiarcov. 

14. Aeyerat Se tovtols fxaprvpelv /cat ro delov. 
TToXXovs ydp 7TapecXtj(f)afiev St' evae^eiav Trapd decov 
TavT7]s Tuxovras Ti]s Bcopedg. Sv rovs fJ-€v dXXovs 
(f>€Lh6p.evos TTJs cwp.p.eTpLa? Tov crvyypdfXfMaros 
TTapaXeiijjo}' pLvqad-qa-opiaL Se rdJv ovrcov iix<j>av€- 
ardroyv /cat Traat Sta aropLaros . 
F YipioTa hiq (JOL rd Trepl KX€o^lv /cat Blrcova tovs 
Apyetovs veavLGKOvg SirjyrjaopLai. (f)aal ydp rrjs 
firjTpos avTwv Upeias ovarjs rijg "Upas iTTecBrj rrjs 
€19 TOV veujv dva^dcrecos T^/cev d Kaipos, rcov 
cXkovtcov TTju dTrrjvrjv opecov vdTepiqadvriov kol 
Trjs wpas eTTeLyovarjs, rovrovs VTToSvvras vno Trjv 
drr'qvrjv dyayeZv els to lepov nqv pnqrepa, Trjv S' 
VTTep-qadelaav rfj rdv viGiV evae^eia Karev^aadai to 
KpdriaTOV avroZs irapd rrjs 6eov Sodrjvai tcov iv 
dvdpcoTTOts, rovs Se KaraKOLpLriOevras [xrjKeT* dva- 
arrjvat, rrjs deov rov ddvarov avrols rrjs evae^elas 
dp,oL^r)v SojprjaajxevTjs. 
109 Kat Trept 'Aya/xi^Soy? Se /cat Tpo(f)OJviov <f)r]al 
ritVSapos" rdv vewv rov iv AeA^ot? olKohopbrjaavras 
alrelv Trapd rov 'ATrdAAoivos' pciodov, rov S ayToi? 
i-nayyeiXaadai els e^SofJcrjv rjp.€pav dnrohaxTeLV, ev 
roaovrcp S' eviDX^loOaL TrapaKeXevaaad ai' rovs Se 
TTOL-qaavras ro Trpoarax^^v rfj efiSofjirj WKrl Kara- 
KOipLTjOevras reXevrrjaat. 

Keyerai Se /cat avrQ) Yiivhdpcp kmaKri^avri 



» Author unknown; c/. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 371. 
144, 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 108-109 

Let none fear death, which is release from toils,* 

— ay, and from the greatest of evils as well. 

14. It is said that the Deity also bears witness 
to this. For tradition tells us that many for their 
righteousness have gained this gift from the gods. 
Most of these I shall pass over, ha\dng regard to 
due proportion in my composition ; but I shall 
mention the most conspicuous, whose story is on the 
lips of all men. 

First I shall relate for you the tale of Cleobis 
and Biton, the Argive youths.* They say that their 
mother was priestess of Hera, and when the time 
had come for her to go up to the temple, and the 
mules that always drew her wagon were late in 
arriving, and the hour was pressing, these young 
men put themselves to the wagon and drew their 
mother to the temple ; and she, overjoyed at the 
devotion of her sons, prayed that the best boon that 
man can receive be given them by the goddess. They 
then lay dovvTi to sleep and never arose again, the 
goddess granting them death as a reward for their 
devotion. 

Of Agamedes and Trophonius, Pindar " says that 
after building the temple at Delphi they asked 
Apollo for a reward, and he promised them to make 
payment on the seventh day, bidding them in the 
meantime to eat, drink, and be merry. They did 
what was commanded, and on the evening of the 
seventh day lay down to sleep and their hfe came 
to an end. 

It is said that Pindar himself enjoined upon the 

* C/, Herodotus, i. 31, and Plutarch, Moralta, Frag, in 
vol. vii. p. 126 Bernardakis. 

« C/. Froff. 2 of Pindar (ed. Christ). 

T45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(109) ToXs Trapa rojv BoiojtcSv TreiK^Qelaiv els Beov 
B TTvdeadai " ri apiorov ianv dvdpcoTTOLS " oltto- 
Kpivaadat, ttjv Trpofiavriv on ouS' avTOs dyvoel, et 
ye Ta ypa(f>evTa rrepl Tpocjxuviov koI 'AyafXT^hovs 
cKeivov eoTLv el Be /cat TreipadrjvaL ^ovXerai, fxer 
ov TToXv eaeadai avro) TrpoSrjXov. /cat ovtco irvdo- 
fievov rov Ulvhapov • avXXoylll,€GdaL rd Trpos rov 
davarov, SieXOovros 8' oXlyov xpovov TeXevrrjcrai. 
Ta Se TTepl rov ^IraXov Eivdvvoov TOtavrd 0acrt 
yeveadai. eXvai fiev yap avrov 'HAuCTtou irarpos 
rov Tepivaiov, tcDv e/cet irpcLrov /cat dperfj /cat 
TrXovrcp /cat So^rj, reXevrrjaai S' e^aTrlvqs alria 
TLvl dhriXco. rov ovv ^YiXvoLov elaeXdelv onep tacos 
Kov aXXov elarrjXde, fjL'qTTor* etrj (ftapfxaKots dTToXco- 
C Acis" rovTov yap etvat, fiovov avrco en* ovcria ttoXXtj 
/cat -x^prip-aatv . diropovvra 8' oro) rpoirco ^daavov 
Xd^oi rovrojv, d(f)LK€adai eVt rt ^jsv^op^avrelov , 
TTpodvadfxevov S' cos vofxos eyKOLfxdadat /cat tSeti' 
oj/rtv Totai'Se. Sofat Trapayeveadai rov irarepa rov 
eavrov' ISovra Se Sie^epx^crdai Trpos avrov nepl 
rrjs rvx^S rijs Kara rov vlov, /cat dvri^oXetv re 
/cat SetCT^at avve^evpeZv rov atriov rov davarov, 
/cat rov cTTt, rovro), (pavat, rjKOJ. aAAa begat 
Trapa touS' a crot ^epei, e/c yap rovrcov diravr* 
etcrr) cov nepi Xvirfj." etvai 8' ov ea-qfMTjve veaviaKOV 
D eTTOfievov avrco, €{X(f)eprj re rep via) /cat rd rov 
Xpovov re Kal rd rrjs -qXiKias iyyvs. epeadai oSv 

" The story comes from Grantor's Consolatio, according to 
Cicero. 

146 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 109 

deputies of the Boeotians who were sent to consult 
the god that they should inquire, " What is the best 
thing for mankind ? " and the prophetic priestess 
made answer, that he himself could not be ignorant 
of it if the story which had been >\Titten about 
Trophonius and Agamedes were his ; but if he 
desired to learn it by experience, it should be made 
manifest to him within a short time. As a result 
of this inquiry Pindar inferred that he should expect 
death, and after a short time his end came. 

They say that the following incident happened to 
the Itahan Euthynoiis." He was the son of Elysius, 
of Terina, a man foremost among the people there in 
virtue, wealth, and repute, and Euthynoiis came to 
his end suddenly from some unknown cause. Now 
it occurred to Elysius, as it might have occurred to 
anybody else, that his son had perhaps died of 
poisoning ; for he was his only heir to a large pro- 
perty and estate. Being in perplexity as to how 
he might put his suspicions to the test, he visited a 
place where the spirits of the dead are conjured up, 
and having offered the preliminary sacrifice pre- 
scribed by custom, he lay down to sleep in the place, 
and had this vision. It seemed that his o^\■n father 
came to him, and that on seeing his father he related 
to him what had happened touching his son, and 
begged and besought his help to discover the man 
who was responsible for his son's death. And his 
father said, "It is for this that I am come. Take 
from this person here what he brings for you, and 
from this you will learn about everything over which 
you are now grieving." The person whom he indicated 
was a young man who followed him, resembling his 
son Euthynoiis and close to him in years and stature. 

VOL. II F 147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(109) ooTts" €17^. KOI Tov (fxxvai " SaifJLCOv rod vUos crov," 
/cat ovTco St) ope^ai ot ypafjLfjLareiSiov, dveiXij- 
aavra ovv avro Ihelv iyyeypafjiixeva rpia ravra' 

7j TTOV^ V7]7ner)aiv aXvouaiv^ ^pives avhpcjv. 

Yivdvvoos Kelrat, pioipihicp Oavdrcp. 
ovK rjv ydp^ t^ioeiv koXov avrcp ovSe* yovevai. 

loiavra hrj aoi koI to. rcbv SirjyrjpLOLTCJV tcov 
TTapa Tols apxatoLS dvayeypafifxevojv. 

E 15. Et ye fxrjv 6 ddvaros reXeia tLs ian (f)dopd 
Kat OLaXvais tov re acop^aros koI ttjs ^^XV^ (^° 
TpiTov yap Tjv TOVTO TTJs ^coKpaTLKTJs eiKaoLas), 
ouS' ovTOi KaKov iariv dvaiadriaia yap tls /car' 
avTov yiyverai, Kal irdarjs dTraXXayrj Xvtttjs Kal 
(f>povTLSos. oyairep yap ovt dyadov rjpXv €7T€(ttlv 
ovTOjg ovSe KaKov Trepl yap to ov Kal to V(f)- 
caTrjKos Kaddirep to dyaOov TricfiVKe yiyveadai, tov 
avTov TpoTTOv /ctti TO KaKov TTepl 8e TO p,rj ov aAA' 
r]pp,€Vov CK TCOV ovTCOV ovheTepov tovtcov uvrapp^ei. 
els TTjv avTTjv ovv Td^Lv ol TeXevTiqaavTeg Kad- 

F laravTai. ttj Trpo rrjs yeveaeojs. cocTTrep ovv ovSev 
7]v r]p,tv TTpo TTJs yeviaecxis ovt dyadov ovre KaKov, 
ovTCOs ouSe yLtero. ttjv TeXevTijv. Kal KaddTrep ra 
TTpo rjjxcbv ov8ev rjv Trpos rjp,ds, ovTCxis oySe ra p.ed* 
rjfxds ovSev earat 77p6s' r}p,ds' 

^ 7l TTov Junius : ijpov. 

* vTrmirjaiv dXijovcnv Hercher from Cicero : vT^wie -ffKija-Le, 
Perhaps ^ irov vqwiai, 'HXiVi' rfKi.6Lwv (ppeves avSpuiv, partly 
suggested by Wyttenbach, would better account for the 
present ms. reading (Wilaniowitz, HXi^irte <.^d}UT(avy). 

^ OVK J)i> yap'\ ou yap Irjv Hercher. 

* ov5k Turnebus : oi^re, 
148 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 109 

So Elysius asked who he was ; and he said, " I am 
the ghost of your son," and with these words he 
handed him a paper. This Elysius opened and saw 
written there these three lines : 

Verily somehow the minds of men in ignorance wander ; 
Dead now Euthynoiis lies ; destiny so has decreed. 
Not for himself was it good that he live, nor yet for 
his parents." 

Such, you observe, is the purport of the tales 
recorded in ancient Avriters. 

15. If, however, death is really a complete de- 
struction and dissolution of both body and soul (for 
this was the third of Socrates' conjectures), even so 
it is not an evil. For, according to him, there ensues 
a sort of insensibility and a liberation from all pain 
and anxiety. For just as no good can attach to us 
in such a state, so also can no evil ; for just as the 
good, from its nature, can exist only in the case of 
that which is and has substantiality, so it is also with 
the evil. But in the case of that which is not, but 
has been removed from the sphere of being, neither 
of them can have any real existence. Now those 
who have died return to the same state in which 
they were before birth ; therefore, as nothing was 
either good or e\il for us before birth, even so will 
it be with xis after death. And just as all events 
before our lifetime were nothing to us, even so will 
all events subsequent to our lifetime be nothing to 
us. For in reaUty 

" Mullach, Frag. Philos. Grate, iii. p. 148 : cf. Cicero, 
Tusculan Disputations, i. 48 (115). 

149 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

" dXyos" yap ovtcos " ovBev dTTTerai vcKpov." 
"to" yap " p^ri yeviadai rep daveiv taov Xeyoj." 

"q yap avrrj KardaracrLs icTTU ttj Trpo rijs yeviaeojs 
rj p^erd rrjv rcXevr-qv. oAA' oiet ait Bta(f>opdv etvat 
fjiT) yeviadai} 7} yevopievov aTToyevecrdai ; el p,r] Kal 
rrjs ot/ct'a? Kal rrjs iadrjros rjpcbv pLcrd rrjv ^dopdv 
VTToXap^dveis TLva 8ia(f>opav elvai Trpos tov ov 
110 ovSeno) KarecTKevdadr) ;\;/3dj^ov. et 8' em tovtojv 
ovSev effTt, SrjXov a>? ovS' em tov davdTov Trpos 
Tr)v TTpo TTJs yeveareojs KaTdaTaatv eaTi hLa<f>opd. 
xdpiev yap to tov 'Ap/ceaiAaoy. " tovto/' ^iqai, 
" TO Xeyopievov KaKov o davaTog piovov tcjv dXXcov 
TcDv vevopbiapLevcov KaKcov rrapov p,ev ovSeva ttu>ttot 
eXvurjoev, drrov Se /cat TrpoahoKcopievov XvTrel." 
TO) ydp OVTL TToAAot hid TTjv ovSeveiav /cat ttjv TTpos 
TOV ddvaTov Sia^oXrjP dTToOvrjaKovaruv, Iva p,rj 
diToddvoiat,. KaXws ouv 6 ^^TTixappios 

" crvveKpidr] " (f)rjaC " Kal hieKpidn] Kal aTrijivdev 
oOev rjvde,*" 

B TToXlV 

yd p,€v els ydv, rrvevp^ dvco.^ rt T(vv8e ;(aAe7roi'; 
ovSev.* 

6 K.p€a<f>6vTr]s 8e ttov 6 Trapd tco ^vplttlStj irepl 

TOV * Hpa/cAeous' Xeyojv 

" el p,ev ydp oi/cet," (f)r]ai, " vepTepas vtto x^ovos 

ev ToZaiv ovKeT* ovaiv, ouSei^ av adevoi. 

^ fXT) yev^ffOai Wyttenbach : ij mtj yeviadai. 

' airrtvOev . . . ^vde Scaliger : airrfKOev . . . ^\6e. 

' TTveu/j,' &VU} Mullach : irveuna 5' dvu. 

* ovS^v Hartman : ou5^ ?v. 

" From the Philoctetes of Aeschylus ; cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Aeschylus, No. 255. 
150 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 109-110 

No suffering affects the dead," 
since 

Not to be born I count the same as death.* 

For the condition after the end of life is the same as 
that before birth. But do you imagine that there 
is a difference between not being born at all, and 
being bom and then passing away ? Surely not, 
unless you assume also that there is a difference in 
a house or a garment of ours after its destruction, 
as compared with the time when it had not yet been 
fashioned. But if there is no difference in these 
cases, it is evident that there is no difference in the 
case of death, either, as compared with the condition 
before birth. Arcesilaus puts the matter neatly : 
" This that we call an evil, death, is the only one of 
the supposed evils which, when present, has never 
caused anybody any pain, but causes pain when it is 
not present but merely expected." As a matter of 
fact, many people, because of their utter fatuity and 
their false opinion regarding death, die in their 
effort to keep from dying." Excellently does Epi- 
charmus <* put it : 

To be and not to be hath been his fate ; 
once more 

Gone is he whence he came, earth back to earth. 
The soul on high. What here is evil ? Naught. 

Cresphontes in some play of Euripides,* speaking 
of Heracles, says : 

For if he dwells beneath the depths of earth 
'Mid lifeless shades, his vigour would be naught. 

* Euripides, Trojan Women, 636. • Cf. 107 a supra. 

* Cf. Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 122. 

* The Cresphontes; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Euripides, No. 450. 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(110) TOUTO fieraTTonjaas clttols av 

el fiev yap oIkcZ veprepas vtto ^dovos 
€V Tolaiv ovK€T* ovacv, ovSev av Trddoi. 

yewatov Se /cai to AaKcoviKov 

vvv dfies,^ TTpoaO' d'AAoi iddXeov,' avTiKa 8' 

dXXoL, 
(ov dfies^ yevedv ovk4t eTToipopLeda 
KoX rrdXiv 

C ot ddvov^ ov TO l^rjv Oefxevoi KaXov ov8e to 
dvrjGKeiv, 
aXXd TO TavTa KaXios dfx^OTep^ e/creAecrai. 

Trdw Se KaXws Kal 6 EuptTn'Sr^j ctti tcov raj 
fiaKpds voarjXelas inrojxevovTwv ^riai' 

fxiaco S' oaoi ■)(prit,ovaiv CKTeiveiv ^iov, 
PpcoTOiai Kai TTOToZaL Kal fiayevp,aaL* 
vapeKTpeTTOVTes o^^tov ware fxrj daveiv. 
ovs XPW> ^■"■eiSai^ iJ.rjS€v (jocf)eXojai yrjv,^ 
davovTas eppcLV KdK7To8d>v elvai veotg. 

J) Tj be MepoTTT] Xoyovs dvSpcvSeis Trpoc^epofievr] 
Kivel ret dearpa, Xeyovcra ToiavTa' 

Tedvdai TTalhes ovk ifxol p-ovr] ^poTaJv, 
oj3S' dvSpos eaTepiqpLed\ dXXd jxvpiai 
Tov avTOV e^-qvTXrjaav to? eyd) ^iov. 

TovTOLS yap oiKeLCos dv Tis TavTa avvdifjeie' 

''■ d/jJs Cobet : fi/iwes. 

* idaXeov L. Dindorf : iddWeov. 

' 61 ddvov Wyttenbach : o'iS' idavov. 

* The reading of the 3iss. here (supported by Marc. 
Antoninus, vii. 51) is preferred by nearly all editors of 

152 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 110 

This you might rewrite and say, 

For if he dwells beneath the depths of earth 
'Mid lifeless shades, his dolour would be naught. 

Noble also is the Spartan song *» : 

Here now are we ; before us others throve, and others 

still straightway. 
But we shall never live to see their day ; 

and again : 

Those who have died and who counted no honour the 

living or dying. 
Only to consummate both nobly were honour for them.* 

Excellently does Euripides " say of those who 
patiently endure long illnesses : 

I hate the men who would prolong their lives 
By foods and drinks and charms of magic art. 
Perverting nature's course to keep oif death ; 
They ought, when they no longer serve the land. 
To quit this life, and clear the way for youth. 

And Merope <* stirs the theatres by expressing manly 
sentiments when she speaks the following words : 

Not mine the only children who have died. 
Nor I the only woman robbed of spouse ; 
Others as well as I have drunk life's dregs. 

With this the follomng might be appropriately 
combined : 

" Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 662. 

* Ibid. iii. p. 516; cf. Plutarch, Life of Pelopidas. chap. i. 
(p. 278 a). 

' Suppliants, 1109. 

^ Referred to the Crfsphontes of Euripides ; cf. Nauck, 
Trag. (Jraec. Frag., Euripides, No. 454. 

Euripides to that of the Euripidean mss. vwronn <cai arputfjifaKn 
Kai fiavrfufxaaiv. 

• u<pe\uxxi yrjv] u^Xouv irdXw Euripidean uss. 

158 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(110) TTov yap TO. aefxva Kelva, ttov 8e Avhias^ 

fxeyas Svvdcn-rjs Kpolcros •^ "Bep^rjs ^apvv* 
^eu^as daXdcrcrrjs avxdv^ 'FiXX-qaTTOvrias ; 
E aTTavTCs "AlStjv'' -^Xdov /cat A-qdrjs* SofjLovs, 

r<x>v xpi^l-J^o-TCov a/xa rots' crcu/xacrt hia(f)dapivTa}v. 

16. Nt) At oAAct TOVS TToXXoVS KLVeZ VpOS TO, 

TTCvdr] /cat TOVS dpiqvovs 6 dcopos ddvaros. oAAd 
KoX ovTos ovTOis iarlv €V7Tapaixvdr]ros, a>crre /cat 
VTTO T(x)v Tvxovroiv TTOiTjTiov (JvveojpdaOaL /cat t€tv- 
XfJKevaL napafjuvOias. deacrai yap ota rrepl rovrov 

(f>rjaL TCOV KO}p.l,K<JL)V Tt? TTpoS TOV CTTt TO) dcopO) 

XvTTOVfxcvov davdrip' 

elr* el fiev rjSrjad^^ oTirf tovtov tov ^lov, 

ov ovK i^Lcoae, ^cov SirjvTVXT^crev dv, 

6 ddvaros ovK evKaipos' et S' rjveyKev aiP 

OVTOS 6 ^Los Tt TCOV dvrjKecrTCJV, tacos 

6 ddvaros^ avTOS oov yeyovev evvovarepos. 

F dSrjAoy ovv ovtos iroTepov avpL^epovrois dverrav- 
aaTo TOV ^iov e/cAtTrcoi/ /cat p,€i,^6vcov aTToXvOels 
KaKcov iq ov, XPV I^V 4'^P^^^ ovtoj ^apecos ws 
aTToXcoXeKOTas Jrdvd oaojv cpT^drjixev Tev^eadat Trap* 
avTOV. ov ^avXojs ydp dv So^eiev 6 trapd t<x> 
TTOfqTTJ *A[ji,(f>i,dpaos TTapapivdeZadai ttjv 'Apx^p-d- 
pov [xrjTepa Svcrx^pcivovaav ort vrjTTtos (xiv 6 TraZs 
Kal dyav dcopos eTeXevTTjae. (f>rjal ydp ovtcos' 

e<j)V fiev ovSels dans ov TTOveZ ^poTiov. 
damei re rcKva X'^'^^P* ^^ KTarai via, 

^ AvSlas : AvSlr]?. 

* /Sapw] ^advv Wyttenbach. ^ "AiStji'] "AiSap. 

* A-/jdT)s] Ad^as. The mixture of dialects in this quotation 
in the mss. seems inexplicable. 
154. 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 110 

Where now are all those things magnificent — 
Great Croesus, lord of Lydia ? Xerxes, too. 
Who yoked the sullen neck of Hellespont ? 
Gone all to Hades and ObUvion's house," 

and their wealth perished with their bodies. 

16. " True," it may be said, " but an untimely 
death moves most people to mourning and lamenta- 
tion." Yet, even for this, words of consolation are 
so readily found that they have been perceived by 
even uninspired poets, and comfort has been had 
from them. Observe what one of the comic poets '' 
says on this subj ect to a man who is grie\'ing for an 
untimely death : 

Then if you knew that, had he lived this life. 
Which he did not live, Fate had favoured him. 
His death was not well timed ; but if again 
ThLs life had brought some ill incurable. 
Then Death perhaps were kindlier than you. 

Since, then, it is uncertain whether or not it was 
profitable for him that he rested from his labours, 
forsaking this Ufe and released from greater ills, 
we ought not to bear it so grievously as though we 
had lost all that we thought we should gain from 
him. Not ill considered, evidently, is the comfort 
which Amphiaraus in the poem offers to the mother 
of Archemorus, who is greatly affected because her 
son came to his end in his infancy long before his 
time. For he says : 

There is no man that does not suffer ill ; 
Man buries children, and begets yet more, 

• Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 

Adespota, No. 372, and Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 739. 

» C/.Kock, Com.Att. Frtw/. iii. p. 439, Adespota, No. 116. 

' ^StjcO^ Herwerden : gSetj. • otitj F.C.B. : Sn (otti). 

' a5 added by Hercher. • i Odvaros added by Meziriacus. 
VOL. II F 2 155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

avTos T€ dv^GKei' Kal raS' dxdovrai. ^porol 
els yyjv cfjepovres yrjv. dvayKaicos 8'^ ex^i' 
111 ^iov depil,eLV ojcrre KapTTLfxov ardxuv, 

/cat rov fiev elvai tov Se p,rj. ri ravra Set 
arevcLV, arrep Set Kara (f)vatv SieKirepdv; 
Seivov yap ovBev twv dvayKaicov ^porols. 

17. Ka^dAou yap XPI St,avoeLadaL irdvra rivd 
Kal TTpos avrov /cat irpos dXkov Sce^covra p,€rd 
aTTovSrjs d)s ovx o jxaKporaros ^ios dpiaros aAA' o 
aTTOvhaioraros . ovhe yap 6 TrXetcrTa Kidapcphr^Gas 
B "»} pTjTopevaas t] KV^epvrjaas aAA' d KaXcbs eTrat- 
vetrai. to yap KaXov ovk iv jj.'qKeL XP^^^"^ dereov, 
aAA €V apeTTJ Kai rf] /catptoj avpLp.erpia' rovro yap 
evSaLfiov /cat deo(f)iXeg elvai vevopaaTai. 8ia rovro 
yovv rovs VTrepoxo^rdrovs rojv rjpwcov /cat ^vvras 
(XTTO ded)v TTpo yqpcDS eKXtTTOvrag rov ^iov oi 
TTOirjral Tvapihoaav r^pZv, axjTrep KdKelvov 

ov TTepl KTjpi (j>lXei Zeuj t' alyioxos /cat 'AttoAAcov 
iravrourjv <j>LXorr^r , ov8 t/cero yqpaog ov86v. 

rrjv yap evKaipiav pdXXov, ov rrjv evyr^piav Trav- 

C raxov Qecopovpiev Trpcorevovaav. Kal yap (f>vrcbv 

dpiara rd TrXeiaras apn oi> iv ^pa;^et (f)opds 

TTOCovjjieva, /cat t,a)0}v i,<j> (L > ev ov rroXXip XP'^^V 

rroXXrjv rrpog rov ^iov a>0eA Lav exop-ev. ro re 

TToXi) S-qTTOvdev rj fiiKpov Oc Be^ hia(j)4petv So/cet 

^ yrjv. dvayKa'ius 5' Grotius from Stobaeus, cviii. 1 ] , and 
Cicero, Tusc. Disp. iii. 25 (59). There are several other 
variations in the text which do not affect the meaning of the 
quotation. See Nauck, Trag. Oraec. Frag. p. 596. 

" From the Hypsipyle of Euripides; cf. Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 757. 
> Homer, Od. xv. 24,5. 

156 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 110-111 

And dies himself. Men are distressed at this. 

Committing earth to earth. But Fate decrees 

That life be garnered like the ripened grain. 

That one shall live and one shall pass from life. 

What need to grieve at this, which Nature says 

Must be the constant cjcle of all life ? 

In what must be there's naught that man need dread." 

17. In general everyone ought to hold the con- 
\iction, if he seriously re\-iew-s the facts both by him- 
self and in the company of another, that not the 
longest hfe is the best, but the most efficient. For 
it is not the man who has played the lyre the most, 
or made the most speeches, or piloted the most 
ships, who is commended, but he who has done these 
things excellently. Excellence is not to be ascribed 
to length of time, but to worth and timely fitness. 
For these have come to be regarded as tokens of 
good fortune and of di\ine favour. It is for this 
reason, at any rate, that the poets have traditionally 
represented those of the heroes who were pre- 
eminent and sprung from the gods as quitting this 
life before old age, hke him 

Who to the heart of great Zeus and Apollo was held to 

be dearest. 
Loved with exceeding great love ; but of eld he reached 

not the threshold.'' 

For we everj^where observe that it is a happy use of 
opportunity, rather than a happy old age, that ■wins 
the highest place." For of trees and plants the best 
are those that in a brief time produce the most crops 
of fruit, and the best of animals are those from which 
in no long time we have the greatest service toward 
our hvelihood. The terms " long " and " short " 
obviously appear to lose their difference if we fix 

* Cf. Marcus Antoninus, 24. 1, and Seneca, EpUt. 93. 2. 

157 



^ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(lll)7rpo? Tov aTTeipov dchopcocriv alwva. ra yap viAta 
Kat ra fivpta Kara Zjtfxcovtorjv err] <jTLyfxr] tls ecrriv 
aoptaros, p,a.X\ov Se fiopiov ri ^paxvTarov aTiyfirjs. 
€7761 /cat ra)V ^cocov eKeivcov, dnep icrropovai irepl 
TOV liovTov yLyvofieva ttjv Icorjv ex^iv rj/jLep-qaCav, 
eojdev fiev yewcofxeva, fxear]^ S' rj/jiepas a/Cjua^oi^ra, 
SetXrjs Se yr^pcovra /cat reXetovvra to ^rjv, ovxl 
KaKeivcjv Tjv dv to KaO^ 'qp-ds Trddos tovto, ecTrep 
^^XV '^'■S dvdpojTrivrj /cat Xoyiapos eKdaTois e'l^i', 
D /cat raura Bt^ttov y' ai' avveTTiTTTev, waTe ra Trpo 
[xecrrjs ttjs -^fiepas e/cAeiVovTa dp-qvovs irapex^Lv 
/cat SdKpva, Ta Se SirjpepevaavTa TrdvTOJs dv 
€v8aip,ovL^€adaL ; fieTpov yap tov ^iov to KaXov, 
ov TO TOV xpovov prJKos. 

18. MaTaCovs yap /cat ttoXXtjs ev-qdeias rjyq- 
T€ov eivai Tas TotavTas iKcfxxivrjaeLs " dAA' ovk 
eoet veov ovra dvapTrayrjvai." tis yap dv etTrot 
(OS eoet; ttoAAo. Se /cat aAAa e^' cov dv tis etTTOi 
d)S " OVK eSet Trpaxdyjvai " TxeV/aa/CTat /cat Trpar- 

E Terat /cat Trpaxdrjcr^Tat TToXXaKts. ov yap vopuo- 
deT-qaovres Trdpeafiev els tov ^lov, dXXd Treiao- 
fxevoi, TOLS StaTeray/zeVots" vtto tcov Ta oXa irpvTa- 
vevovTOJv decov /cat rot? Tqs elp.app.evqs xal 
TTpovoias deap^oZs. 

19. Ti 8'; ol 7T€vdovvT€s Tovs ovTOis aTTodovov- 
Tas eavTciJv eveKa Trevdovcriv -q tcov KaTOix^p-evoiv ; 
et pev ovv eavTCov, ort ttjs dno tcov TedvecoTCov rjSo- 
vijs r] p^peias" "q yqpo^ocrKLas eaTep-qdiqaav , ^iXavTOS 
rj TTJs XvTT-qs 7rp6(f)aaLS' ov yap eKeivovs ttoOovvtcs 

" Aristotle, Hist, animal, v, 19. 3 f. (copied by Pliny, 
Natural History, xi. 36 (43)). Cf. Aelian, De nat. animal, v. 
43 ; Cicero, Ttisculan Disputations, i. 39 (94). 
158 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 111 

our gaze on eternity. For a thousand or ten thousand 
years, according to Simonides, are but a vague second 
of time, or rather the smallest fraction of a second. 
Take the case of those creatures which they relate 
exist on the shores of the Black Sea,<* and have an 
existence of only one day, being bom in the morning, 
reaching the prime of hfe at mid-day, and toward 
evening growing old and ending their existence ; 
would there not be in those creatxu-es this same 
feehng which prevails with us, if each of them had 
within him a human soul and power to reason, and 
would not the same relative conditions obviously 
obtain there, so that those who departed this Hfe 
before mid-day would cause lamentation and tears, 
while those who Hved through the day would be 
accounted altogether happy ? The measmre of life 
is its excellence, not its length in years. 

18. We must regard as vain and fooUsh such ex- 
clamations as these : " But he ought not to have 
been snatched away while young ! " For who may 
say what ought to be ? Many other things, of 
which one may say " they ought not to have been 
done," have been done, and are done, and ynW be 
done over and over again. For we have come into 
this world, not to make laws for its governance, but 
to obey the commandments of the gods who preside 
over the universe, and the decrees of Fate or Pro- 
vidence. 

19- But do those who mourn for the untimely dead, 
mourn on their own account or on account of the 
departed ? If on their own account, because they 
have been cut off from some gratification or profit or 
comfort in old age, which they might have expected 
from the dead, then is their excuse for grieving wholly 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aAAa rag oltt^ avrcov co^eAeias" (jyavrjaovrai. el 8e 
Tcov redveojTCOV eVe/ca Trevdovacv, eTrLarqaavreg on 
F ev ovSevl KaKcv Tvyxdvovaiv ovres, aTraXXayiqaovTai, 
rrjs Xv7T7]s, apxaicp /cat (TO(f>cp TreLcrdevres Xoyo) rep 
TTapaLvovvri to. pikv ayaOa TTOieiv d)s p-eyicrra, ra 
Se KaKo. (TVcrreXXeLv /cat raTretvovv. et p,ev ovv ro 
irevdos earlv ayadov. Set TroieZv avro cLs TrXelarov 
/cat p,4yiarov et S', coairep r^ aXrjdeta e^^et, /ca/cov 
avro 6p,oXoyovp,ev elvai, crvareXXeiv /cat Troteti' chs 
eXdxi-orov /cat e^aXei(^eLV els ro hvvarov. 

Q.£ he rovro paSiov, Kara^aves e/c rrjs roiavrrjs 
'napapivd Las . (j>aal yap riva rcov apxaioiv <f>iXo- 
a6(f)(xiv elaiovra rrpos *ApaLv67]v rrjv ^aaiXiaaav 
112 TTevdovaav rov vlov roiovrco ^^pT^aaa^at Xoyco, 
(f>dp.evov on, Kad' ov XP^^°^ ° Zey? evep^e rots 
SalpLoai rds np,ds, ovk ervx^ Trapov ro Ilevdos, 
rjSrj 8e vevep,7jpi€vcov '^Xdev varepov. rov ovv Ata, 
<I)S rjilov /cat avrcp np^rjv Sodrjvai, dnopovvra Bid 
ro rjSr] KarrjvaXojadai irdaas rots dXXots, ravrrjv 
avrcp hovvai rrjv eirl rots reXevrrjuaai yiyvopLevrjv, 
Oiov 8a/cpua /cat Xvvas. warrep ovv rovs dXXovs 
Salpovas, y^' ojv Tt/xcDvrat, rovrovs dyandv, rov 
B avrov rpoTTOv Kal ro 11 eV^os". " eav p,ev ovv avro 
dnpidcrrjs, oS ywat, ov irpoaeXevaerai aot' edv he 
npidrai vtto gov empieXcbs rals hodeiaais avrcp 
np,aXs, XvTTais Kal dpTJvoi.s, dyaiT'qaei ae /cat aet n 
aoL TTapearai roiovrov e^' cS npLrjO-qaeraL avvexoJs 
VTTO cxov." davpLaaicjJs Srj ^aiverai rep Xoycp 
TTelaas ovros TrapeXeadat rrjs dvdpcoTTOv ro irevdos 
Kal rovs dp'qvovs. 

" Cf. Moralia 609 f, where the idea is attributed to Aesop. 
160 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 111-112 

selfish; for it will be plain that they mourn, not 
for them, but for their services. But if they mourn 
on account of the dead, then if they will fix their 
attention on the fact that the dead are in no e\-il 
state, they will rid themselves of grief by following 
that wise and ancient admonition to magnify the 
good and to minimize and lessen the e\il. If, then, 
mourning is a good, we ought to enlarge and magnify 
it in everj^ way. But if, as the truth is, we adnnit it 
to be an e\il, we ought to minimize and reduce it, 
and as far as possible to efface it. 

That this is easy is plainly to be seen from the 
following sort of consolation. They say that one of 
the ancient philosophers visited Arsinoe, the queen, 
who was mourning for her son, and made use of this 
story," saying that at the time Zeus was distributing 
to the deities their honours, Mourning did not 
happen to be present, but arrived after the distribu- 
tion had been made. But when she said it was only 
right that some honour be given to her also, Zeus, 
being perplexed, since all the honours had been used 
up, finally gave her that honour which is paid in the 
case of those who have died — tears and griefs. Just 
as the other deities, therefore, are fond of those by 
whom they are honoured, so also is Mourning. 
" Therefore, Madame, if you treat her with dis- 
respect, she will not come near you ; but if she is 
strictly honoured by you with the honours which 
were conceded to her, namely griefs and lamenta- 
tions, she will love you and affectionately -will be 
ever with you, provided only she be constantly 
honoured by you." Admirably, it appears, he 
succeeded, by this story, in convincing the woman 
and in alleviating her mourning and lamentations. 

I6i 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(112) 20. To 8' oXov eiTTOt tls civ Trpos tov Trevdovvra 
" TTorepa Travarj ttotc Svac^opcbv rj del Selv olrjorj 
XvTTetadai /cat Trap' oXov tov ^iov; el fiev yap del 
fxevets cttI rfj hvarradeia ravrrj, reXeiav ddXiorrjra 
C aeavTO) irapi^eLS Kal TTiKpOTarrjv KaKoSaifjLovtav 8id 
i/jvx'fjs dyivveiav /cat p-aXaKiav el 8e fieTadijcrrj 
TTore, rl ovk rjh'q pierarldeaai /cat aeavrov dveXKeis 
€/c TTJs drvx^as; ols yap Xoyois rov xpovov Trpo- 
lovTos ;\;/37^CTa/Aeros' dTToXvd-qar) , tovtols vvv Trpoct- 
axd>v dTTaXXdy-qdc rrjs KaKovxi-o-S' /cat yap eTrl tojv 
acopiariKijjv Tradrjfidrcov tj rax^o^Trj rrjs dnaXXayrj? 
oSos djJieLVcov. o ovv jxeXXeis to) xRovo) ;;^a/3i^ecr^at, 
TOVTO TO) Xoyu) ;)^a/3tCTat /cat tt] TratSeia, /cat ae- 
avTOV eKXvaai rcxiv /ca/ccDr. 

21. " 'AAA' ov yap T^Xint^ov" (j)y]ai, " ravra 
D TTeiaeaQai, ovhe TrpoaehoKCov." dAA' ^xprjv ae 
TrpoaSoKav Kal Trpo/cara/ce/c/Dt/ceVat rcvv dvdpco- 
neUov TTjv dh-qXoTTjTa Kal ovSeveiav, Kal ovk dv 
vvv drrapdaKevos coairep vtto TroXepiuov €^aL<f>vr]s 
eTTeXdovrcov €X'q(f)d7)g. KaXcog yap 6 Trapd rw 
EvpLTTiSj] Qtjaevs napeaKevdaOai (^atVerat Trpog ret 
Toiavra- eKelvos yap (l>r]cnv' 

iyoj 8e raura^ Trapd Go<f)ov tivos ixadcbv 
els (fipovrihas vovv GVfxcfjopds t'* e^aXXop/qv, 
<f)vyds T epLavTO) TTpoandels Trdrpas efxrjs 
idavaTOVs t' dcopovs Kal KaKwv dXXas obovs, 

* ravra added from Cicero. 

* vovv (rv/j.(popds t' Galen, vol. v. p. 151 Chart., p. 418 
Kilhn. : els avn<f>of)ks. 

" In an unknown plaj^ ; cf. Nauck, l^rag. Graec. Frag., 

162 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 112 

20. In general one might say to the man who 
mourns, " Shall you at some time cease to take this 
to heart, or shall you feel that you must grieve always 
every day of your life ? For if you purpose to remain 
always in this extreme state of affliction, you will 
bring complete >\Tetchedness and the most bitter 
misery upon yoiu-self by the ignobleness and coward- 
ice of your soul. But if you intend some time to 
change your attitude, why do you not change it at 
once and extricate yourself from this misfortune ? 
Give attention now to those arguments by the use 
of Avhich, as time goes on, yoiu* release shall be 
accomplished, and relieve yourself now of your sad 
condition. For in the case of bodily afflictions the 
quickest way of relief is the better. Therefore con- 
cede now to reason and education what you siirely 
will later concede to time, and release yourself from 
your troubles." 

21. " But I cannot," he says, " for I never expected 
or looked for this experience." But you ought to 
have looked for it, and to have pre\iously pronounced 
judgement on human affairs for their uncertainty 
and fatuity, and then you would not now have been 
taken off your guard as by enemies suddenly come 
upon you. Admirably does Theseus in Euripides " 
appear to have prepared himself for such crises, for 
he says : 

But I have learned this from a certain sage. 
And on these cares and troubles set my mind. 
And on myself laid exile from my land 
And early deaths and other fornis of ills, 

Euripides, No. 964 d ; cf. the translation by Cicero, 
Tuicuian Disputations, iii. 14 (29). 

168 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

IV ec Tt TTaaxoifJi ojv eoogaC,ov ^pevi, 
E fJ-i] fJ-ot vcwpes^ TTpoancaov fioiXXov Solkoc.* 

ol 8' ayevviarepoi, /cat avauK'qroJS Sta/cet/xevoi ov?)* 
dvaarpo(f)r]v eviore XapL^avovai Trpog ro ^ovXev- 
aaadai ri ra>v eva^'QP'Ovojv /cat avpL(f)€p6vrcxjv , dAA' 
eKxpeTTovTai, Trpos ras eaxdras raXanrcopias, ro 
firjSev atTiov aai/Lta Tt//,ci>pou/xerot /cat to. p,-?] voaovv- 
ra Kara rov Abettor (jvvaXyelv avayKdl,ovres . 

22. Ato /cat TTavy koXcos 6 YiXdrcov €olk€ irap- 
aivelv iv " rat? " rotaurat? " avp,(f)opaLg rjcrvx^av 
e^etv, chs ovre SiqXou ovros rov KaKov /cat rov 
F dyadov, ovr* els ro irpoadev ovhev Trpo^alvov rep 
)(0-Xe7Ta>s (j>epovrL' epurohcov yap yiyveadai ro 
Xv7T€LudaL rw ^ovXeveadaL rrepl rov yeyovoros^ /cat 
cjOTTep iv 7Trd)a€L kv^ojv Trpos rd TTCTrrajKora 
rideadai rd iavrov Trpdyp^ara, ottt] 6 Xoyos* alpeZ 
^eXriar* dv^ ^X^"^* °'^ heZv ovv TTpoanraiaavras 
KaOdrrep TralSas €)(op,evovs rov rrXr^yevros ^odv, 
dAA' iOi^CLV rrjv iftvx'^jv on rd^icrra yCyveadac irepl 
TO IdaBai re /cat eTravopdovv ro Treaov re /cat 
voarjarav, larpiKfj dp'qvcohiav d(f)avLt,ovras .' 

Tov rcov AvKLCDV^ vopoderrjv (jyaal rrpoard^ai rots 
avrov TToXirais, eirdv Trevdcoai., yvvaiKeiav d/x^t- 
eaapievovs ead-qra rrevOetv, ep(j>aiveLV ^ovXrjdevra on 
113 yvvatKcoSes ro Trddos Kal ovx dpjxorrov avSpacn 
Koaptois Kal TratSetaj eXevOeptov^ pueraTreTTOLrjpe- 
vois- drjXv ydp ovrojs Kal dadeves Kal dyevves ro 

^ veQpes Musjjrave : veapbv. * Sclkol Galen, ibid. : doLKT]. 

8 t6 yeyovoi Plato mss. * 6 \6yos Plato mss. : \6yo5. 

' ^iXTioTT Siv Plato Jiss. : ^eXriffra. 

' AvKiuv] AoKpuv Hartman. 

' eXevdepiov Hertlin : iXevd^pov, 

164 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 112-113 

That if I suflFer aught my fancy saw. 

It should not, coming ne^vly, hurt the more. 

But the more ignoble and untutored sometinies 
cannot even recall themselves to the consideration 
of anything seemly and profitable, but go out of 
their way to find extremes of ^vretchedness, even 
to punishing their innocent body and to forcing 
the unafilicted, as Achaeus" says, to join in their 
grief. 

22. Wherefore very excellently Plato ^ appears to 
ad\ise us " in " such ** misfortunes to maintain a 
calm demeanour, since neither the e\il nor the good 
in them is at all plain, and since no advance is made 
by the man who takes things much to heart. For 
grief stands in the way of sane counsel about an 
event and prevents one from arranging his affairs 
with relation to what has befallen, as a player does 
at a throw of the dice, in whatever way reason may 
convince him would be best. We ought not, there- 
fore, when we have fallen to act like children and 
hold on to the injured place and scream, but we 
should accustom our soul speedily to concern itself 
with curing the injury and raising up the fallen, and 
we should put away lamentation by remedial art." 

They say that the lawgiver of the Lycians " ordered 
his citizens, whenever they mourned, to clothe 
themselves first in women's garments and then to 
mourn, -wishing to make it clear that mourning is 
womanish and unbecoming to decorous men who lay 
claim to the education of the free-born. Yes, mourn- 
ing is verily feminine, and weak, and ignoble, since 

• Xauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 757, Achaeus, No. 45. 

* Adapted from the Republic, p. 604 b. 

* Cf. Valerius Maximus, ii. 6. 13. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(113) TTevdelv yvvaiKes yap dv8pa}V elat (f>i,XoTTev6ear€pai 
/cat ot ^dp^apot, rwv 'EiW'qvcov koI ol ■)(^eipovs 
avopes rcov ajxeivovcov, /cat avrcov he twv ^<xp- 
^dpojv ovx ol yevvaLoraroi,, KeArot /cat FaActrat 
/cat navTCs ot (f>pov^ixaros dvhpeiorepov Tre^u/cdreff 
efjLTrXecp, pLoiXXov S', ctTrep dpa, AlyvTTTioL re /cat 
Sv)oot /cat AuSot /cat Trdvres oaoi rovrois irapa- 
B TTX-qaLot. rovTcov yap roiis fxev els ^odpovs rtvd? 
Karahuvras laropovcnv enl ttXcIovs rjfiepas fieveLV, 
firjSe TO rov tjXlov <f>cx)s opdv ^ovXofievovs, eTreiSr) 
/cat o TereXevTTjKcjs dTrearep-qraL rovrov. "Icuv 
yovu o TpayiKos 7Toir]TT]s, ovk dv^Koos wv ttjs 
TODTCOV evr]deias,^ TreTTolrjKe riva Xeyovaav 

i^rjXdov vficov i/ceVt? rj^covrcov^ rpo(j)6s 
TTalSiov, ^odpovs XiTTOvaa TTepdrjrrjpiovs- 

Ttves 8e TcDv ^ap^dpwv /cat fJiepr] rov acofx-aros 
aTTOTefivovai, pXvas /cat cSra, /cat to dXXo acofia 
KaTaiKL^ovres, BoKovvres rt x^pit^eadai rot? rere- 
XevTTjKoaLv aTTapTCjOfjievoL ttjs Kara (jivaiv ev rot? 
TOtoyrois" fieTpLOTradelas . 
C 23. AAAd vTj Ala Tives VTTorvyxdvovres ovk em 
TTaml davdrcp rd Trevdrj helv oXovrai ylyveadai, 
aAA' enl toIs dcopoLs, Stct to firj^evos TeTVX'rjKevai 
T&v ev Tip jSt'oj vevofiLafxevcov dyadcov, olov ydfjiov 
vaiSelas TeXetoTrjTOs TToXnelas dpxdJv (rauTa yap 
elvai TCI XvTTovvTa fidXtaTa tovs eVt tocs dcopocs 
OTV^ovvTas, Stct TO d(f)rjp7]adai Trpo tov heovTos 
Ttjs cXttISos), dyvoovvTes otl 6 dcopos ddvaTOS cos 
TTpos TTjv Tcbv dvdpwTTiDV (f)vcnv ovSev Siacfjepet, 
^ eirqdeiai] avvqdelas Hartman, 

- The reading v/xGiu . . . r)Pd}VTU)v is found only in one >is. 
(B); the rest give nothing intelligible. 

166 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 113 

women are more given to it than men, and bar- 
barians more than Greeks, and inferior men more 
than better men ; and of the barbarians themselves, 
not the most noble, Celts and Galatians, and all who 
by nature are filled with a more manly spirit, but 
rather, if such there are, the Eg}-ptians and Syrians 
and Lydians and all those who are like them. For it 
is recorded that some of these go down into pits and 
remain there for several days, not desiring even to 
behold the light of the sun since the deceased also 
is bereft of it. At any rate the tragic poet Ion," who 
was not without knowledge of the foohshness of these 
peoples, has represented a woman as saying : 

The nurse of lusty children I have come. 
To supplicate you, from the mourning pits. 

And some of the barbarians even cut off parts of their 
bodies, their noses and ears, and mutilate other 
portions of their bodies also, thinking to gratify the 
dead by abandoning that moderation of feeUng 
which Nature enjoins in such cases. 

23. But I dare say that, in answer to this, some 
may assert their belief that there need not be 
mourning for every death, but only for untimely 
deaths, because of the failure of the dead to gain what 
are conunonly held to be the advantages of Hfe, such 
as marriage, education, manhood, citizenship, or 
public office (for these are the considerations, they 
say, which most cause grief to those who suffer 
misfortune through untimely deaths, since they 
are robbed of their hope out of due time) ; but 
they do not realize that the untimely death shows 
no disparity if it be considered with reference to the 

• Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 743, Ion, No. 54. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(113) KadoLTTep yap rrjs etg Kaivrjv^ irarpiha TTopeias 
TrpoKeiiJLevrjs Trdaiv avayKaias /cat aTrapairrjTOV ol 
fx€v TrpoTTopevovrai ol S' inaKoXovdovaL, TrdvTes S' 

€7TL TaVTOV kp^OVTai, TOV aVTOV TpOTTOV r(X)V els TO 

Xp^ojv oSevovTCOV ovSev irXeov €)(OVTes Tvy)(d- 
D vovatv OL ^paSvrepov d<j)LKvovpievoi rdv ddrrov 
7TapayLyvojji€Pa>v. et ye fxrjv 6 acopos ddvaros 
KaKov ecjTLV, aajpoTttTOS" av etrj 6 rcbv vqiricov Koi 
TraiSajv /cat ert fiaXXov 6 rojv apri yeyovorojv. 
aAAa Tovs TovTCov davdrovs pahioig (fiipopiev /cat 
€vdv[ji(os, Tovs 8e Tojv rjSrj TTpo^e^rjKorcDV Sva- 
X^poJS Kat TTevdiKcos Sid tov e/c yuaraiiov eXirihcov 
avaTrXacrpiov, tJSt] vop.it,6vrcov rjpLcbv ^e^aiav ^x^iv 
rrjv ra>v rrjXiKovTcov Si.afiovrjv. el 8' o rrjs ^lorjs 
TUiv dvdpcoTTCov XP^^^S elKoaaeTrjs rjv, tov irev- 
TCKaiSeKaerr] aTToyevofxevov ivoixit,ofxev dv iirfKiT 
dcopov reXeurdv aAA' yjSr] fxerpov rjXiKLas e^ovra 
E iKavov tov Se rrjv rcbv et/cocriv ircov TTpodeajxiav 
eKTrXripojaavra rj rov eyyvs yevojxevov tov tojv 
eiKoaiv eTcbv apidpLov TrdvTCJS dv i/jLaKapL^ofxev d)s 
evSaLfioveaTarov /cat TeAetorarov SiaTrepdaavTa 
^iov. el Se htaKoaicov eTcov rjv, tov eKaTov ctcov 
reXevTifjaavTa irdvTCos dv dcopov vop.it,ovTes elvai 
TTpos obvpfjiovs /cat dpiqvovs eTpaTTOfxeda. 

24. A.rjXov ovv otl /cat o Xeyonevos acopos 6d- 

vaTOs evTrapa/xvO-qTos ecTTi 8ta re raura /cat ra 

7TpoeLpr]fj,€va iv tols epL-npoodev. [xeZov yap ovtojs 

•F ehdKpvae TpcolXos yj Ilpta/xos" oi)S' ovtos,^ el 

^ Kaiv7)v F.C.B. : KOivr]v, 
• oi'o' ovTos F.C.B. : ovTos or avrbs. 

" A saying of Callimachus ; c/. Cicero, Tusculan Dis- 
putations, i. 93 (39) ; Plutarch, Moralia, 21! a. 
168 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 113 

common lot of man. For just as when it has been 
decided to migrate to a new fatherland, and the 
journey is compulsory for all, and none by entreaty 
can escape it, some go on ahead and others follow 
after, but all come to the same place ; in the same 
manner, of all who are journeying toward Destiny 
those who come more tardily have no advantage 
over those who arrive earlier. If it be true that 
untimely death is an evil, the most untimely would 
be that of infants and children, and still more that 
of the newly born. But such deaths we bear easily 
and cheerfully, but the deaths of those who have 
already Hved some time \\ith distress and mourning 
because of our fanciful notion, born of vain hopes, 
since we have come to feel quite assured of the con- 
tinued tarrj'ing with us of persons who have lived so 
long. But if the years of man's hfe were but twenty, 
we should feel that he who passed away at fifteen 
had not died untimely, but that he had already 
attained an adequate measure of age, while the man 
who had completed the prescribed period of twenty 
years, or who had come close to the count of twenty 
years, we should assuredly deem happy as having 
hved through a most blessed and perfect hfe. But 
if the length of life were two hundred years, we 
should certainly feel that he who came to his end at 
one hundred was cut off untimely, and we should 
betake ourselves to wailing and lamentation. 

24. It is evident, therefore, that even the death 
which we call untimely readily admits of consolation, 
both for these reasons and for those previously given. 
For in fact Trollus shed fewer tears than did Priam ; " 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTpoeTeAevTrjaev er' a.Kfia^ovar]g avro) rrjs ^aai- 
Xelas /cat rrjs roaavTrjs Tvxf]S, av* idp-qvei oia 
yovv TTpog rov eavrov BLeXexdi] vlov "EiKTopa, 
TTapaivwv dvaxcop^tv d-no rrjs Trpos rov 'A;;^iAAea 
fidxT^S, iv ols (f>r]aLV 

dAA' elaepxeo relxos, ifxov tckos, o(f)pa aaaxjjjs 
Tpcoas Kal Tpcpds,* /xrjSe fieya kvSos ope^rjs 
HiqXeLBrj, avTOs Be ^iAt^s alwvos dfj,epdfjs 
114 irpos S' ifie rov Svgttjvov en ^poveovr* iXerjcrov, 
Svafiopov, ov pa Trarrip UpoviS-qs em yrjpaos ovBa> 
aiar} ev dpyaXejj (j>diaeL, /ca/ca ttoXX eTnSovra, 
vlds t' 6XXvp,evovs, eXKYjOetaas re Ovyarpas, 
Kal 9aXdfiovs Kepa'Ct^opievovs , Kal v^Tna reKva 
^aXXo/xeva ttotI ycLcrj, ev alvfj B-q'CoTrJTt, 
eXKOjxevas re wovs oXofjs vtto x^P'^l^ 'A;^ata)p'.' 
avrov S' dv 7Tvp.ar6v p,e Kvves 7Tpa)rr]ai, dvprjai 
cop.'qarai ipvojaiv,* eTrei Ke ri,s d^et, x'^Xkco 
B rvifjag rje ^aXd)v pedecov e/c 6vp.6v eXrjrat. 

dAA' ore St) ttoXlov re Kdprj ttoXiov re yevetov 
alSco r alaxvvioai Kvves KrapuevoLO yepovros, 
rovro Br) otKriarov ireXerai BeiXoiai fiporoltnv. 
rj p o yepoiv TToXids S' dp dvd rpLxas eXKero 

XepaC, 
riXXa)v €K /ce^aA?^?, ovB* "E/cropi dvpLOV eireidev. 

"Ovrcov ovv aoL TrapiTToXXojv rrapaBeiypidroiV nepl 

^ a^ F.C.B. : JjcTCTov hv Madvig : fjv or ^5. 

* TpCfjds Homer, X 56 : rpwi'dSay. 

' eXKOfjUvai . . . 'AxaiQv] this verse is omitted in most mss. 
of Plutarch. 

* ipiuaiv (or ipiffwcn-vy] ipvovaip Homer and one ms. 

• Homer, II. xxii. 56. 

170 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 113-114 

and if Priam had died earlier, while his kingdom and 
his great prosperity were at their height, he would 
not have used such sad words as he did in his con- 
versation with his own son Hector, when he advised 
him to withdraw from the battle -vWth Achilles ; he 
says : " 

Come then within the walled city, my son, so to save from 

destruction 
All of the men and the women of Troy, nor afford a g^eat 

triumph 
Unto the offspring of Peleus, and forfeit the years of your 

lifetime. 
Also for me have compassion, ill-starred, whUe yet I have 

feeling ; 
Hapless I am ; on the threshold of eld will the Father, de- 
scended from Cronus, 
Make me to perish in pitiful doom, after visions of evils. 
Sons being slain and our daughters as well being dragged to 

be captives. 
Chambers of treasure all wantonly plundered and poor little 

children 
Dashed to the earth in the terrible strife by the merciless 

foeman. 
Wives of my sons being dragged by the ravishing hands of 

Achaeans. 
Me, last of all, at the very front doors shall the dogs tear to 

pieces. 
Ravening, eager for blood, when a foeman wielding his 

weapon, 
Keen-edged of bronze, by a stroke or a throw, takes the Ufe 

from my body. 
Yet when the dogs bring defilement on hair and on beard 

that is hoary. 
And on the body as well of an old man slain by the foeman. 
This is the saddest of sights ever seen by us unhappy mortals." 
Thus did the old man speak, and his hoary locks plucked by 

the handful. 
Tearing his hair from his head, but he moved not the spirit 

of Hector. 

Since you have, then, so very many examples 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(114) Tovrcov ivvo-qdrjTL tov Odvarov ovk oXiyovs dvaX- 
XdrrcLV ^eydXcov /cat )(aXe7Ta)v KaKcov, Sv, el 
C eTTe^Lcoaav, Trdvrcos dv eTreipdOrjcrav. d c/)€l- 
So/zevo? rrjs tov Xoyov cruju/zerptas" TTapeXnrov, 
dpKeadels tols elprjjjievois npos to fji-rj Selv irepa 
TOV ^vaiKov Koi fierpLov Trpos dirpaKTa Trevdr) /cat 
dprjvovs dyevvelg eKrpeTreadat,. 

25. To yap p^rj 8t' avTov /ca/cco? irpdrTeiv 6 jxev 
li^pdvTCop cf)r]alv ov puKpov elvaL Kov<f>t,ap,a Trpos Tas 
rv^as, iyd) 8' dv et7rot/xt (ftdpixaKov dXwLas elvai 
[Meytarov. to Se t^iXelv tov pieraXXd^avra /cat 
aripyeiv ovk iv ra> XvTreZv iavrovs eoTiv, dXX iv 
TO) TOV dyaTTcofievov (hffieXeiV' oi^e'Aeta 8 cctti TOt? 
D d(f)r]p7]p,evoi,s rj 8ta Trjs dyadrjs fiv-qp^r^s Ti/X7y. 
ouSets" yap dyados d^Los dprjvcov aAA' vpuvcov /cat 
TTaidvuov,^ oySe irevdovs dXXd pLVT^jjirjs evKXeovs, 
ovSe SaKpvcov iTTCodvvcvv dXXd dvaLCov^ arrapxcov, 
et y' 6 p,€T7]XXaxd)S OeioTepov Tiva ^iov iJL€T€LXr](f)€V, 
dTTaXXayels Trjs tov acjp.aTOS Aarpeta? /cat Tcbv 
dTpvTCov TOVTCOV (f)povTL8(ji)v T€ /Cat avp,(^opdi)V, as 
dvdyKT] Tovs elXrjxoTas tov Ovtjtov ^lov VTTopiiveiv , 
ecus dv cKirX'^crcoat tov eTTiKXayaOevTa ttjs C^ijs 
^iov,^ ov eScoKev rjp,lv rj (f)vais ovk ei? aTrai^ra tov 
Xpdvov, dXXd Kad' eKaoTov dvevetfjie tov jLte/Jt- 
adevTa /cara tovs ttjs elpLapfjLevrjs vofiovs. 

E 26. AtO TOVS €V (f)pOVOVVTaS 6771 TOt? dTToOvT)- 

(jKovaiv ov XRTj TTcpa tov <j>vai,Kov /cat p^eTpiov ttjs 

TTepl T7]v ipvxrjv Xvtttjs els ctTrpa/cra /cat jSap^apt/ca 

^ TraLavui' Lennep: eiralvwv. 

^ dWa dvaiCov F.C.B. : dXXa delwv Pierson : dW iTelwv 
Reiske : dW dcreLuv. ' ^lov] /xLtov Hercher, KKrjpov Paton. 

• Mullach, Frag. Philos. Oraec. iii. p. 149. 
172 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 114 

regarding the matter, bear in mind the fact that 
death relieves not a few persons from great and 
grievous ills which, if they had Uved on, they would 
surely have experienced. But, out of regard for 
the due proportions of my argument, I omit these, 
contenting myself with what has been said touching 
the wrongfulness of being carried away beyond 
natural and moderate bounds to futile mourning 
and ignoble lamentation. 

25. Grantor " says that not being to blame for one's 
unhappy state is no small alleviation for misfortunes ; 
but I should say that it surpasses all others as a 
remedy for the cure of grief. But affection and love 
for the departed does not consist in distressing our- 
selves, but in benefiting the beloved one ; and a 
benefit for those who have been taken away is the 
honour paid to them through keeping their memory 
green. For no good man, after he is dead, is deserv- 
ing of lamentations, but of hymns and songs of joy ; 
not of mourning, but of an honourable memory ; not 
of sorrowing tears, but of offerings of sacrifice, — if the 
departed one is now a partaker in some life more 
di\'ine, relieved of servitude to the body, and of these 
everlasting cares and misfortunes which those who 
have received a mortal life as their portion are con- 
strained to undergo until such time as they shall 
complete their allotted earthly existence, which 
Nature has not given to us for eternity ; but she has 
distributed to us severally the apportioned amount 
in accordance with the laws of fate. 

26. Wherefore, over those who die men of good 
sense ought not to be carried away by sorrow 
beyond the natural and moderate limit of grief, 
which so affects the soul, into useless and barbarian 

17S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7T€vdr] irapeKrpiTTeadai Koi rovd' OTrep ttoXXoXs rjSr] 
avve^T] 7T€pifji€V€Lv, c5cTTe irplv arrdjaaadaL to. irivdrj 
KaKOVXOVfJLevovs TeXevrrjaai tov ^iov /cat iv toIs 
TTevdip.ois TTJs KaKoSaLfiovos racfiijs [MeraXa^eiv, 
dpia Tiov re dviapcJov /cat tcDv e/c rijs aXoyiarias 
KaKOJV (TuyKrjhevopevajv avrols, oiOT evxt^^ey^a- 
aQa.1 TO 'OpiTjpiKov 

fivpopidvoiai Be rotai /xeAa? ctti ecnrepo? rjXde. 

Ato /cat TToAAa/ct? avrots TTpoaSiaXeyeadai XPV^ 
F " Tt Se; TTavaopedd TTore XvTTOvpevoi ■^ a/cara- 
TTavarcp avp<j)opa avvea6p,e6a fiexpi' vavTOs rod 
^iov; " ro yap Srj dreXevrqrov vop^it^eLv^ to tt€v6os 
dvoLas eariv eap^aTT^S", KatroL y opujvras cos koI 
ol ^apvXvTToraroi /cat TToXvTTevdeararoi Trpaoraroi 
yiyvovrai rroAAa/ct? vtto tov xP*^^^^* '^ct^ ^^ oi? 
iSvaxepaivov a^ohpa pvqjxaaiv dvoipLcol^ovTes /cat 
arepvorvTTOvpevoi XapLirpas evcoxi-cts avvicrravraL 
jLtera p,ovaovpycbu /cat rrjs dXXrjs Siaxvaecos. 
jj,epir]v6ros ovv eari ro ovrcos viroXap^dveiv irapd- 
115 pLovov e^eiv ro Trevdog. dXX' el Xoyit,oLvd* on. 
rravaerai rivos yevojjLevov, TrpoaavaXoylaaivr^ dv 
Xpdvov hriXah-q Tt TTOLijaavros' ro pev yap yeyevq- 
uevov ovSe deep Suvarov eart iroirjaai dyevrjrov. 
OVKOVV ro vvv vap' eXTrlSa arup^e^rjKog /cat Trapd 
rrjv rjperepav So^av eSec^e ro et(o66s nepl ttoXXovs 
^ vofui^eiv] vofxi^eiv ri in many jviss. 

" Combined from II. xxiii. 109, and Od. i. 423 ( = 0d. xviii. 
306). 
174 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 114-115 

mouniing, and they ought not to wait for that out- 
come which has already been the lot of many in the 
past, the result of which is that they terminate their 
own hves in misery before they have put off their 
mourning, and gain nothing but a forlorn burial in 
their garments of sorrow, as their woes and the 
ills bom of their unreasonableness follow them to 
the grave, so that one might utter over them the 
verse of Homer : <* 

While they were weeping and wailing black darkness 
descended upon them. 

We should therefore often hold converse ^ith our- 
selves after this fashion and say : " What ? Shall we 
some day cease grieving, or shall we consort with 
unceasing misery to the very end of our life ? " For 
to regard our mourning as unending is the mark of 
the most extreme foolishness, especially when we 
observe how those who have been in the deepest 
grief and greatest mourning often become most 
cheerful under the influence of time, and at the very 
tombs where they gave \iolent expression to their 
grief by waihng and beating their breasts, they 
arrange most elaborate banquets with musicians 
and all the other forms of diversion. It is accord- 
ingly the mark of a madman thus to assume that he 
shall keep his mourning permanently. If, however, 
men should reason that mourning will come to an 
end after some particular event, they might go on 
and reason that it will come to an end when time, 
forsooth, has produced some effect ; for not even 
God can undo what has been done. So, then, that 
which in the present instance has come to pass 
contrary to our expectation and contrary to our 
opinion has only demonstrated what is wont, through 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(115) yiyveadai 8t avrcbv rGiv kpycov. tl ovv; dpd y' 
Tjixels Tovro Sua rod Xoyov fxadetv ov Svvdfxeda 
ovS* iinXoytaaadaL otl 

TrXeirj jxev yala KaKwv irXeirj Se ddXaaaa 



TOtaSe dvTjTOLGL KaKO. KaKCOV 

dix(f)i T€ KTJpes elXevvrai, Keverj 8' etaSvais 
B oj)8' aldepi; 

27. HoAAot? yap /cat ao<f)OLS dvSpdcnv, a)S ^rjai 
K.pdvTOjp, ov vvv aAAa 77aAat KeixXavarai, rdvOpd>- 
TTLva, TLfJLCopiav -qyovfjievois etvai tov ^iov koI dpxrjv 
TO yeveadai dvOpcoirov aviX(f)opdv rrjv pieytaTrjv 
TOVTO Se (f>r]aiv ^AptcrroTeXrjs kol tov HeiXrivov avX- 
Xr](f)d€vra tco MtSa dTTO(f)'qvaadaL. ^eXnov 8' avrds 
rds TOV (f)iXo(j6(f)ov Xe^eis Ttapadeadat. (Ji-qal Sr] iv 
to) EuSrj/xo; CTrtypa^o/ieVoi r} Ylepl ipv^rj? ravri. 
" hioTTep, (S KpdrLare vavrcov /cat fxaKapLaroraTe, 
Trpos TO) pLaKapLovs /cat evhaipLovas elvai rovs rere- 
C AeuTT^Koras vopLit,ei,v /cat to ifjevaaadat tl /car' av- 
rdJv /cat TO ^Xaoi^ripielv ovx oaiov djs Kara ^eXrio- 
vcov rjyovpieda /cat KpeirrovcDV rjSri yeyovoTcov. /cat 
ravd^ ovTCiis dpxcua /cat TraAata* Trap' rjpuv, cScttc 
TO napdrrav ovSelg ol8ev ovt€ tov xP°^^^ '^^^ 
dpxTjV ovT€ TOV devra TTpojTov, aAAa tov dnet^pov 
aldjva StaTcAet^ vevopucrpieva. Trpos Be 8t) tovtois 

^ TraXaia Sauppe : iraXaia diareXd vevoixKi^iiva. 

* StareXet Sauppe : Tvyx°-^°^'^'- ^"^ TeXous outu. The chance 
is remote that such emendations can be right, but they do 
not affect the sense. 



" Hesiod, Works and Days, 101 ; cf. 105 e supra. 

176 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 115 

the very course of events, to happen in the case of 
many men. What then ? Are we unable, through 
reason, to learn this fact and draw the conclusion, 
that 

Full is the earth now of evils, and full of them too is the 
ocean, " 

and also this : 

Such woes of woes for mortal men. 

And round about the Fates throng close ; 

There is no vacant pathway for the air ? * 

27. Not merely now, but long ago, as Grantor" 
says, the lot of man has been bewailed by many wise 
men, who have felt that life is a punishment and 
that for man to be born at all is the greatest calamity. 
Aristotle"* says that Silenus when he was captured 
declared this to Midas. It is better to quote the 
very words of the philosopher. He says, in the 
work which is entitled Eudemus, or Of the Soul, the 
following : " * Wherefore, O best and blessedest of all, 
in addition to belie\'ing that those who have ended this 
life are blessed and happy, we also think that to say 
anything false or slanderous against them is impioiis, 
from our feehng that it is directed against those 
who have already become our betters and superiors. 
And this is such an old and ancient belief with us 
that no one knows at all either the beginning of the 
time or the name of the person who first promulgated 
it, but it continues to be a fixed behef for all time.* 

* From an unknown lyric poet; cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
Graec. iii. p. 689. 

« Mullach, Frag. Philos. Graec. iii. p. 149. 
'* Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 48 (114), and 
Aristotle, Frag. No. 44 Rose. 

• Cf. Sophocles, Antigone, 466. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(115) ro^ 8ia OTOfxaTos ov^ rols dvdpcoTTOLs opas cos €K 
TToXXwv eroJv Trepi^eperat dpvXovjxevov." " ti 
TOVT ; ' €(f>r]. KOLKeivos VTToXa^ojv " COS apa fj/q 
yeveadai^ p-ev," e^Tj, " apicrTOV ttolvtcov, to 8e 
D redvavat, rov t,'fjv iart Kpelrrov. /cat TroAAot? ovto) 
TTapa Tov haip^oviov ix€p,apTvpr]Tai. rovro p,ev 
eKeiva) tco Mi'Sa Xeyovai S-qTTOV p,eTa ttjv 6r]pav co? 
eXa^e rov HeiXrjvov StepcoToJVTL /cat TTVvdavopievcp 
Tt TTOT cCTTt TO ^iXriaTov* ToXs avdpcoTTois Kat Tt 
TO iravTOiV atpeTcoTarov, to p,€V Trpcorov ovBev 
iddXeiv €L7T€Lv oAAo. aioiTTav dppi^TCos' eTTeiSr] Be 
TTore p.6yis irdaav p.-q-)(avr]v p,rjxo.va)p.€vos irpoa- 
rjydyeTo (f>dey^aadai Tt irpos avrov, ovrcos avayKa- 
^6p,evov etTTeXv, ' Saip^ovos Ittittovov /cat tuxi?? X^^" 
TTrjs i<f>'qp,€pov a7T€pp,a, tl pee ^idt^eade Xeye.LV a vpxv 
E dpeiov p,r) yvcbvai; pLer" dyvoias yap rcov oiKeuov 
KaKcbv dXvTTOTaros d ^los. dvdpcoTTOLS Be ■napi.TTav 
OVK eoTL yeveadai to Trdvrcov dpiarov ovhe p,era- 
cr)(eZv rrjs rov ^eXrlarov (^vaeois {dpioTOV yap Trdcri 
/cat Traoat? to pir] yeveadai}' to pievTot piera rovro 
/cat TTpcorov rdv dvOpcvTTCp dvvardjv,^ Bevrepov Be, 
ro yevopLevovs drrodavelv cos rd)(L(yra.' BfiXov ovv 
cos ovarjs Kpeirrovos rrjs ev rut reOvdvaL Bf,aycoyi]S 
^ rrjs ev ra> t,rjV, ovrcos d7Te(f)'r^varo ." pivpia B eTTt 
IMvpioLS dv Tt? e^ot roiavra rraparideadai irpos 
ravro Ke^dXaiov dXX ovk dvayKoiov piaKprjyopetv. 

* t6 added by Kronenberg. * 6v Halm : iv. 

* yeviadai Bernardakis : ylveaOai. 

* ^i\TLffTov Meziriacus : ^iXnov. 

* avdptbvtfi dwcTuv Reiske (a harmless emendation) : dWup 
avivTov. 

178 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 115 

And in addition to this you observe how the sapng, 
which is on the lips of all men, has been passed from 
mouth to mouth for many years.' ' What is this ? * 
said he. And the other, again taking up the dis- 
course, said : ' That not to be born is the best of 
all, and that to be dead is better than to hve. And 
the proof that this is so has been given to many 
men by the deity. So, for example, they say that 
Silenus, after the hunt in which Nlidas of yore had 
captured him, when Midas questioned and inquired 
of him what is the best thing for mankind and what 
is the most preferable of all things, was at first 
unwilling to tell, but maintained a stubborn silence. 
But when at last, by emplo}ing every de^•ice, Midas 
induced him to say something to him, Silenus, 
forced to speak, said : " Ephemeral offspring of a 
travaihng genius and of harsh fortune, why do you 
force me to speak what it were better for you men 
not to know ? For a life spent in ignorance of one's 
own woes is most free from grief. But for men it is 
utterly impossible that they should obtain the best 
thing of all, or even have any share in its nature (for 
the best thing for all men and women is not to be 
bom) ; however, the next best thing to this, and the 
first of those to which man can attain, but neverthe- 
less only the second best, is, after being bom, to die 
as quickly as possible."" It is e\ident, therefore, 
that he made this declaration Avith the conviction 
that the existence after death is better than that 
in life.' " One might cite thousands and thousands 
of examples under this same head, but there is no 
need to be prolix. 

• Gf. Theognis, 425; Bacchvlide-s v. 160; Sophocles, 
Oed. Col. 1225 ; Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, i. 48 (115). 

VOL. II G 1 79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F 28. Ov XP^ ovv Tovs dvoOvrjaKovras veovs dpT^- 
velv oTt ra)v ev rio [xaKpaj ^lo) vo/jLtl^ofievcov dya- 
vojv aTTeaTepr^vraf rovro yap dSrjXov, d)s noXXaKLs 
€L7TO[xev, €LT ayadtbv direarepripiivoi, rvyxdvovaiv 
€LT€ KaKcov TToAAoj ydp TrXeiova rd /ca/ca. /cat rd 
fi€v fxoyis /cat Sta ttoXXcov (l>povTi8a)v KrcofJieda, rd 
oe /ca/ca Trdvv paSto^s"" arpoyyvKa ydp etvat <j)aai 
ravra /cat avvexr} /cat Trpds dXXrjXa ^epop^eva /card 
77oAAas' atrias, rd 8' aya^d Siexrj re Kal SvaKoXoJS 
avvepxofjLeva Trpds avrols rod ^iov rots reppiaaiv. 
116 €7nXeXr]ap.evois ovv ioLKap,€V on ov jjlovov, a)S 
(/)7]at,v YjVpLTrihrjs, 

ra ;^/D7y//,aTa " ovk " tSta KeKrrjvrau ^poroi," 
aXX arrXcJs rwv dvdpajTTivcov ovBdv. Std /cat eTTt 
TTavrcov Xiyeiv XPV' 

ra ra>v deajv 8' exovres iTrifieXovfieda. 

orav Se XPV^^'^* > ctur' d(f>aipovvrai ndXiv. 

ov Set ovv hva(f>opeZv, idv d exp'^joav rjp,lv Trpos 
oXtyoVy ravr aTraircoaiv' ovhe ydp ol rpaTre^lrai, 
KaOdrrep €Lco6ap,€v Xiyeiv -noXXaKis , dTTacrovfievoL 
ra 9ep.ara hvax^paivovaiv em rfj dTTohoaet, edvirep 
€vyva)p.ova)(7L. Trpos ydp rovs ovk eu/xapcD? aTTO- 
B StSovTa? et/coTco? dv ris eiTrot " CTreXadov on raur' 
eXa^es cttl ro) aTTohovvai ; " rovro 8r] rols dmjrols 
avaai avp.^e^r]K€V. exopiev ydp ro ^rjv (Zairep 
TTapaKaraOefievois deols i^ dvdyKrjs,^ /cat rovrov 
Xpovos ouSet? ianv d)piap.evos rrjs aTTobocrecos, 
^ dvdyKijs] dvdyKTjs dTroSdxxovres Wyttenbach. 

" Adapted from the Phoenissae, 555. * Ibid. 556. 

* Cf. Cebes, Tabula, xxxi,, and Cicero, Tusculan Disputa- 
tions,!. 39 (93). 

180 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 115-116 

28. We ought not, therefore, to lament those who 
die young on the ground that they have been de- 
prived of those things wliich in a long life are 
accounted good ; for this is uncertain, as we have 
often said — whether the things of which they have 
been deprived are good or evil ; for the e\"ils are much 
the more nvunerous. And whereas we acquire the 
good things only with difficulty and at the expense 
of many anxieties, the evils we acquire very easily 
For they say that the latter are compact and con- 
joined, and are brought together by many influences, 
while the good things are disjoined, and hardly manage 
to unite towards the very end of hfe. We therefore 
resemble men who have forgotten, not merely, as 
Euripides " says, that 

Mortals are not the owners of their wealth, 
but also that they do not own a single one of human 
possessions. Wherefore we must say in regard to 
all things that 

We keep and care for that which is the gods'. 
And when they will they take it back again.* 

We ought not, therefore, to bear it with bad grace if 
the gods make demand upon us for what they have 
loaned us for a short time.'' For even the bankers, 
as we are in the habit of saying frequently, when 
demand is made upon them for the return of de- 
posits, do not chafe at the repayment, if they be 
honourable men. To those who do not make repay- 
ment with good grace one might fairly say, " Have 
you forgotten that you accepted this on condition 
that you should return it ? " Quite parallel is the 
lot of all mortals. For we hold our hfe, as it were, 
on deposit from the gods, who have compelled us to 
accept the account, and there is no fixed time for 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(116) axTTTep ovoe rots' TpaTre^iVats" ttjs rcijv de^drcov, 
aAA aor]Xov tto^' o Sovs aTTaiTTjaet. 6 ovv rj avTOS 
[xeAAcov aTTodvjjCTKeiv X] t€kvojv oLTTodavovrcDV vnep- 
ayavaKTCov ttcos ov KaTa<j)av<jos eTTiXeX-qaTai ort /cat 
avros avdpcoTTog ian /cat ra rcKva OvrjTa iyevviqaev ; 
ov yap €arL ^pevas exovros dvdpwTTov dyvoetv ort 
o avdpojTTOs ^cpov ecTTt dvrjTov, ovZ^ ort yeyovev els 
C TO airodaveZv . el yovv -q Ntd^T^ Kara tovs p,v6ovs 
TTpox^tpov etx^ TTju VTToXrjiffLv ravTTjv oTi, /cat rj 

daXdOovTi ^icp 

pXdcrraLs re t€Kvu)v ^piOofxeva yXvK€p6v 

<j)dos opcoaa 

reXevT-qaei, ovk dv ovtcos ehvax^pdivev (hs /cat to 
^r]v ideXeiv eKXnretv Sta to fxeyedos rijs cn![X(f)opds, 
/cat Tous" Ocovs eTTLKaXeladai dvdpTraarov avrrjv ye- 
veadat, Trpos dTTCoXeiav r-qv ;)^aAe7ra;TaT7jv. 

Ay eoTt rcjjv AeA^t/ccDr ypaufxdrcov rd pidXiar 
avayKaLorara rrpos rov ^iov, to " yvcoOL aavrov 
D /cat TO " p-r^Sev dyav "' e/c toutcui' yap TJprrjTat 
/cat TaAAa Trdvra. ravra ydp lanv dAAT^Aot? 
cwvcpha /cat cxvfxcf>a)va, /cat Sta darepov darepov 
€ot/ce SrjXovadat Kara 8vvap,Lv. ev re ydp rip 
yiyvdiaKeiv iavrov Treptex^Tai, to fxrjhev dyav, /cat 
iv rovTcp TO yiyviLaKeiv iavrov. hid /cat trepl pcev 
Tovrov (f)r]aLv 6 "lojv ovrojs' 

TO " yvdjOi aavrov " rovr* cttos /xev ov fieya, 
epyov S' oaov Zeu? fJiovos eTTiararaL Oewv, 

" From an unknown poet ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Adespota, No. 373, and Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 720. 
^ Cf. Plato, Protagoras, p. 343 b, and Charmides, p. 163 a ; 

182 



I 



1 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 116 

its return, just as with the bankers and their deposits, 
but it is uncertain when the depositor will demand 
pajTnent. If a man, therefore, is exceedingly in- 
dignant, either when he himself is about to die, or 
when liis children have died, must he not manifestly 
have forgotten that he is but human and the father 
of children who are mortal ? For it is not character- 
istic of a man of sense to be unaware of the fact that 
man is a mortal creature, and that he is born to die. 
At any rate, if Niobe of the fable had had this con- 
ception ready at hand, that even the woman who. 

Laden with the happy burden 

Of sweet life and growing children. 

Looks upon the pleasant sunlight," 

must die, she would not have been so resentful as to 
wish to abandon hfe on account of the magnitude of 
her misfortune, and to implore the gods that she 
herself might be hurried to the most awful perdition. 
There are tsvo of the inscriptions at Delphi ^ which 
are most indispensable to living. These are : "Know 
thyself" and "Avoid extremes," for on these two 
commandments hang all the rest. These tAvo are in 
harmony and agreement Anth each other, and the 
one seems to be made as clear as possible through the 
other. For in self-knowledge is included the avoid- 
ance of extremes, and in the latter is included self- 
knowledge. Therefore Ion " speaks of the former as 
follows : 

Not much to say is " Know thyself " ; to do 
This, Zeus alone of gods doth understand. 

Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 12, 14 ; Pausanias, x. 24, 1 ; Plutarch, 
Moralia, 167 b, 385 d, and 511 b, and Be vita et poesi 
Hom^ri. 151. 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 743, Ion, No. 55. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(116) o 8e HlvSapos' 

aocpoi 0€, (pTjaL, Kai to fjur^bev ayav evos 
alveaaav Trepiaaws." 

29. Taur' ovv iv hiavoia rt.s €-)(oiv (hs rrvdo- 
E XPV^'''^ TTapayyeXfxara rrpog rravra ra tov ^lov 
TTpayfxara paSicos i<f)apiJi6l^€LV Swrjaerai Kal cftepeiv 
avra Se^icDs", etj re rrtv avrov (hvatv adiopcjv koL 
€1? TO p,rj irepa tov TTpocrrjKovTog ev tols Trpoa- 
TTLTTTOvaiv 7] Staipeadai Trpos aXal,oveiav rj Tairei- 
vovadai Kal KaTaTTCTTTeiv Trpos olktovs Kal oXo- 
(f)vpixovs 8ta TTjv TTJg ^vxTJS OLodeveiav Kal tov 
€pL<j)vop,evov rjjxZv tov davaTOV (jyo^ov Trapa ttjv 
ayvoiav tcov eicoOoTcov iv tco ^ia> avfi^aiveiv /cara 
T7]v TTJs avdyKTjs ^ 7T€7Tpa}p.€vr]g fjioXpav. KaXcos 8' 
ot TLvOayopeiot napeKeXevaavTO XeyovTes' 

oaaa Se SatpiovLTjai Tv^ats ^poTol aXye exovoiv, 
F rjv dv fjioZpav ex{]S, TavTrjv e;\;e firjS' dyavaKTei, 

/cat o TpaytKos AtcrxvXos' 

avSpoJv yap ioTiv ivhiKOJv re Kal ao(f)a>v 
Kov ToZai h€Lvols^ fjLT) TeQvjx(Joa6ai deois, 

Kal 6 EivpiTTLSrjs' 

ouTis S' dvdyKr) avyKexo'iprjKev ^poTCov 
ao(f>6g Trap' rjpLLV Kal rd del' eTrt'crrarat, 

/cat ev dXXots' 

^ KCLv Toiffi deivois Stobaeus, Flor. cviii. 43: if toTs KaKom 
or ev Tols KaKicFTois. 

" Fra</. 216 (Christ). * Carmina Aurea, \1 . 

' Attributed to Euripides by Stobaeus, Florilegiuvu cviii. 
43 ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 1078. 

184 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 116 

And, of the other, Pindar * says : 

The wise have lauded with exceeding praise the words 
" Avoid extremes." 

29. If, then, one keeps these in mind as god-given 
injunctions, he vriW be able easily to adapt them to 
all the circumstances of hfe, and to bear with such 
circumstances intelligently, by being heedful of his 
own nature, and heedful, in whatever may befall 
him, not to go beyond the hmit of propriety, either 
in being elated to boastfulness or in being humbled 
and cast down to wailings and lamentations, through 
weakness of the spirit and the fear of death which 
is implanted in us as a result of our ignorance of 
what is wont to happen in h'fe in accordance with 
the decree of necessity or destiny. Excellent is the 
advice which the Pythagoreans ^ gave, saying : 

Whatsoe'er woes by the gods' dispensation all mortals 

must suffer. 
What be the fate you must bear, you should bear it and 

not be indignant. 

And the tragic poet Aeschylus " says : 

It is the mark of just and kno^sing men 
In woes to feel no anger at the gods ; 

and Euripides ^ : 

Of mortals he who yields to fate we think 
Is wise and knows the ways of Providence : 

and in another place * he says : 

* From an unknown plav; cf. Nauck, ibid., Euripides, 
No. 965. 

• From the Melanippe ; ef, Nauck, ibid., Euripides, No. 
505. 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ra TTpoaTTeuovra S ootls eu (f)epei ^porojVf 
117 apiaros eivai, aoi(l>pov€Zv ri fioi So/cet. 

30. Ot 8e TToXXol rravra Karap.€fM(f}OVTai /cat 
TTavra ra Trapa rag eATTtSas' avroXs avjjL^e^rjKOTa 
ef einqpeias rvx'i)S koL Saifiovcjov yeveaOai^ vop.i- 
t,ovaL. 5i6 Koi €771 Trafftv ohvpovTai, arevovres 
/cat TTjv iavrojv drvx^ctv alricofxevot. Trpos ovs 

V7TOTVXCOV dv TLS eXTTOf 

Beos Se aoc Trrjii ovhkv aAA' auros* av aoi, 

/cat 7} 8td T17V aTraiSeucTtat' ai'ota /cat 7Tapa(f)poavvr] . 
hid TavTTjv yovv rqv SLTqTTaTr]ijLevrjv /cat ipevBrj 
So^av TTavra Karaixep^^ovrai ddvarov. eav fxev 
B ydp iv dTTob-qfjiia tls cov aTToddvr], arevovaiv 
eTTiXeyovres' 

Svcrfiopos, oi5S' apa rep ye^ TTarrjp /cat voTVia [xrjTTjp 

oaae KadaipTJcrovatv 

idv S* CTTt rrjs ot/ceia? TrarpiSo? vapovTCov tojv 
yovecov, SSvpovrat cu? i^apTraaOeiTOs €K tcov 
X^Lpcov /cat TT^i^ er 6(f)9aX[JioXs obijvrjv avTols 
d(j>€VTOS. idv 8' d(f)ojvos pLiqhev TTpoaet-Trcov vepi, 
fxrjSevos, KXaiovres Xeyovaiv 

Ovhd tL jXOL CLTTaS TTVKLVOV €TTOS, OV T€ K€V atCt 
C lJi€p.VT^p,r}V. 

(dv TTpocrofJitX-qaas rt, tovt* del Trpox^tpov exovaiv 
coaTTep vveKKavixa rrjs Xvtttjs. idv rax^ois, ohvpov- 
rai Xeyovres " avrfpTrdadT]." idv [xaKpd)S, /^^ju- 

^ yeu^adai Hercher : yiveaOai. 

* avTos Soph. Oed. Rex, 379: avri^, 

' 8u<Tf/.opos, 01/5' dpa Tif ye] d, 8ei\', ov jxiv aoi ye the MSS. of 
Homer. 
186 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 116-U7 

Of mortals he who bears his lot aright 

To me seems noblest and of soundest sense. 

SO. Most people grumble about everj-thing, and 
have a feeling that everything which happens to 
them contrary to their expectations is brought about 
through the spite of Fortune and the di\ine powers. 
Therefore they wail at everything, and groan, and 
curse their luck. To them one might say in retort : 

God is no bane to you ; 'tis you yourself," 

you and your foolish and distorted notions due to your 
lack of education. It is because of this fallacious 
and deluded notion that men cry out against any sort 
of death. If a man die wliile on a journey, they 
groan over him and say : 

Wretched his fate ; not for him shall his father or much 

revered mother 
Close his dear eyelids in death.* 

But if he die in his own land with his parents at his 
bedside, they deplore his being snatched from their 
arms and leaving them the memory of the painful 
sight. If he die in silence without uttering a word 
about anything, they say amid their tears : 

No, not a word did you say to me, which for the weight 

of its meaning 
Ever might dwell in my mind.* 

But if he talked a little at the time of his death, they 
keep his words always before their mind as a sort of 
kindling for their grief. If he die suddenly, they 
deplore his death, saying, " He was snatched away " ; 

• Sophocles, Oedipu* Tyranntu, 379. 
* Homer, II. xi. 452. • Homer, //. xxiv. 744. 

VOL. II g2 187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(111) t^ovrai on Karacftdiv^oag /cat rijxcjpiqQeLs^ drredave. 
Trdaa Trpo^aais iKavT] Trpos to ras Xviras Kai tovs 
dprjvovs o-vveyeipeiv. ravra S' eKivTjaav ol TTOirjrai, 
Kat /LtoAtCTTa TOVTOiV 6 TTpwros "Ofirjpos Xiytov 

cos Se TTarrjp o5 7rat8os" oSvperai ocrrda Kaicov, 
vvpL(j)Lov, OS re davatv SetAo?)? a.Ka-)(r]ae TOKrjas. 
apprjrov^ Se roKevai yoov /cat Trevdos edi)K€, 

D /cat ravra /xev ovtto) SrjXov et Si/caicus' ohvperat, 
dAA' opa ro e^rjs' 

fiovvos rrjXvyeros TToXXdlaiv eirl Kredreaai. 

(31) TLs yap otSev, et o 6e6s TTarpiKoJs^ K-rj^6p,€vos 
Tov di'dpco7T€Lov yevovs /cat 7Tpoop(Lp.evos rd jiiX- 
Xovra avpL^TjaeaOai Trpoe^dyei rivds e/c rod t,rjv 
dcopovs; ddev ovhkv <f>€VKr6v vopLiareov avrovs 
Trdax^t'V 

(ScLVOv yap ovSev* rcov dvayKaicov ^porots 

ovre rcov Kara TTporjyovfievov Xoyov cwfi^atvovrcov 

E ovre rdjv /car' ivaKoXovdrjcriv) , /cat on oi vXelarot 

OdvaroL Trpo dXXcov 8va)(€pcov /xet^ovcov yiyvovrai, 

/cat on rols f^^p ouSe yeveadai avv€(f)epey rots 8' 

dfia ro) yeviadai dTTodavelv, rols Se rrpoeXdovaiv 

CTTt pLLKpov, rols S' dKfxdl,ovai. Trpos iravras Brj 

TOVTOvs TOVS davdrovs iXa(f)pa>s CKreov, elSoras 

^ Tifiu}pr]9eU] ToKanrwpTjdeii ? Bernardakis : Karaixapavdels 
Michael and Kronenberg. 

* dprjTov " exsecrabilfim" is an ancient variant reading, 
which is kept by several editors of Homer. See Papyr. 
Uib. p. 73. 

* irarptd-iDsJ TrarpiKias irpoeaTus (for irpoetSwy of several Jiss.) 
Paton. 

* deivhv yhp ovdiv Clemens, Strom, iv, p. 587, and svpra, 
111a (Nauck, p. 596): ov5^v yap Seivbp. 

188 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 117 

but if he lingered long, they complain that he wasted 
away and suffered before he died. Any pretext is 
sufficient to arouse grief and lamentations. This 
movement the poets initiated, and especially the first 
of them, Homer ,<» who says : 

E'en as a father laments as the pyre of his dead son 

he kindles. 
Wedded not long ; by his death he brought woe to his 

unhappy parents. 
Not to be told is the mourning and grief that he caused 

for his parents. 

And yet so far it is not e\-ident that the father is 
justified in bewailing thus. But note this next line : 

Only and darlingest son, who is heir to his many possessions.* 

(31) For who knows but that God, having a fatherly 
care for the hmnan race, and foreseeing future events, 
early removes some persons from life untimely ? 
Wherefore we must believe that they undergo 
nothing that should be avoided. (For 

In what must be, there's naught that men need dread,* 

nor in any of those events which come to pass in 
accordance with the postulates or the logical de- 
ductions of reason), both because the great majority 
of deaths forestall other and greater troubles and 
because it were better for some not to be born even, 
for others to die at the very moment of birth, for 
others after they have gone on in life a httle way, 
and for still others while they are in their full \igour. 
Toward all such deaths we should maintain a cheerful 
frame of mind, since we know that we cannot escape 

* Jl. xxiii. 222, and xvii. 37. 

" n. ix. 4S2. 

* From the Hypsipyle of Euripides, quoted supra, 1 10 f. 

189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

on Tqv fidlpav ovk eariv eKt^vyelv {TreTraiSevfievcov 
8' iariv dv9pa)7TCOV 7TpoaeLXrj(f)€vai,^ on ^pa^vv 
Xpovov irpoeiX-qcfyaaiv rjjjids ot SoKovvres dcopot, 
rov ^rjv iareprjcrdai- Kat yap 6 (jLaKporaros ^tos 
oXtyog ian /cat anyfxalos Tvpos rov aTreipov ala>va) 
-T Koi on TToXXol T(x)V €7tI ttXcov TTevdrjOaVTOiV p,€T* 

OV TToXv TOt? VTT^ aVTCOV KaToSvpdelaiV iTTrjKO- 

Xovdrjdav, ovhkv ck tov irivdovs 6(f)eXos rrepi- 
TTOLTjaafjievoL, fiarrjv S' eavrovs KaraLKLadpievoi 
rats KaKov)(tats. 

Bpaxvrdrov 8e rov rijg i7n8rjp,Las ovros iv ra> 
^io) xpoi'ov, OVK €v rals avxp^T^pcus Xvrrais ou8' 
ev rco KaKoSaLfioveardrcp TrevQei Sta^^ei/aetr iav- 
rovg Set rat? oSwat? Acat Tat? rov acojxaros 
at/ciat? TTapareivopLevovs , dXXd /xera^dXAetv eirl 
ro Kpelrrov Kal dvOpcomKcLrepov, Treipojpdvovs 
Kat aTTovSd^ovras ivrvyxdveiv dvSpdat jjirj rols 
avXXvTTOvfxevoLs Kal hieyeipovai rd Trevdr] 8ta 
118 KoXaKecav, dXXd rols d(^aipovpiivoLS rds XvTrag 
8ta rris yevvalas Kal aepivrjs Traprjyopias , eiraKovov- 
ras Kal exovras iv vo) ro 'OfirjpiKov rovr' erros, 
OTTep o "E/CTCop rrpos rrjv ^ AvS pojjidxfjv avn- 
TTap-qyopcov avrrjv elirev chhl- 

haipiovirj, pufj p.oi n XCrjv d/ca;!^t'^eo OvpLcp' 

ov ydp Tt? /x' virep ataav dvrjp "AtSt TTpo'iaipei, 

fjLotpav 8' ov nvd (/)rjfjit Tre^vyfievov e/x/xei'at 

avSpcov, 
ov KaKov ovhe fi€V eadXov, eTrrjv rd Tipcora yivr^rai. 

ravrrjv 8e rrjV fxoXpav iv dXXois d TroLTjrT^s cf^rjcn' 

B yeLuopLevo) eTremjae Xivcp, ore pnv reKe fi-qrrjp. 

^ Trpocrei\7)(pivaL F.C.B. : irpoei\Ti(f>ivai. 

190 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 117-118 

destiny. It is the mark of educated men to take 
it for granted that those who seem to have been 
deprived of hfe untimely have but forestalled us 
for a brief time ; for the longest life is short and 
momentary in comparison with eternity. And we 
know, too, that many who have protracted their 
period of mourning have, after no long time, followed 
their lamented friends, without having gained any 
advantage from their mourning, but only useless 
torment by their misery. 

Since the time of sojourn in life is very brief, we 
ought not, in unkempt grief and utterly wretched 
mourning, to ruin our lives by racking ourselves with 
mental anguish and bodily torments, but to turn to 
the better and more human course, by striving 
earnestly to converse with men who aWII not, for 
flattery, grieve with us and arouse our sorrows, but 
Avill endeavour to dispel our griefs through noble 
and dignified consolation. We should hearken to 
Homer and keep in mind those lines of his " which 
Hector spoke to Andromache, endeavouring, in his 
turn, to comfort her : 

Dearest, you seem much excited ; be not overtroubled in 

spirit ; 
No man beyond what is fated shall send me in death 

unto Hades. 
For not a man among mortals, I saj', has escaped what 

is destined. 
Neither the base nor the noble, when once he has 

entered life's pathway. 

Of this destiny the poet elsewhere ^ says : 

When from his mother he came, in the thread of his life 
Fate entwined it. 

• II. vi. 486. » Homer, //. xx. 128. 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(118) 32. lavra irpo Siavot'a? Xa^ovres rrjg aTrpaKTOV 
/cat K€vris OLTTaXKayrjaofxeda fiapvirevd^ias, oXiyov 
or] TTavrarraaL rov jxera^u )(pnvov rijs C^V^ ovros. 
(f)€iaT€ov ovv, 6ttcx)s evdvpLov re /cat aTrapevoxXrjrov 
rovrov rat? TrevdcKals XvTraLS Stayayoj/xei^, to. rod 
TTevdovs TTapdarjpLa fxede/xevoi /cat rrjs rov adofiaros 
eTTt/xeAetaj ^povTLaavres /cat rrjs tcov gvh^lovvtojv 
7) jj.lv ocoTTipias. KoXov 8e /cat [lepivfjaOaL rcov 
Xoycov, ois Kara to et/co? exprjadixeOa ttotg Trpos 
avyyevel^ rj (fjiXovs iv rats TraparrXrjaiois yevo- 
C fjievovs ovpi^opaZsy TrapafivOovpbevoi, /cat neWovres 
ra KOLva rov ^lov avjjLTTTcvfiara /coivcus" (jiipeiv 
/cat ra avOpcomva dvdpiOTrivcos, /cat pirj rots fxev 
dXXoig eirapKetv Trpos dXvTriav hvvaadai, iavrots 
0€ fjLTjoev 6(f)eXos etvat r-qv rovrcov inrofivrjaLV, 
OL (hv Set ro dXyovv rrjs ^i^XV^ dirodepaTreveiv 

TTaicovLOLs Xoyov <l>apiidKOLS ," (hs Trdvrcov fMaXXov 
T] aXvTTias dfa^oXrjv Set TTOietadai. /catrot ye 
rov ev orwovv " dn^oXiepyov drais," (f^rjai, 
" TToXaUiv," ro KVKXovi.i€vov rovro irapd Txaaiv 
D €TTOS' TToXv S' oi/zat jjidXXov rov v7T€prL6efX€vov ra 
rrjs i/jvx'fjs dxdeivd rrddrj /cat hvadvrrjra rrpos rov 
eiTLovra XP^^^^- 

33. Arro^XiTreiv Se /cat rrpos rovs evyevcbs /cat 
fi€yaXo(f>p6va}s rovs cttI rots vlots yevojxevovs 
Oavdrovs /cat^ Trpduts vnourdvTas , 'Ava^ayopav 
rov KXal,op,evi,ov /cat Arjfxoadevrjv rov ^Adrjvatov 
/cat Aicova rov J^ivpaKoaiov /cat rov ^acriXda 

* dai/drovs Kal Wyttenbach : Oavdrovs. 

' Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iii. 29-30 (7I-7t). 
192 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 118 

32. Keeping these things before our mind, we 
shall rid ourselves of the useless and vain extremes 
of mourning, since the time remaining of our life 
is altogether short. We must therefore be chary 
of it, so that we may live it in cheerfulness of spirit 
and %\'ithout the disturbance of mournful griefs, by 
gi\ing up the outAvard signs of sorrow and by be- 
thinking ourselves of the care of our bodies and 
the welfare of those who hve with us. It is a good 
thing also to call to mind the arguments which most 
likely we have sometimes employed vriih relatives 
or friends" who found themselves in similar calamities, 
when we tried to comfort them and to persuade them 
to bear the usual happenings of Ufe in the usual wav 
and a man's lot like a man ; and it is a good thing, 
too, not to put ourselves in the position of being able 
to help others to find rehef from grief, but ourselves 
to have no profit in recalling the means through 
which we must cure the soul's distress — " by heahng 
remedies of reason " * — since we should postpone 
anything else rather than the putting aside of grief. 
And yet one poet •■ says that the man who in any 
matter "puts off till to-morrow" is " 'wresthng \yiih 
destruction " — a proverb which is repeated among 
all men. Much more, I think, is this true of the man 
who puts over to a future time the experiences which 
his soul finds so troublesome and so hard to face. 

33. It is a good thing, too, to contemplate those 
men who nobly and high-mindedly and calmly have 
been resigned to the deaths which have befallen their 
sons — Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Demosthenes of 
Athens, Dion of Syracuse, King Antigonus, and very 

* Cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 848. 
• Hesiod, Worka and Days, 414. 

193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(118) ^Avriyovov, Kal crv^vovs aAAou? tcov re TraAaicov 
/cat TU)v Kad^ rjfjLds. 

TovTCOv yap ^Ava^aynpav TTapeLXtjcjiafxev, ws 
<f)aai, <f>vaLoXoyovvTa /cat SiaXeyofxcvov rols yvajpi- 
fJLOis, aKovaavra Trapd rtvo? rcov dvayyeiXavTcov 
avTO) rrjv Trept rov vlov reXevTiqv, puKpov eTnaxovra 

1 77p6s" Tovs rrapovras enrelv " jjSeLv on dvrjTOV 
iyevvrjaa vlov." 

riept/cAea Se tov 'OXv/jlttlov Trpoaayopevdevra 
Sta T~r]v TTepl rov Xoyov /cat ttjv avveuiv vnep- 
^epXrjjjLevrjv SuvapiLV, TTvdofievov dpL^orepovs avrov 
TOVS vlovs p.eriqXXa'x^evai rov ^lov, HdpaXov re /cat 
'E.dvdiTnTOV, a>s (jjrjGL TipojTayopas, etTTOJi'^ ovtcos' 
" Tcbv yap vlecov ver]vt,€Ct)v^ iovrcDV^ /cat KaXaJv, 
iv OKTCJ 8e TjjaL* Trdar^aiv rj[jL€prjai dTTodavovrcov 
vrj7Tev6€a>s dverXrj- evSirjs yap etx^TO, i^ "^s 
TToXXov (jjvTjTO Kara rrdaav rjfxeprjv els evTTorpirjv 
/cat dv(johvvir]v Kal rrjv iv roZai^ ttoXXoIgl So^av 

F Trds ydp ris fiiv ope'cov* ra ecovrov^ Trevdea ip- 
pw[i€va)s (f>epovra, pLeyaX6(j)povd re Kal dvSpt^LOv 
eSo/cee® eti^at /cat icjovrov Kpiaaa>^ Kapra etSo;? 
rrfv icjvrov' iv roiaihe rrp-qy/jiaai^^ ap,'qxo.vir)v 
Tovrov ydp evdvs p-erd rrjv TrpoaayyeXtav dp,(f>ori- 
pcxiv rojv vlioiv ovhev rjrrov iar€(f)avojp.evov Kara 
ro TrdrpLov edos Kal Xevx^ipovovvra hiqp.r]yopeiv 

^ eiiriiiv'] a very early correction : elireiv. 

* The following corrections by Bernardakis (B), Hatzidakis 
(Ha) and Hercher (H) are merely restorations of the regular 
Ionic forms: yerjpUoov li: perjviQv. * ibvrwv B: hvrwv. 

* TTJcn H : rats. * ro'icri H : rots. * opeajc H : opdy. 
'' iwvTou B : iavToC. * a.v5prjiov iS^Kee H : avbpelov iSoKeu 

* Kpiaau B : Kpelaaoi. 

^^ Toialde irp-qyfi.a.ai Ha : TOi.o7a8€ irpdyfiacn, 

194 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 118 

many others among men both of earlier times and of 
our own day. 

Of these, Anaxagoras," according to the traditional 
story, was talking about natural philosophy in con- 
versation Avith his friends, when he heard from one 
of the messengers, who were sent to bring him the 
news, of the end which had befallen his son. He 
stopped for a moment and then said to those present, 
" I knew that I had begotten a son who was mortal." 

Pericles,'' who was called " the Olympian " because 
of his surpassing power of reasoning and of under- 
standing, learned that both his sons, Paralus and 
Xanthippus, had passed from hfe. Protagoras de- 
scribes his conduct in these words : " His sons were 
comely youths, but though they died within seven 
days of each other, he bore their deaths A^ithout 
repining. For he continued to hold to that serenity 
from which day by day he added greatly to his 
credit of being blest by Fortune and untroubled by 
sorrow, and to his high repute with the people at 
large. For each and ever}' man, as he beheld 
Pericles bearing his sorrows so stoutly, felt that he 
was high-minded and manful and his own superior, 
being only too well aware of what would be his oAvn 
helplessness under such circumstances. For Pericles, 
immediately after the tidings about his two sons, 
none the less placed the garland upon his head, 
according to the time-honoured custom at Athens, 
and, clad in garb of white, harangued the people, 

" Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, ill. 2; Galen, v. p. -tlS (ed. 
Kuhn): Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iii. 14 (30) and 24 
(58) ; \'alerius Maximus, v 10. ext. 3. 

' Cf. Plutarch, Life of Pericles, chap, xxxvi. (p. 172 c); 
Aelian, Varia Historia, ix. 6 ; Valerius ^Iaximus, v. 10, ext. 1. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

* ^ovXds t' e^dpxovT dyaOds ' rtpos re rov 
TToXejJLOv eTTiTTapopixcovTa Tovs 'Adr]vaLous." 

"Revo^oavra Se rov HajKpariKov dvovrd Trore, 
TTapa raJv ayydXajv rdjv diro rov tto\4jjlov ttvOo- 
fievov ore 6 vtog avrov TpvXXos dycoviCouevos 
119 ireXevrrjae, TrepteXofxevov rov ari(f)avov i^erd/^etv 
riva rpoTTOv ireXevrrjae. riov Se drrayyeiXdvroiv 
on yevvaicos dpiarevoiv /cat ttoXXovs ruJv TToXepiiajv 
KaraKreivas, puKpov TravreXws^ 8i,aa'i,co7n]oavra^ 
Xpovov /cat rep Xoyiapbcp ro -rrddos TrapaKaraaxovra, 
i7n6€p.€Vov naXtv rov ar€<f>avov eTTireXetv rrjv 
dvoiav, /cat Trpos rovs dyyeXovs elirelv on " deucs 
rjv^dpLTjv ovK addvarov ov8e rroXv^poviov yeveaOai 
[jlol rov VLOV {ro yap roiovrov dSr]Xov et" crvp^cfjepeL) , 
dyadov Se /cat ^iXoTrarpiv, o 8r) /cat yeyovev." 
B Aicova Se rov Hupa/coatoi' avveSpevovra fxerd 
roiv (f)LXojv, Kara rrjv oiKiav dopv^ov yevopbevov 
/cat jjLeydXrjs Kpavyrjs, rrvdopievov rrjv alriav /cat 
TO avpi^e^r]K6s dKovaavra on 6 vlos avrov 
KaraTTcaojv aTTO rov areyovs ireXevrrjoev , ovhkv 
eKTrXayevra ro piev aajp^dnov KeXevaai rov /Lter- 
aXXd^avros raXs yvvat^l rrapaSovvaL irpos rrjv 
vopLipiov ra(f)rjv, avrov Se Trept d>v StecT/ce'TTTero 
pLTj TTapaXiTrelv . 

Tovrov ^T]Xa)craL Aeyerai /cat Arjpioadevrjv rov 
p-qropa, ttjv pt,6vr]v /cat dyaTTTjrrjV diroXiaavra 
dvyarepa, irepl rjs ^y]aiv Alaxivqs, Karrjyopelv 

^ SiaaiuirTiiTavTa Bernardakis : Stacr^cracra. 
^ et Hercher: on. 

" Adapted from Homer, II. ii. 273. 

* Cf. Aelian, Varia Historia, iii. 3; Diogenes Laertius, 
ii. 54; Valerius Maximus, v. 10, ext. 2. 

196 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 118-119 

' taking lead in good counsel,' <* and inspiriting the 
Athenians to war." 

Xenophon,^ the follower of Socrates, was once 
offering sacrifice when he learned from the mes- 
sengers who had come from the field of battle that 
his son Gryllus had met his death wliile fighting. 
He took the garland from his head and questioned 
them as to how he had died. When the messengers 
reported that he died nobly, displaying the greatest 
valour and after slaying many of the enemy, Xeno- 
phon was completely silent for a few moments while 
mastering his emotion by the power of reason, and 
then, replacing the garland, he completed the 
sacrifice, remarking to the messengers, " I prayed 
to the gods, not that my son should be immortal 
or even long of life (for it is not clear whether it be 
of advantage so), but that he should be brave and 
patriotic ; and so it has come to pass." 

Dion " of S}Tacuse was sitting in consultation ^vith 
his friends, when there arose in the house a com- 
motion and a great screanung, and upon inquiring 
the cause and hearing what had happened — that 
his son had fallen from the roof and been killed — he 
was not at all disconcerted, but commanded the 
corpse to be given over to the women for the usual 
preparation for burial, and he liimself did not leave 
off the discussion in which he was engaged. 

His example, they say, Demosthenes'* the orator 
emulated when he lost his only and much-loved 
daughter, of whom Aeschines,* thinking to reproach 

« Cf. Plutarch, Life of Dion, chap. Iv. (p. 982 c) : Aelian, 
Varia Historia, ill. i. 

'' Cf. Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes, chap. xxii. (p. 855 d), 
and Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, iii. 26 (63). 

• Or. iii. {Against Ctesiphon) 77 (p. 64). 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(li")auToi; Solas', ravrt' " i^Sojx-qv S' rjixepav rrjs 
C dvyarpos avrco rereXevTTjKvtag, Trplv Trevdrjaai /cat 
Ta voiJiil,6fX€va TroirjaaL, aT€cf>avcoadfJi€VOS Kal 
XevKrjv iadrjra dvaXa^cbv i^ovdvreL Kal TrapevofxeL,^ 
T7]v fjiov-qv 6 SeiXaios Kal TrpwTTjv avrov Tiarepa 
TTpocreLTTovcrav diroXecras." ovtos fiev ovv prjTopL- 
Kcos TTpodefievos avrov KarrjyoprjcraL ravra 8ief- 
"fjXdev, dyvoaJv on Std tovtcov avrov eTraLveZ ro 
TTevdelv TTapcoadfievov Kal ro ^iXoTrarpi Trpo rrjs 
rCiv dvayKaloiv avp-iTaQelas iTTcSei^dfjievov. 

'Avrlyoi'ov Se rov ^autXea irvdofMevov rrjv 
AXkvovccos rov vlov reXevrrjv iu rrapard^ei 
yevofxevrjv jxeyaXocftpovaJS re rrpos rovs dxrayyei- 
Aai^ras" avrco rrjv avfi(f)opdv dTriSelv Kal yuKpov 
imcrxdvra Kal Karri<j)idaavra TTpoaeiTtelv " cS 
D ^ AXkvov^v y dipirepov p,€rrjXXa^as rov ^iov, ovroys 
d^etSdjy e^opfxajv rrpos rovs TToXcfxiovs Kal ovre 
rrjs aavrov'^ oionqpias ovre rcov ifxcbv Trapaiveaecov 
<f>povrit,ojv." 

Tovrovs 8rj rovs dvSpas davfid^ovai. fxev rrjs 
pi€yaXo(f)poavvrjs rrdvres Kal dyavrai, pLLjxeladaL 8' 
€ttI rcbv epycDV ov Svvavrai 8td rrjv e/c rrjs arrat- 
Sevaias dadiveiav rrjs ^p^X^^' "^Xrjv ttoXXcov ovrcov 
TTapaSeiyfidrajv rojv 8td rrjs laropias r]pu,v rrapa- 
hLhopcevajv rrjs re '^XXiqvLKrjs Kal rrjs 'PcofJ-a'tKfjs 
Tcvv yevvaicos Kal KaXaJs ev rats rcijv dvayKatcuv 
reXevrals hiayevopievajv dnoxp'^creL rd elprjpbeva 
•npos TTjV dnodeaiv rov rrdvrojv' avtaporarov 

^ vapevbuei Aeschines, Adv. Ctesiph. 77 (p, ()i) : irapr]v6/xei.. 
* (TavToD F.C. B. : creavTOV or iavTov. 
' irdvrwv Reiske : iraj'Tds. 



198 



I 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 119 

Demosthenes, speaks as follows : " On the seventh 
day after his daughter's death, before he had 
mourned for her or performed the customarj' 
rites, putting on a garland and resuming his white 
apparel, he offered a sacrifice in public and \-iolated 
all custom, when he had lost, poor wretch, his only- 
daughter, who was the first child to address him as 
father." So then Aeschines, purposing, after the 
manner of the political speaker, to reproach him, 
rehearsed these facts, being quite unaware that 
thereby he was really commending Demosthenes, 
who put aside his grief, and displayed his patriotism 
in preference to his feelings for his kindred. 

Antigonus " the king, on learning of the death of 
his son Alcyoneus, which had occurred in the line of 
battle, gazed proudly upon the messengers who had 
brought news of the calamity, and, after waiting for 
a moment, said, bowing his head, " Not so very 
early, Alcyoneus, have you departed this hfe, since 
you always rushed so recklessly against the enemy 
without a thought either of yoxir own safety or of 
my counsels." 

The whole world wonders at these men and ad- 
mires them for their nobility of mind, but others 
have not the ability to imitate them in practice 
because of that weakness of spirit which results 
from lack of education. But although there are so 
many examples, which have been handed doAvn to 
us through both Greek and Roman history, of men 
who have behaved nobly and honourably at the 
deaths of their relatives, yet what has been said will 
suffice to induce you to put aside mourning, which is 
the most distressing of all things, and also the fruit- 

" Antigonus Gonatas ; cf. Aelian, Va-na Historia, iii. 5. 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E irevOovs Kal rrjs iv tovtco irpog ovhkv ;^p'>^CTt/xov 

(119) flOLTaiOTTOVtaS . 

34. "Ort yap ol raZs dperals SieveyKovres cvs 
6eo(f)LXeLs v4oL fX€T€aTT]<7av TTpos TO xp^fJ^v xal rrdXai 
yikv hid Tcov rrpoadev vnefivrjaa Xoycov, /cat vvv Se 
ireLpdao ixai 8ia ^paxvrdrcov imSpapieXv, Trpoa- 
fiaprvpT^aas tw KaXcos vtto MemvSpou prjdevTi 

TOVTO) • 

ov ol Oeol cf)LXovaiv aTTodv-fjaKCL V€Os» 

aAA' tacos VTTOTVxoiv dv (j^aiiqg, 'AttoXXcovis ^tArare, 
a(f)68p^ rjv e-mrerayixivos 6 veavioKos 'A7^dAAa)^•t 
F /cat Motpats'/ Koi ae eSet vtt' eKeivov reXeiou yevo- 
fjL€V0V K-qSevdrjvai fJLeraXXd^avra tov ^lov tovto 
yap elvai Kara (f>vai.v. ttjv rj^ierepav SrjXovoTt, /cat 
Tqu dvdpcoTTLvrjv, aAA' ov Kara ttjv tcDv oXcjv 
TrpovoLav /cat rr^v KoapuKr^v hidra^LV. eKeivo) Be 
TO) fiaKapiadevTL ovk rjv Kara (f)vaiv TTepanipoo 
TOV anoveixrjdevros avro) xp^^^ov npog rdv ivddhe 
^iov 7TepLfi€V€LV, dAA' evrdKTOis tovtov eKTrXrjaavTi 
TTpos TTJV eLpLapixeviqv eiravdyeLV TTopecav, KaXovarjs 
avTTJs, (firjalv, TJSr] rrpos iavTrjV. " dXX dcopos^ 
eTeXevTJjaev ." ovkovv evTTorpiorepos Sid tovto /cat 
KaK(x>v aTTeipaTos icrriv 6 

^ iiriTeraynevos Bernardakis : iin-ye-yevfiivos . . . 'AiroWdi- 
vios eii/jLoiplas Paton : eirireTevypiit'os (or iTriTerevfiipos) . . . 
diroWtii'ioy iv fxolpais most mss. 

* dwpos Duebner and one ms. : aubpuii. 

"111b supra. 

"" Yromilxe. Double Deceiver ; cf. Kock, Com, Att. Frag. iii. 
p. 36, Menander, No. 125, and Allinson's 3{enander {L.C.L..), 
p. 343. The sentiment is found many times in other writers ; 
cf. Plautus, Bacch. iv. 7. 18 "quem di dlHgunt adulescens 
moritnr." 

200 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 119 

less pain, which serves no useful purpose, involved 
in mourning. 

34. The fact that those who excel in virtues pass 
on to their fate while young, as though beloved of the 
gods, I have already called to your attention in an 
earlier part " of my letter, and I shall endeavour at 
this time to touch upon it very briefly, merely adding 
my testimony to that which has been so well said by 
Menander ^ : 

Whom the gods love dies young. 

But perhaps, my dearest Apollonius, you would say 
in retort that your young son had been placed under 
the special care of Apollo and the Fates, and that it 
should have been you who, on departing this Mfe, 
received the last offices from him, after he had come 
to full manhood ; for this, you say, is in accordance 
with nature. Yes, in accordance vriih your nature, 
no doubt, and mine, and that of mankind in general, 
but not in accordance with the Pro%idence which 
presides over all or with the universal dispensation. 
But for that boy, now among the blessed, it was 
not in accordance with nature that he should tarry 
beyond the time allotted to him for hfe on this 
earth, but that, after fulfilling this term with due 
obedience, he should set forth to meet his fate, which 
was already (to use his own words ") simimoning him 
to himself. " But he died untimely." Yes, but for 
this very reason his lot is happier, and he is spared 
many evils ; for Euripides ^ says : 

• i.e. his dying words, " Fate summons me " ; ef. the 
dying words of Alcestis, " Charon summons me," Euripides, 
Alcesti^, 254, and Plato, Phaedo, 115 a. 

** In an unknown play ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Euripides, No. 966. 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

120 jSto? yo.p," <f>r]alv KvpnriSr]^, " ovojjl' evei ixovov^ 

TTovos yeyojs. 

ovTos S' €771 TTJs evavdeaTOLTrjg rjXiKias 'npoaiTe(f)Oi- 
T7]a€P oXoKX-qpos 'qldeos, l^rjXcoros xal nepL^XeTrros 
rrdaL tols avvrjdeaiv avrip, (f)iXo7Tdrcop yevofxevog 
/cat q)iXoixrjTO}p /cat ^tAot'/ceto? /cat </>tAo(^tAos'/ to 
oe avfinav eiTretv <f)iXa.vdpaiTTO£, atSoy/xet'o? fx€v 
Tovs TTpea^urdpovs rcjijv cfilXcov wanep Trarepas, 
CTepycov 8e tovs o/XTyAi/ca? /cat avv^dcis, tlix-^tlkos 
Se rcov KaOrjyrjaafievojv, pivots 8e /cat do-rots' 

B TTpaoraros, Trdat Se /xetAtp^oj /cat ^t'Ao? 8td re 
T7yv' e'f oipeois X^P''^ '^^'' "^W ^VTrpoarjyopov 
<f>iXavdp(jL)TrLav. 

AAAd yap eKiLVOs fiev rrjs re aijs evae^eias /cat 
rijs eavTOV tttjv Trperrovaav ev(f)ripLiav l^cov Tvpog 
TOP aet ;\;/30voj' TrpoaTre^oiTriae tov Ov-qrov ^iov, 
KaOdnep e/c row* avyLTroaiov, Tvplv etj rti^a napoLviav 
eKTTeaelv ttjv tco fxaKpcv yqpo. TrapeTTOjxevrjv. el 8' 
o TcDv TraAatojv' TTOirjTcbv re /cat (j>iXoo6(f)OJV Xoyos 
eariv aXrjOr^g wajrep et/co? ^X^''^> ovro) /cat rot? 
cvae^eai tcov /jLeraXXa^avrajv cotl tis TLfir) /cat 
TTpoehpia KadaTTcp Xeyerai, /cat x^pos tls dtroreray- 

C jxevos ev cp hiarpi^ovcnv at tovtcov tpvxo-t, /caAd? 
iXTTiSas €X€Lv ae hei Trepl tov fxaKapirov vteos 
aov, OTi TovroLS crvyKarapLdpLrjdels avveaTai. 

35. Aeyerai 8' viro piev tov /xeAt/cou Ili,vSdpov 
ravTi Trept tcov evae^ojv iv "AtSou* 

Totot XdpiiTei pikv fxevos deXlov rav ivddSe vvktu 
/cdro), 

* fi6vov added by Sauppe. * 767165 Nauck : iyd a-'. 

* <pL\6(pi\os Michael : <pi\6cro<pos. 
202 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 120 

Life bears the name of life, being but toil. 

But he, in the most blooming period of his years, has 
departed early, a perfect youth, en\"ied and admired 
by all who knew him. He was fond of his father 
and mother and his relatives and friends, or, to put 
it in a word, he loved his fellow men ; he respected 
the elderly among his friends as fathers, he was 
affectionate towards his companions and familiar 
friends, he honoured his teachers, and was most 
kind toward strangers and citizens, gentle with all 
and beloved of all, both because of his charm of 
appearance and because of his affable kindliness. 

Ah well, but he, bearing ■with him the fair and 
fitting fame of your righteousness and his own con- 
joined, has departed early to eternity from out this 
mortal Ufe, as from an evening party, before falBng 
into any such grossness of conduct as is wont to be 
the concomitant of a long old age. And if the 
account of the ancient poets and philosophers is true, 
as it most likely is, and so there is for those of the 
departed who have been righteous a certain honour 
and preferment, as is said, and a place set apart in 
which their souls pass their existence, then you 
ought to be of good hope for your dear departed 
son that he vriW be reckoned among their number 
and will be with them. 

35. These are the words of the melic poet Pindar* 
regarding the righteous in the other world : 

For them doth the strength of the sun shine below. 
While night all the earth doth overstrow. 

* Frag. 129 (ed. Christ) ; cf. also the two lines quoted in 
Moral ia, 17 c, and the amplification of these lines which 
Plutarch gives in Moralia, 1130 c. 

* en Tov Bernardakis : ejc toO. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(120) <j)oiVLKop68oLg t'^ €V Xeifxcovcaai TTpodariov^ avrajv 
Kal AlBolvcp OKiapov koL xpuaoKapTTOtat^ ^e^pidos.* 
/cat Tol ixev Ittttois yvfjivaaloLS re/ toI he Treaaoi'S, 
rol he (jiopixLyyeai repnovTaL, Trapa he a<f)tcnv 

evavdrjs aTra? redaXev oX^og, 
ohpLo. 8' iparov Kara x^po^ KihvaTai 
alel 6va^ fjnyvvvroiv Trvpl rrjXe^avel TravroZa detov 
em ^oji^ioXg. 

D /cat fXLKpov vpoeXdoiv ev dXXip dpi/jvcp Trepi flfvxrjs 
Xeycov ^rjOLV 

oX^iq. 8' aTTavres ataa Xvuirrovov TeXevrdv. 
/cat aajfia fxev Trdvrcov eTrerai davdro) Trepiadevel, 
^(x)6v 8' €Tt^ AeiTrerat atoii^os' e'lhcoXov to ydp ecm 

[XOVOV^ 

e/c Oecx)v. evhei he Trpaaaovrcov fieXeojv, drdp 

evhovreaatv ev TroAAots oveipois 
heiKwai repTTVcov e<j)epTTOiaav^ ;)(aA€7TC()v re Kpiaiv.^^ 

36. '0 he deZos rTAarajr 77oAAa p.ev ev rw Ylepl 
ijfvxrjs TTepl^^ Trjs ddavaaias avrrjs etprjKev, ovk 
E oAi'ya 8' ev rfj IloAtTeta /cat Ttp MeVcuvt /cat to) 
Vopyia /cat airopdhiqv ev tols aAAoi? StaAoyots". 
dAAa rd p.ev ev rcb Ylepl ip^XV^ hiaXoyco prjOevra 
KaT* Ihiav inTOfivrjfiarLcrdiJ.evos aroi Trape^ofiai, d)s 
€^ovX-^6r]S' rdhe Se^* npos to irapov Kaipia /cat 

1 t' added from Moralia, 1130 c. 

' irpoacTTLov G. Hermann : vpodaTeLov. 

' XpvcxioiS Kapiroh Boeckh. 

* Be^pidbs Reiske : '^eSpide. * re Hermann. 

* Ova Hermann : Ovfiara. 

^ fco6v 5' ?Tt Life of Romulus, c. xxviii. : i;^v Si. 

* iari fxbvov ibid. : ixbvov effri. 

• i(pipiroi.aav Boeckh : i<pfpwov<Tav. 

90S, 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 120 

In meadows of roses their suburbs lie, 

Roses all tinged with a crimson dye. 

They are shaded by trees that incense bear. 

And trees with golden fruit so fair. 

Some with horses and sports of might, 

Others in music and draughts delight. 

Happiness there grows ever apace. 

Perfumes are wafted o'er the loved place. 

As the incense they strew where the gods' altars are 

And the fire that consumes it is seen from afar. 

And a little farther on, in another lament for the 
dead, speaking of the soul, he says <• : 

In happy fate they all * 

Were freed by death from labour's thrall. 

Man's body follows at the beck of death 

O'ermastering. Alive is left 

The image of the stature that he gained. 

Since this alone is from the gods obtained. 

It sleeps while limbs move to and fro. 

But, while we sleep, in dreams doth show 

The choice we cannot disregard 

Between the pleasant and the hard. 

36. The di\-ine Plato has said a good deal in his 
treatise On ike Soul about its immortality, and not a 
httle also in the Republic and Meno and Gorgia^, and 
here and there in his other dialogues. What is said 
in the dialogue On the Soul I \n\\ copy, with comments, 
and send you separately, as you desired. But for 
the present occasion these words, which were spoken 

' Frag. 131 (ed. Christ); cf. also Plutarch, Life of 
Romulus, xxviii. (p. 35 d). 

* The line is incomplete, lacking a finite verb. 

^^ For the numerous conjectural emendations of this and 
the preceding qnotition cf Schroeder's revision of vol. L of 
Ber^k's Poet. Lyr. Graee. p. 442. 

^^ -repl Reiske : -Kepi re. 

" Tide 5e F.C.B. and Paton : rd 5^. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

XP'^^crifMa, TO. Xex^^^TC- Trpog KaAAi/cAea^ rov 
*A6r]vaL0V, eralpov 6e /cat jjiadT^Trjv Topyiov tov 
piJTopos. (j)r]al yap 6 Trapa ra> YlXaTOivi HiOjKpd- 
rrjs^' " OLKOve St^," ^aat/ " fidXa koXov \6yov, ov 
av p,€V rjyrjar], cos iyoj otfiai, pLvdov, iyoj Se Xoyov 
COS dXrjdi] yap ovra (jol Xe^co a fieXXco Xeyeiv. 
axTTTep yap "Oprjpos Xeyet* SLevcLfiavro tt^v dpxrjv 
6 Zei)s /cat o YloaetScov /cat o YIXovtcov, iTreiSrj 
F TTapd TOV TTarpos TrapeXa^ov -^v ovv v6p,os oSe 
7T€pl dudpcoTTCov /Cat CTTt K/jovou, /Cat del /cat vvv 
er' eariv iv deols, tcov avdpcovcov tov jxev St/cato)? 
SieXdovTa TOV ^iov /cat oaiois, ineihav TcXevTijar) , 
els fiaKapcov vrjaovs amovTa olk^Iv iv Trdar) 
cvBaLfjLOVia €kt6s KaKCov, tov S' aSiKcos /cat ddecos 
121 ets" TO TTJs Slktjs T€ /Cat Tioscos Secr/xa»T7jptov, o 8-q 
TdpTapov KaXovoLv, Idvai. tovtcov S' ol St/caarat 
CTTt Kpot-ou /cat ert recDCTTt rou Ato? t-tjv dpxrjv 
e^ovTOS l^covTes rjaav ^covtcov, eKeivr^ Tfj rjjjiepq. 
SiKdi^ovTes fj fieXXoiev TcXevTav. eTretra at 8t/cat 

TTCOS OV KaXcOS €KpLVOVTO. O T OVV TlXoVTCOV /Cat 

ol eTTLfxeXrjTal ol e/c [xaKdpcov vt^ocov Iovtgs eXeyov 
TTpos TOV Ala OTt (f)OiTa>ev a(j>LaLV dvdpcoTTOL e/care- 
pcoae dvd^Loi. elirev ovv 6 "Zevs, ' dXX iyco,' 
€(1)7], ' Travaco tovto ycyvop^evov. vvv fxev yap 
£ KaKcos 0.1 St/cat St/ca^ovrat. ap-vexop-evoL yc-p, 
e^f], ' ol Kpivopevoi KplvovTai- L,covt€s ydp Kpivov- 
rat. TToAAot ovv^ tacus,' rj S' 6s, ' TTOvrjpds ^fxa? 

^ Ka\\iK\ia added by Xvlander from 121 d infra. 

* In the quotation from Hato [Gorg. p. 523 1) the text has 
been corrected to accord with the text of Plato, but it is quite 
likely that some of these readings stood in Plutarch's copy of 
Plato, and are not errors of the mss. of Plutarch. 

' (paai Plato : <f>7}ai, 

206 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 120-121 

to Callicles the Athenian, the friend and disciple of 
Gorgias the orator, are timely and profitable. They 
say that Socrates, according to Plato's account,'' 
says : " Listen to a verj- beautiful storj', which you, 
I imagine, -will regard as a myth, but wliich I regard 
as a story ; for what I am going to say I shall relate 
as true. As Homer ^ tells the tale, Zeus, Poseidon, 
and Pluto di\'ided the kingdom when they received 
it from their father. Now this was the custom 
regarding men even in the time of Cronus, and it has 
persisted among the gods to this day — that the man 
who has passed through life justly and in holiness 
shall, at his death, depart to the Islands of the Blest 
and dwell in all happiness beyond the reach of evil, 
while he who has lived an unjust and godless life 
shall go to the prison-house of justice and punish- 
ment, which they call Tartarus. The judges of 
these men, in the time of Cronus and in the early 
days of Zeus's dominion, were living, and judged the 
li\dng, giving judgement on the day when the men 
were about to die. As time went on, for some 
reason the cases were not decided well. Accordingly 
Pluto and the supervisors in the Islands of the 
Blest went to Zeus and said to him that there kept 
coming to them at both places inadmissible persons. 
' Very well,' said Zeus, ' then I shall put a stop to 
this proceeding. The judgements are now rendered 
poorly ; for,' said he, ' those who are judged are 
judged with a covering on them, since they are 
judged while alive, and so,' he continued, * a good 

" Gorgias, p. 523 a. " Iliad, xv, 187. 

wcwep . . . Xe7ei Plato : omitted in the mss. of Plutarch. 
' jroXXoi oSv Plato : iroWol /liv olv. 

axn 



W 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(^121) €XOVT€S rjucfjLeafievoi eial awfiaTO. re icaAa. Kal 
yevq Kal ttXovtovs, Kal eTTeibav rj Kpiats fj, ep- 
Xovrai avTols ttoAAoi fiaprvp-qaovres ws SiKaio)? 
^e^LcoKacnv. ol ovv St/cacrrat vtto re rovrcov 
CKTrXi^TTovTai,, /cai^ ajxa wrat avrol djU.7Te;^o/zeroi 
St/ca^oucrt, Trpo rrjs tpvxrjs rrjs eavrcov 6(f)daXp,ov9 
re Kal (Lra /cai oXov to acop^a 7TpoKeKaXup,p,€voL. 
ravra Srj avrols Trdvr' iTTCTrpocrdev^ yiyverai, koI 
TO. avTcov dp.(f>i€ap.ara /cat rd tojv Kpivopiivoyv. 
Qi TTpwTOV p,kv ovv TTavareov earl npoetSoras avroiis 
Tov ddvarov vvv^ yap Trpotaaai. tovto p^ev ovv Kal 
Srj €ipr]Tai rip YlpopLr^del, OTTOis dv Travcrrj avro.* 
e77eiTa yvp.vovs Kpireov aTrdvriov rovrcov redvedj- 
ras yap Set Kpiveadai. Kal rov Kpirrjv Set yvp,v6v 
etvat, redvedjra, avrfj rfj ifjvxfj avrrjv rrjv ijjux'rjv 
decopovvra e^ai(f}vr]s dvodavovros CKdarov, eprjp^ov 
aTrdvrcov rd)v avyyevcbv, /cat^ KaraXnrovra irrl rijs 
yrjs TTavra eKelvov rov KoapLOv, tva hiKaia r^ Kplais^ 
^. iyd) oSv ravr* iyvcoKd>s rrporepo's' 7] vp^els 
iTTOirjadprjv Bu<aardg vletg ip.avrov, 8vo p,ev e/c 
rrjs 'Aata?, MtVco re Kal 'PaSdpiavdvv, eva S' e/c 
J) rrfs ^vpdiTTTjg, AlaKov. ovroi ovv erreihav reXev- 
rrjOioai, hiKaaovaiv ev rep Xeipcovi, ev rfj rptoSq) 
i^ rjs j)ep€rov rdo^ oSco, tj p.ev els p,aKdpcov vijaovs, 
rj S' ei? Tdprapov. Kal rovs p^ev €K rrjs 'Acrta? 
*Pa8dpiavdvs KpiveZ, rovs 8' e/c rrjs KvpcoTrrjs 
AlaKos' MtVo) Se TTpea^ela Scoaat eTTihiaKpiveiV 
eav arroprjrov n to) erepco, iv ojs oiKatorarr] rj 

^ eKirXrjTTovTaL Kal Plato: iKirXqTTovTai. 
* ewiirpocrdev Plato : iTriirpbadricii, 
• vvv Plato : vvv fiiv. * avro] avTuv Plato. 

* ffvyyevQiv Kal Plato : avyyevGiv, 
• SiKaia i) KpL<jis Plato : r) Kptan diKaia. 

208 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 121 

many perhaps who have base souls are clad with 
beautiful bodies and ancestry and riches, and, when 
the judgement takes place, many come to testify 
for them that they have Uved righteously. So not 
only are the judges disconcerted by these things, 
but at the same time they themselves sit in judgement 
with a covering on them, having before their own 
souls, like a veil, their eyes and ears and their whole 
body. All these things come between, both their 
own covering and that of those who are being judged. 
In the first place, then, all their foreknowledge of 
death must be ended ; for now they have foreknow- 
ledge of it. So Prometheus has been told to put an 
end to this. Secondly, they must be judged divested 
of all these things ; for they must be judged after 
they have died. The judge also must be naked, and 
dead, that he may view -with his very soul the very 
soul of every man instantly after he has died, and 
isolated from all his kin, having left behind on earth 
all earthly adorimients, so that his judgement may 
be just. I, therefore, reahzing this situation sooner 
than you, have made my own sons judges, two from 
Asia — Minos and Rhadamanthys — and one from 
Europe — Aeacus. These, then, as soon as they have 
died, shall sit in judgement in the meadow at the 
parting of the ways whence the two roads lead, the 
one to the Islands of the Blest and the other to 
Tartarus. The people of Asia shall Rhadamanthys 
judge, while Aeacus shall judge the people of 
Europe ; and to Minos I shall give the prerogative 
of pronouncing final judgement in case the other 

^ irporepoj Plato : Trporrpov. * tu; Plato : rd. 

• a-Kopyfrbv tl rtb erepo) Plato : air6ppr]Tui' ri ^ ry iT4p<fi, 

" i, Plato. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kptaig rj TTept rrjs TTopelas roXs dvdpcoTTOLs.' ravT 
coTLV, d) KaAAt/cAets", a eyco dKrjKoojs Tnarevo) 
dXrjdrj etvat' /cat e/c tovtojv tcov Xoyojv roLovBe^ Ti 
Xoyil^ofxai avfx^aLvetv, oti} 6 ddvarog Tvyxdvci a>v, 
(hs e/xol So/cet, ovSev dXXo rj Svolv npayp^aTOiv 8ta- 

E Xvcrtg, TTJs ^vx^js Kal rov acupuaros drr^ d?0^'qXoLV." 
37 Tavrd aoi avvayaywv, ^AttoXXcovlc <f>LXraT€, 
/cat avvdeis pierd ttoAAi^s' eTrtjueAeias' direLpyaaapiTjv 
rov TTapapLvdrjTLKov aot, Xoyov, dvayKaiOTarov 
ovTa aot, TTpos re ttjv T'qs Trapovcrrjs Xvtttjs drraA- 
Xayfjv /cat rov irdvrcov dviapordrov irevdovs 
TTavXav. TT€pi€X€L Sc /Cat rrjv irpos rov deocfiiXd- 
ararov vtov aov ^AttoXXwvlov Trpeirovaav ripiriv, 
TTodeivordrrjv ovaav roZs a^tepco^etcrt, rr^v 8ta 
ri^s dyaOrjs pivrjpirjs /cat rrjs dScaXecTrrov irpos rov 
aet xP^^o^ €V(f)7]pi,ias. KaXcos ovv TTOir^aeis xat 
r<p Xoycp ireLadels /cat rw pLaKaplrrj aov vlw 

F xo-P''CrdpL€V09 /cat puera^aXcbv e/c rrjs dvuxfyeXovs 
nepl ro acD/xa Kat rrjv i/jux^jv KaKcoaeojs /cat 
Kara<f>dopds €ttI rrjv avvijdr) aoi /cat /caret (f)va(,v 
Staycoyrjv iXdelv. ws ydp ovSe avp^icov rjpZv 
rjSeojs ccopa Karrj^eZs ovrag oure ae ovre riqv 
pi-qripa, ovrcos ovSe vvv jtxera decov u)V Kal rovroig 
avv€art,a)pL€vos evapearT^aeiev dv rfj roiavrrj vp-wv 
Siayajyfj. dvSpos ovv dyadov /cat yewaiov Kat 
122 (f)iXore.Kvov (f)p6vr]p,a dvaXa^ojv aeavrov re /cat 
rrjv pi-qrepa rod veavioKov /cat rovs avyyevels /cat 
(I)lXovs e/cAycrat rrjs roiavrrjs /ca/coSat/xot'tas', et? 
yaXrjvorepov piereXdcov ^iov ax'rjP'CL /cat rrpoa- 
(fiiXeararov rip re via) aov /cat rrdaiv rjplv rols 
K7]8opL€voLs aov Kara ro npoarJKOv. 

1 Toi.6v5e Plato : toiov (sic). * on not in Plato. 

mo 



A LETTER TO APOLLONIUS, 121-122 

two be in any doubt, in order that the decision in 
regard to the route which men must take shall be 
as just as possible.' This, Callicles, is what I have 
heard, and believe to be true ; and from these words 
I draw the following inference — that death is, as it 
seems to me, nothing else than the severing of two 
things, soul and body, from each other." 

37. Having collected and put together these 
extracts, my dearest ApoUonius, with great diligence, 
I have completed this letter of condolence to you, 
which is most needful to enable you to put aside 
your present grief and to put an end to mourning, 
which is the most distressing of all things. In it is 
included also for your son, ApoUonius, a youth so 
verj^ dear to the gods, a fitting tribute, which is 
much coveted by the sanctified — a tribute due to his 
honourable memory and to his fair fame, which will 
endure for time eternal. You will do well, therefore, 
to be persuaded by reason, and, as a favour to your 
dear departed son, to turn from your unprofitable dis- 
tress and desolation, which affect both body and soul, 
and to go back to your accustomed and natural course 
of hfe. Forasmuch as your son, while he was h\ing 
among us, was sorry to see either you or his mother 
do-wncast, even so, now that he is with the gods and 
is feasting with them, he would not be well satisfied 
with your present course of life. Resume, therefore, 
the spirit of a brave-hearted and high-minded man 
who loves his offspring, and set free from all this 
wretchedness both yourself, the mother of the 
youth, and your relatives and friends, as you may do 
by pursuing a more tranquil form of life, which will 
be most gratifying both to your son and to all of us 
who are concerned for you, as we rightly should be. 

VOL. II H 211 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING 

WELL 

(DE TUENDA SANITATE PRAECEPTA) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch had more than a casual interest in medi- 
cine, for, besides this essay on keeping well, his other 
Avorks abound in references to the behaviour of the 
sick and their treatment, and the medical practices 
of his day. Long before the time of Plutarch the 
art of medicine, always empirical, had been put on 
a solid foundation, and the acute observations of 
Hippocrates and his school had been set down 
in writing ; and this body of Hippocratic medical 
writings, along with others, was in circulation, and 
had undoubtedly been read by Plutarch. 

That medicine has made very great advances since 
Plutarch's time is, of course, self-evident ; " aseptic," 
" antiseptic," and " sterilize " are now household 
words, and the germ theory of disease has, in recent 
times, shed light on much which before was dark. 
But Plutarch is not dealing with the technical side 
of medicine ; he is only giving some common-sense 
advice on rational living, and much that he has to say 
in regard to rest, exercise, and diet is in accord with 
the best medical practice of the present day. In 
fact, it is doubtful if any physician would take ex- 
ception to anything that Plutarch advises (his advice 
is meant for men whose work is done with their 
heads rather than their hands), and one might name 
men in public life to-day, well on in years, who have 
followed many of his suggestions, unwittingly, no 
doubt, but to their own advantage. 
214 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL 

The essay seems, at the first glance, to be put in 
tlie form of a dialogue, but it is about as much of 
a dialogue as Quiller-Couch's Foe-Farrell. The dia- 
logue form is merely a literary subterfuge to present 
an essay in a slightly more attractive form, and the 
third person of the dialogue, only occasionally re- 
called to the reader by the parsimonious interjection 
of " he said," may be presumed to be Plutarch, the 
author. The two speakers in the brief dialogue at 
the beginning of the essay are Moschion, a physician, 
whom Plutarch introduces also into the Symposiacs 
(Moralia, 658 a), and Zeuxippus, a friend of Plutarch's, 
who is introduced also as a speaking character in 
two other essays of Plutarch's (Moralia, 748 e and 
1086 c), besides being mentioned several times in 
other essays. 

That the essay was Avritten some time after a.d. 81 
is clear from the reference to the death of the Roman 
Emperor Titus (123 d). 

The title of the essay is included in Lamprias' list 
of Plutarch's works, and Stobaeus, in his Florilegium, 
has several quotations from it, sometimes with a 
slightly different reading, but none of these readings 
changes the meaning of the passage at all, and rarely 
is one to be preferred to the reading found in the 
Mss. of Plutarch (see Vol. I. Introd. p. xxi). 

Indeed, the text of this essay has suffered more at 
the hands of modern editors than from the ancient 
copyists, for a glance at the foot-notes inBernardakis's 
edition will show that the gratuitous and unneces- 
sary changes introduced into the text by modem 
editors outnumb;;r their corrections of the minor 
errors in spelling, and the Uke, made by the ancient 
copyists. 

215 



(122) B YriEINA HAPArrEAMATA 

1. MOSXiriN. 2u Br) TXavKov x^^^> ^ "Zcv^tTTTTe, 
rov tarpov aTreTpiijiO)^ avfKfiiXoaocfielv vf.uv ^ovXo- 

{X€VOV. 

ZETEinnos. Our' a.TreTpulidfi'qv,'^ cS (^t'Ae Mo- 

cr;^cajj.', ovt e^ovXero avpL(f>iXoao^eiv cKetvos, dXX' 

C e(f)vyov /cai i(^o^-i]9r]v Xa^rjv (f>LXofjLaxovvri irapa- 

crxelv. ev /xev yap larpiKfj /ca^' "Ofi-qpov 6 dvrjp 

TToAAojv avrd^ios dXXojv, 

ovK evfiei^s Se rrpos (})iXoaocf)Lav, dAA' dei ri rpaxv 
/cat BvaKoXoi' c^oiv iv rols Aoyoij. ^ai vvv 
ivavTLOs €^' r)p.ds ex^yp^iy ^oatv en Trpoacodev ov 
fjLiKpov ov8 iineiKeg epyov rjfxiv avyxvcriv opojv 
reroXprjadat. SiaXexOeloL vepl StatTTjS' vy(.€i.vfjs. 
" x^P^S " y^P ^V"? '^^ (j)LXoa6(j)Cxiv /cat larpiov 
coOTTep TLvojv " MuCTcDv /Cat ^pvya)v 6piap.aTa,' 
/cat Ttva Tcov ov pL^rd airovhrjs, ov p,rjv dxpT^crTOJS, 
D elprfpevcov Trap' rjpcov Sta crropLarog exoiv icnrd- 
parrev. 

MOSXIHN. AAAa /cat rovTCov eycoye Kai rajw 

^ d,ireTpi\f/ij . . . direrpirpafxriv Cobet and L. Dlndorf: aireTpi\l/u 

, . . aTreTpe'^aixrjv. 

" Homer, Jl. xi. 514. 

" Proverbial ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 
No. 560. 

216 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL 

1. MoscHiON. So, Zeuxippus, yesterday you drove 
away Glaucus, the physician, when he wished to join 
in your philosophical discussions. 

ZEUXIPPUS. No, my dear Moschion, I did not drive 
him away, nor did he ^vish to join in philosophical 
discussion, but I avoided him and feared gi\'ing an 
opening to a man fond of contention. In medicine 
the man is, as Homer " puts it, 

Worth many others together, 

but he is not kindly disposed towards philosophy, and 
there is always a certain harshness and ill-nature 
inherent in his remarks. And just then he was 
coming at us full tilt, crying out, even before he came 
near us, that it was no small or suitable task, amount- 
ing in fact to a confusion of all bounds, which had 
been boldly assumed by us in discussing a healthful 
manner of living. For he asserted that the subjects 
of philosophy and medicine are as " far remote " 
from each other as "are the boundaries of" any 
" Mysians and Phrygians " ^ ; and thereupon, as he 
had at the tip of his tongue some statements of ours, 
which, though not very carefully formulated, are 
certainly not without utiUty, he proceeded to tear 
them to pieces. 

MOSCHION. Well, in this and in other matters, 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(122) aAAoii', <L Zeu^tTTTre, rrpoOviJLos aKpoaTTjs rjSecos 
av yevoLfxrjv. 

ZETHinno2. OtAoo-o^o? yap el rrjv (fujaiv, a) 
Mocrx^cov, /cat tco fxr) (fjiXtarpoCvrL jj^aAeTratVet? 
(fnXoaocfxp, Kal dyavaKreis et fidXXov avrov oterai 
7Tpoa7]K€iv yecofjierpias Kal SiaXeKTiKTJs Kal fxov- 
aiKTJs opdadai fieraTroiovfjievov rq ^rjrelv Kal 
fiav9dv€iv ^ovXofxevov 

OTTt Toi €v p,€ydpoiai KaKov r dyadov re re- 

TVKTat 

rip arcvfjiaTi. Kairoi TrAeiou? dv iSot? e/cei Beards, 
OTTOV decopiKov ri t'e'/xerat roZs avviovaiv, otaTrep 

E ^Adi^vrjai' rdjv iXevdeplcov Se rex^cov larpt-Kr] ro 
fi€v yXa(f>vp6v Kal irepirrov Kal eTTirepTres ovScfxids 
ivBedarepov e^ei, deojpiKov 8e p.iya roZs <^tAo- 
fxadovai rrjv acorrjpLav Kal rrjv vyUiav eTTiSiScoatv. 
ioOT* ov vapd^aaLV opatv eiriKaXelv Set TOt? irepi 
vyiGivojv StaAeyojLteVots" <j}iXoa6^oLs, aXX et p.rj 
TTavrdTTaaiu dveXoures olovrai heZv rovs opovs 
warrep iv /xta X^P^" '^o^^'^^S' ip.(f)LXoKaXelv , dpa 
TO iJSy rw Xoycp /cat ro dvayKaZov SicoKovres. 

MOSXinN. 'AAAa FXavKov jxkv icopev, c5 Zeuf- 
iTTTTe, VTTO a€piv6r7]ros avroreXrj ^ovXopevov etvai 
Kal aTTpoaSei] (l)iXoao(j)ias , cru 8e rov£ Xoyovs 

F ripXv BUXde Trdvras' ei Se ^ovXei, Trpwrovs eKeivovs 
218 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING W^LL, 122 

Zeuxippus, I should be very glad to be your attentive 
listener. 

ZEUXIPPUS. That is because you, Moschion, have a 
natural gift for philosophy, and you feel incensed 
at the philosopher who does not take an interest in 
medicine, and you are indignant that such a man 
should imagine it more becoming for him, in the eyes 
of mankind, to profess some knowledge of geometry, 
logical discussion, and music, than to desire to seek 
out and know 

All that of evil and good may have chanced to betide 
in the dwelling " 

which is his own body. And yet you will see a larger 
number of spectators in the theatres where money 
to pay for admission is distributed to those who gather 
together, as at Athens ; and of the liberal arts 
medicine is inferior to none in elegance, distinction, 
and the satisfaction which it yields, and it gives to 
its students admission to something of very great 
importance — the preservation of their life and health. 
Gjnsequently, the charge of trespass ought not to 
lie against philosophers if they discuss matters of 
health, but rather should they be blamed if they do 
not consider it their duty to abolish all boundar}-- 
hnes altogether, and to make a single field, as it 
were, of all honourable studies, and therein to cultivate 
them in common, thus aiming in their discussion at 
both the pleasant and the essential. 

MOscHiox. Well, Zeuxippus, let us say no more 
about Glaucus, who is so self-important that he wants 
to be a law unto himself, needing no help from philo- 
sophy ; but do you tell us in detail the whole dis- 
cussion ; or, if you prefer, just those statements 
• Homer, Od. iv, 392. 
VOL. II H 2 219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

cUv e(f)'qs ov ttolvv jxeTO. aTTOvSrjs etprjixevcov iin- 
Xafx^dveadai rov VXavKov. 

2. ZETEinnos. "Ecfjrj roivvv 6 iralpos "Qficov 
aKovaai rivog Xeyovrog a>? ro ras x^^P^s aet 
Oepixas ^X^^^ '^^■^ y-'h TT^P^opdv ifjvxopievas ov 

123 jXLKpov €17] TTpos vyietav, /cat rovvavriov rj rcov 
aKpcov TTCpLipv^is els Ttt fieaa avveXavvovcra ro 
deppLOV wo-Trep nva avvT^Oeiav ^ pi^Xiriqv ifXTTOiet 
TTvperov' TO 8' e^cu arpe(j)ovra pcera t7]s deppiOTrjTOs 
e'A/cetv eirl Travra Kal hiavipLeiv ttjv vXrjv vyieivov. 
av pikv ovv^ ivepyovvres tl tols X^P^*- '^^■^ XP^P-^^'^^ 
TvyxoLvcop,€v, avT7]v T7]v Kivrjaiv eTTayeiv evravOa 
Kal (Jvvex^i'V to deppiov kpycov Se roiovrcvv axoXrjv 
dyovras rJKtara 8eiv TTpoaSex^odai rols aKpois 
TO ifjuxpov. 

3. "Eiv fiev ovv TOVTO rcov yeXaadevrcov "^v 
Sevrepov 8' oi/xai to nepl Tag Tpocf)as as rrpoa- 

B ^epere rols Kap^vovaiv . aTTTecrdai yap avTcov 8ta 
Xpovov 7Taprjv€i /cat yeveudai, avvedil^ovTas avTov? 
iv TCp vyiaiveiv /cat piT] TpeptovTas coctrrep to. 
TTtttSapta pL'qhe pnaovvras eVetVi^v t'^v StatTav, 
dXXa TTOLOvpievovs drpepia x^'-P'^'^l^V '^"t? ope^ecrt 
Kal avvTpo(f)Ov, ottojs" €v tw voaeiv p,r) Svax^pai- 
va}[jL€V (1)S <{)dppiaKa Ta ctrta ftTjS' daxdXXcofiev 
aTrXovv TL Kal dvoipov Kal aKVLOov Xap,^dvovr€s . 
odev oj}8' dXouTOVs ttotc ^cvktIov eXOeZv eirl 
rpo(f)r)v ov8' vhayp Tnelv olvov rrapovTog ovhe 
deppLov €v Oipei, x^^^^^ TrapaKeipievrjs, Taj piev 

^ oJiv added by Meziriaciis. 

« Plutarch himself presumably. 
• Cf. Moralia, 635 c. « Cf. Moralia, 661 b. 

220 



I 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 122-123 

which you first referred to as not altogether carefully 
formulated, which you say Glaucus seized upon. 

2. ZEUXiPPUS. Well, our companion" asserted that 
he had heard somebody say that keeping the hands 
always warm, and never allowing them to get cold, 
is in no small measure conducive to health, and, 
conversely, the chilling of the extremities, by con- 
centrating the warmth in the interior of the body, 
creates, as it were, a habit or a predisposition towards 
feverishness ; and for a man to divert the substances 
in his body toward the surface, and to conduct and 
distribute them, along with the warmth, to all parts 
of his body, is healthful.'' If therefore we happen to 
be doing something with our hands and using them, 
the motion itself brings the warmth to these parts, 
and keeps it there ; but when not engaged in such 
activities we must by no means allow the cold to find 
lodgement in our extremities. 

3. This, then, was one of the things ridiculed. The 
second, I think, concerned the food which you people 
serve to the sick. For he urged that we should 
partake of it and taste it from time to time, and get 
ourselves used to it in time of health, and not abhor 
and detest such a regimen, like little children, but 
gradually make it familiar and congenial to our 
appetites, so that in sickness we may not be dis- 
affected over our fare as if it were so much medicine, 
and may not show impatience at receiving something 
simple, unappetising, and savourless." For this 
reason, too, omitting the bath now and then before 
going to a meal is not a thing to be avoided, nor 
drinking only water when wine is at hand, nor drink- 
ing anything lukewarm in the summer-time when 
there is snow on the table ; and wliile dismissing 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(123) cTTiSei/CTt/cas' Kal ao(!)iGriKas x'^tpetv ea)vra<; oltto- 
C crx^(7€ig Tcov tolovtcov Kal fMeyaXavx^o-S €7tl rats 
aTTOcrx^aeaiv, avrovg he Kad* eavrovs CTLCOTrfj T'qv 
re ope^Lv afia rov crufji(f)€povTO'; vtttJkoov idit^ovras 
CLvaL jxeT evKoXcas, Kal rrjs ipvxT]? a(f)aLpovvra'S 
TTOppcxiQev €Ti rrjv irepl ravra pLLKpoXoyiav iv rals 
voaois Kal TO iTnOpiqvelv, dvoSvpopievrjg ws i^ 
"qSovaJv fjLcydXcov Kal dyaTrqrcov els dyevvrj Kal 
TaTTeivr^v dTreX'^Xarai Statrav. 

Ey yap elprjfievov to " eXov ^iov rov dptarov, 
•qBvv S' avTOv r) avvrjOeia iroLriaei," Kal Kara 
fiepog (vs eKaara Treipcofxevco xprjOLpiov ecrn, 
fidXiara Se tcov rrepl to crcD/xa Siatrr^/xaTCoi/, ev 
Totg vyteLvoraTOis eirdyovTa ttjv avvrjQetav, evfjievfj 
Kal yvojpLixa ttj <f)vaeL Kal ot/ceta TrapaaKevdt^eiv , 
D fiepLvr^fxevov d irdaxovaiv evioL Kal TTOiovaiv ev 
Tals dppioaTiais, ;!^aAe7raiVovTes" Kal Svcrava- 
axeTOVvTes uSaro? depp.ov TTpoGcjyepojJievov /cat 
po(j)r^jxaTos ri dpTov, fnapd p.ev Tavra Kal arjSrj 
fiLapous §e Kal ;(;aAe7roj)s' tovs dvayKal^ovras 
aTTOKaXovvTes. ttoXXovs Se /cat XovTpov dTTcoXeaev, 
ovhev ev dpxfj p.eya KaKOV exovras dXX rj to fxrj 
BvvaadaL pnqh^ V77op,ev€LV yevaaadai Tpo(f>rjs aXov- 
Tovs' <Lv Kal Tiros '^v 6 avroKparcup, (Ls (f)aaLV 
ot, voa-qXevaavres . 

4. "Ert Tolvuv iXexOr] roiovrov, cos dei jJLev 

vyieivorepa acajjiari rd evreXearepa, fjidXicrra Se 

E (fivXaKreov TrXrjapiovds Kal fiedas Kal ■qhvTraOeias 

" A precept of Pythagoras according to Plutarch, Moralia, 
466 F, and other writers who quote it ; cf. also Moralia, 
602 B. " Cf. Plato, Laws, p. 797 e. 

* There are varjdng accounts regarding the manner of 
Titus's death, poisoning or drowning being also alleged. 
222 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 123 

once for all time the ostentatious and studied ab- 
stinence from such things and the bragging over it, 
we should silently, by our o^v'n selves, habituate the 
appetite to be obedient to expediency with all 
serenity, and long beforehand we must rid our soul 
of its squeamishness in times of sickness about such 
trifles, and its lamentation thereat, as it deplores 
how it has been driven away from great and fond 
pleasures to an ignoble and humiliating way of 
living. 

Well has it been said, " Choose the life that is best, 
and constant habit Avill make it pleasant," " and, in 
particular, it is profitable for a man, experimenting 
with each several department of life and especially 
with those which have to do vWth the practices wliich 
affect the body, to inculcate a fixed habit during 
periods of soundest health, so thus to make these 
things agreeable, famihar, and congenial to his 
nature,* bearing in mind how some men feel and act 
in times of sickness, being a.ngry and fretful when 
hot water and gruel, or plain bread, is served to them, 
calling these things abominable and unpleasant, and 
abominable and hard-hearted also those who would 
force such things upon them. A bath has proved to 
be the death of many men who at the outset had not 
much the matter with them, save only that they 
could not and would not bear to taste food unless 
they had first had their bath ; of whom Titus the 
Emperor <= was one, as those who attended him in his 
iUness affirm. 

4. Something, moreover, was said to this effect, 
that, while the less expensive things are always more 
healthful for the body, we ought especially to guard 
against excess in eating and drinking, and against 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

eoprrjv Tiva fieXXovaav r) (^lAcuv vnoSox^v €V 
X€pC7LV e)(ovras t] TrpoaSoKwvras eariaaLV ^acriAt/o^v 
/cat TjyejxoviKrjV /cat avixnepLcbopav aTrapairrirov , 
olov iinovTos dvefxov /cat /cu/xaro? evaraXes ro 
aajfia Kal Kov<j)ov iv ez5Sta irapaa K€val,ovr as . 
epyov yap iartv iv avvovaiais /cat <f)iXo(f)poavvaLS 
auTOV €7TL rGiv fierpiajv /cat roJv awqdojv ^vXd^ai 
fjLT] Trdat jxer ar^Stas" Seivrjs €TTa)(6rj <f}avivTa /cat 
(f>opTiK6v. Iv* ovv jxr) TTvp €771 TTvpl, CO? (f>aat, 
TTXrjajxovT] Tis inl TrXrjcrpiovrj /cat aKparos eTr' 
F d/cparoj yevrjraL, ro '7Tai)(^dev daretojs vno OtAiTTTrou 
fxera aTTOvSrjs fiifxrjreov rjv Se roiovrov. dvdpcoTTOS 
avTOV em ^(copas ws ovv oXiyoi's ovra BecvvrjoaL 
TTapeKdXeaev, eld' opcov tzoAAou? dyovra irape- 
aKevaafxevcov ov ttoXXcov erapdrrero . avvatadop^evos 
ovv o OtAiTTTTO? VTrirrepLTTe tcov (f)iXajv GKacrrcp 
124 KeXevoiv irXaKOVvrt. KaraXtTrelv \(jopav, ol 8e 
TTeidofievoi /cat npocrSoKoJvTes e^dihovro tcov rrap- 
Keifxevcov. TJpKearev ovv aTraat ro Selrrvov. ovrco 8'q 
TTpOTTapao-Kevaareov avrovs tcov dvayKaicov crvpi- 
TTepLcfiopdJv, /cat oi/jo) /cat TrepLpiarL /cat vrj Ata 
/Lte^Ty )(d)pav ^vXdrrovTas iv ra> awp^ari, /cat 
Trp6acf)aTOv inl ravra /cat^ fiovXopiivriv rrjv ope^iv 
dyovrag. 

5. "^Av Se roiavrai rives dtfivco ^apeZs ovras 
rjp,ds /cat Sta/cet/xeVou? (f)avXcos dvdyKai KaraXd^co- 
aiv Tjyepiovajv KaXovvrwv 7) ^evcov i7n(f)av€vrcov vtt 

^ Tavra Kal Reiske : raOra. 

" The proverb may be found in Plato's Laws, p. 666 a, and 
often repeated in other writers. 

*" The story is repeated by Plutarch, Moralia, 178 d, and 
referred to, Moralia, 707 b. 
224 



\ 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING W^LL, 123-124 

all self-indulgence when we have immediately on 
hand some festival or a visit from friends, or when 
we are expecting an entertainment of some king or 
high official with its unavoidable social engagements ; 
and thus we should, as it were, in fair weather make 
our body trim and buoyant against the oncoming 
wind and wave. It is indeed a hard task, in the midst 
of company and good cheer, to keep to moderation 
and one's habits and at the same time to avoid the 
extreme disagreeableness which makes one appear 
offensive and tiresome to the whole company. There- 
fore, to avoid adding fire to fire (as the proverb has 
it)," and gorging to gorging, and strong drink to 
strong drink, we ought with all seriousness to imitate 
the polite joke of Phihp. It was in this wise ^ : A 
man had invited Pliihp to dinner in the country, 
assuming that he had but a few with him, but when 
later the host saw Philip bringing a great company, 
no great preparations having been made, he was much 
perturbed. Philip, becoming aware of the situation, 
sent word privately to each of his friends to " leave 
room for cake." They, following the ad\ice, and 
looking for more to come, ate sparingly of what was 
before them, and so the dinner was ample for all. 
In this manner, then, we ought to prepare ourselves 
in anticipation of our imperative round of social en- 
gagements by keeping room in the body for elaborate 
dishes and pastry, and, I dare to say it, for indulgence 
in strong drink also, by bringing to these things an 
appetite fresh and willing. 

5. If, however, such imperative occasions suddenly 
confront us when we are overloaded and in no con- 
dition for taking part — if, for instance, we receive an 
in\itation from a high official, or guests appear, so 

225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^I2i) alBovs ^aSt^etr et? ravro rot? LKavojg exovai /cat 
B crvfJLTTLveiv, ivravda fidXiara Set Trapareroixdai trpog 
" rr^v fxeya aivoixivrjv dvSpas atScu " /cat SvacvTrlav, 
Ta Toy rpayiKov Kpeovros Xeyovros 

Kpeiaaov Se /xot t'w TTpos o' aTrexQ^odai, ^eve, 
rj fjLaXdaKiadevd^ varepov p.eya areveiv. 

TO yap aypoLKias (fjo^rjdevra So^av et? TrXevptriv •^ 
(f>p€vlrLV iix^aXXeLV iavrov dypoLKOv tivos cu? dX-q- 
dcos iari /cat vovv ovk exovrog ovhe Xoyov dvev 
kvXlkos /cat KViarjs dvdpwTTOLs eTnardfxevov opuXeZv. 
rj re yap 7TapaLTr]cns dv to eVtSe^tov /cat to dcjTeZov 
exj], ovx TjTTOv earat Kexaptafxevr] ttjs avpLTrepi- 
C (f>opds' dv re ris Trapexcov eoriaaiv coairep dvaiav 
dyevoTOV avTOS dTTex'rjTaL, napd re tjj kvXiki /cat 
Tfi TpaTTet,r^ /xera TrpoOvfiias /cat (/}LXo(f)poavuTjs d/xa 
Tt TTaLl^cvv /cat XdycDV els eavrov, rjSlwv ^avelrai 
rod o'vp.jjiedvaKop.evov /cat avvoipo(f)ayovvTOs • ifxv-q- 
adrj 8e rdjv p.ev TraAatoit' ^ AXe^dvhpov fjuerd ttotov 
TToXvv alcrxvvdevTos dvreLTreZv Mt^Sioj TrapaKaXovvri, 
/cat Kara^aXovTOs^ au^t? e|- dpxrjs avrov^ els 
aKparov d(/>^ ov hLe(j)ddp7], rd)v he Kad^ r]fj.ds 
'P'qyXov rod TrayKpariauTOV . KaXovvros yap €7tI 
TO Xovrpov dfx' r)fxepa Tirov K.aiaapos rJKe Kal 

* KaTa^oKbvTo^ Bernardakis : Kara^dWovTi. 
* avrbv Hercher: aiirbv. 



« The reference may be to Homer, II. xxiv. 45 (c/. Hesiod, 
Works and Days, 318). 

* Euripides, Medea, 290, quoted also in Moralia, 530 c. 

« C/. Moralia, 612 f. 

"* Presumably Plutarch again. 

226 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 124 

that we are constrained by a false sense of shame to 
join company Avith men who are in fit condition and 
to drink with them — then especially, in order to 
combat " shame which works miscliief for men " * 
(or rather I would call it shamefacedness), we shoxild 
summon to our defence the words which Creon 
speaks * in the tragedy : 

'Twere better, friend, to gain your hatred now ^ 

Than be soft-hearted and lament anon. 

For to be so afraid of being thought ill-bred as to 
plunge oneself into a pleurisy or brain -fever is 
proof that one is in very truth ill-bred, possessed 
of neither sense nor the reason wliich knows how to 
consort M'ith men without the wine-glass and the 
savour of food.*' For a request to be excused, if 
characterized by cleverness and AAit, is no less agree- 
able than joining in the round of gaiety ; and if a 
man pro\ides a banquet in the same spirit in which 
he provides a burnt-offering which it is forbidden to 
taste, and personally abstains when the wine-cup and 
the table are before him, at the same time volunteer- 
ing cheerfully some playful allusion to himself, he 
will create a pleasanter impression than the man who 
gets drunk and gormandizes for company. Of the 
men of earher times he ** mentioned Alexander,* 
who, after a prolonged debauch, was ashamed to say 
no to the challenges of Medius, and abandoned him- 
self to a fresh round of hard drinking, which cost 
him his life ; and of the men of our time he 
mentioned Regulus the prize-fighter. For when 
Titus Caesar called him to the bath at daybreak, 

« Cf. Plutarch's Life of Alexander, chap. Ixx^-. (p. 706 c); 
Diodorus, xvii. 117; Athenaeus, 434 c; Arrian, Anabasis, 
vii. 25. 1 ; Quintus Curtius, x. 4 ; Justin, xiL 13. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

D avveXovaaro , /cat niajv dira^, a>s (fiaaiv, airoTrXq^ias 
(124) KaraXa^ovarjs evOvs OLTredave. 

Tai;^' TjjJLLv 6 TXavKos iv yeXcori 7rpov(f)ep€V cos 
TraiBaycoyLKd- tcov 8' aAAoji/ ov Trdvv vpoOvfxos rfv 
aKoveiv, ovh T^/xei? CKeivoj Sirjyetadat. av S' ctti- 
OKOTTei Twv XexBevTOJv eKaarov. 

6. IT/DcuTOS' ixkv 6 TiCOKpdr-qs TrapaKeXcvofievos 
cf)vXdTT€adai rcov ^pcop-drcov oaa jxrj TreivcovTas 
eadieiv avaTreidei, /cat tojv TTCOjxdrcjjv oaa Triveiv 
117] Siipcovrag, ovx aTrXaJg to ;^p^o'^at tovtols Att- 

E rjyopevcrev, dXXd ;!(p7yCT^at Seofxevovs eStSaa/ce /cat to 
rjSv Karardrrovrag aurcDv els to dvayKoiov, oianep 
OL Tct decopiKo. TTOiovvres iv rats TroAeat arpariai- 
riKd. TO ya/9 rjhv rfj (f>vaeL p^ixP'' ^^ V /^^'po? tov 
Tpecf)ovTos oiKelov iari, /cat Set Treivojvras ert, tcov 
dvayKaicov aTToXaveLV -q rGyv rjSeayv, tSta Se fXTj 
KLvelv erepas ope^eig rajv kolvcov dTrrjXXayjxevovs. 
axTTTep yap av to)^ HoiKpdrei yvfivdaiov fjv ovk 
arjSes 7] opx'^o'is, ovtojs cotlvi to Trdfi/jLa /cat to 
Tpdyrjfia SecTTVOv icTTi /cat aiTcov, '^ttov ^XdiTTCTai,' 

TO 8' d7T€)(OVTa TTJ cf)Ua€L TO fJi€TpiOV /Cat 7T€7TXrjpCO- 

fievov eTnSpdTTeadaL tcov toiovtcov (f)vXaKT€ov iv 

F TOt? fidXcGTa. (f)vXaKT€ov 8e ttjs Trepl TavTa 

(f)LX7]SovLa£ /cat yaaTpifxapytas oy8ev tJttov aireipo- 

KoXiav /cat <f)LXoTip.iav' /cat yap avTat TroAAct/ctj 

^ a5 TV Wyttenbach : avn^. 

" Xenophon, Memorahilia, i. 3. 6 ; cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 
513 c, 521 E, and 661 f. 

* Perhaps a reference to Demosthenes, Kx. 4, which says 
that in time of war all surplus funds are to be devoted to the 
army. 

" Xenophon, Symposium, ii. 17-20; again referred to 
infra, 130 e, and moralia 711 e. 
228 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 124 

he came and bathed with him, took but one drink, 
they say, and died immediately from a stroke of 
apoplexy. 

These are the teachings which Glaucus in derision 
quoted aggressively to us as pedantic. The rest he 
was not eager to hear, nor we to tell him. But I 
beg that you Avill examine each of the several state- 
ments. 

6. First there is Socrates," who, in urging us to be 
on our guard against such things to eat as persuade 
us to eat when we are not hungry, and such things to 
drink as persuade us to drink when we are not thirsty, 
did not absolutely forbid the use of these things ; but 
he was instructing us to use them only if we needed 
them, and to make the pleasure in them ser\'e our 
necessity, just as our statesmen do who turn to 
mihtary uses their funds for amusements.'' For that 
which is pleasant, in so far as it is a nutritive element, 
is congenial to our nature, and it is by remaining 
still hungry- that we ought to get enjoyment from 
the necessary or the pleasant foods ; but we should 
not stir up in ourselves a second and separate set 
of appetites after we have appeased the usual ones. 
And here is another consideration. Just as Socrates * 
found dancing a not unpleasant exercise, so the man 
for whom pastry and sweets serve as a meal and as 
food suffers less injury. But when a man has satisfied 
the moderate demands of his nature, and has had his 
fill, he ought to exercise the very greatest vigilance 
against helping himself to such things. And in such 
matters, while we should be on guard against love 
of pleasure and gluttony, yet we should be no less 
on guard against vulgarity and love of notoriety'. 
For these latter often help to persuade people to eat 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

awavaTTeWovat jjlt] neivcovrag eadUiv evia Kal 
TTLveiv fjiT] Stipojvras, dveXevdepovs KO/xiSfj Kal 
(JjopriKas VTTO^dXXovaaL ^avraaias, d)S dronov 
earc Trpay/xaros" OTraviov Kal TroXvreXovs firj oltto- 
XavaaL irapovTos, olov ovdaros r) fxvKTjrcov 'IraAt- 
Kiov •^ Sa/xtou TrXaKovvTos rj )(l6vos iv AlyvTTTO). 
Tavra yap St^ttov TTpodyerai ttoXXolkis ;\;p'^CT^at 
TOLS Trept^oi]TOLs Kal QTTaviois, ujairep vtto Kviarjs 
125 Trjg Kevrjs Bo^rjs dyopievov? /cat ro aajfia KOLVCoveXv 
firjSev Seofievov dvayKa^ovras , ottcos e;\;ajcrti' drepois 
S irjye Lad ai, ^rjXovfxevoi rrjs aTroXavaecus rcov ovtco 
hvaTTopiuTCJV Kal TreptTTCov. ojxoia Se /cat irpo^ 
yvvaiKas ivho^ovs rrdcrxovatv. iStatj fiev yap eariv 
ore Kal /caAai? /cat dyancoaaLs crvvava7Tav6p,€voi 
rr]V 7]<yv)(iav dyovai, ^pvvr) 8e reXdaavreg dpyvpiov 
7] AatSt Kal TO aojpa (f)avXcos Kal npo? crvvovatav 
apycbs exovres hiaKiijXGvov iyeipovoLV afxa /cat 
TTapaKaXouGL to aKoXaaTOV eirl ttjv rjSovr^v vtto ttjs 
Kevrjs S6^r)s. avTTj yovv eXeyev rj ^pvvr] vpea^v- 
B repa yeyevrjfxevq ttjv rpvya frXeiovos TTOjXetv Std 
TTjv So^av. 

7, "EffTt Se [xeya Kal davfxaoTov, dv oaov rj (f}v- 
ais Seofxevrj Sep^erat tojv' rjSovwv TTpoatefxevoL tco 
acofiarL, fxaXXov S' dv to. rroXXd rrapd rag ope^ets 
avTcp Siapiaxofievoi /cat dvafiaXXopievoi /cat fioXis 
TTavv Tat? ai^ay/caiat? ;^pT7/AaTi^oj'Tes' rj, a>s (jyrjOLV 
6 YiXdrcov, Kal hdKvovTog Kal KaraTeivovTos ev- 
hihovTes d^Xa^eis dTraXAdTTOifiev . rds S' avdrraXiv 

» Supra, 124 d. 

' For the cruelties practised in the preparation of this 
highly esteemed delicacy see Plutarch, Moralia, 997 a. 
" The quotation does not appear in Plato, but Plutarch is 

230 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING \MLLL, 124-125 

something when they are not hungry, and to drink 
when they are not thirsty," by suggesting utterly 
sordid and cheap conceits — that it is absurd not to 
take advantage of the presence of some rare and 
expensive thing, as, for example, sow's udder,* 
Italian mushrooms, Samian cake, or snow in Egypt. 
For things of this sort do indeed often induce people 
to use what is renowned and rare, since they are led 
on by empty repute as by an attractive savour, and 
compel their body to do its share, although it feels 
no need, so that they may have a tale to tell to others, 
and may be emied for their enjo}-ment of things so 
hard to obtain and so uncommon. Quite similar is 
their beha\iour toward notorious women. There are 
times when they repose in quiet A\ith their o^vn wives 
who are both lovely and loving, but when they have 
paid money to a Phryne or a Lais, although their body 
is in sorry state and is inclined to shirk its task, they 
rouse it forth^^ith to action, and call in Ucentiousness 
to minister to pleasure, all because of empty repute. 
In fact, Phryne herself, in her advancing years, said 
that she got a better price for her remnants because 
of her repute. 

7. It is a great marvel if we get off unscathed, when 
we concede to the body only as much of pleasures 
as Nature in her need finds a place for, but still more 
so when we battle \\-ith it vigorously to thwart its 
appetites, and keep putting them off, and finally 
consent to some negotiation with such as will not be 
denied, or, as Plato" says, "yield when the body 
bites and strains." But when the case is reversed, 

probably summing up from memory an account of a contest 
with the passions such as may be foimd, for example, in the 
Phaedrus, pp. 254 ff. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(125) ^K TTJs i^vx^is irrl to aco/xa Kariovaos eTTidvfxias 
Kai KaTa^iat,oiX€vas rots €K€lv7]s VTrrjpereZv koI 
C cruve^aviaraadai Trddeaiv ouSejuta fiiqxavrj to ^17 
acpoSpordras ^Xd^ag /cat pLeytaras e^' rjSovais 
aadeveai /cat afxavpals evaTToXnTelv . rJKi.aTa he 
ifjvxrjs €7ndvfiLa crcD/xa Trpos rjSovds KLvrjreov' rj 
yap apx^] Trapd cf)V(nv yiyveTai. /cat Kaddnep at 
ToJv fiacrxaXc^v ifji^Xa^ricreis ovk lSlov ovSe rrpdov 
oi5S' IXecjov yeXcora rfj ipvxfj Trapixovaiv dAA' 
eoiKora GTvaapiw /cat jj^aAeTroi', ovrco TrdXiv oaas 
TO acopLa vvTTopievov viro ttjs ^vxrjs rjSovds tax^L 
/cat TapaTTopievov, eKararLKal /cat rapa/crt/cat 
ayrai /cat dAAdrptai tt^j (j^vaecLs elatv. OTav ovv 
D Tt Tiov aTTavLOJV aTToXavapLdrajv rj ivSo^ojv rrapa- 
yevTjTai, <f)LXoTipiiqTeov rat? aTTOcrx^creaL pidXXov ■^ 
rat? aTToXavcreaL, piepun^pievovs otl Kaddirep 6 
^ipLOjvihrjs eXeye pL-qSenoT^ avTcp pLerapeXrja-at 
GLyrjaavrL, (fiOey^apiiva) 8e TToAAd/ct?, ovrco? rjpLV 
OVT oiftov TTapojaapLevoLs pierepbeXiqaev ovd^ vScvp 
dvrl OaAeptVou ttlovolv, dXXd rovvavriov ov pcovov 
ov TTpoa^Laareov earl rr)v (f)V(Jiv, oAAd Kav Seopeinj 
7Tpo(Jcf)eprjraL tl tcov tolovtcov, €7tI rd Atrd /cat 
avvrjdy] TroAAd/ctj dnoTpeTTTeov eOovs evcKa /cat 
pLeXirrjs ttjv ope^LV. 

ecTTep yap dScKelv XPV* 

E <l)r)alv 6 Qrj^aXos ovk opdcos Xiyoiv, 

TvpavvLhos irepi 
KoXXiOTOV dSiKetv 

" Repeated in more or less similar form, Moralia, 10 f and 
514 F. 

232 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 125 

and the desires descend from the mind to the body 
and force it to be subservient to the mind's emotions, 
and to join in their excitements, there is no way to 
prevent their lea\ing as a residue the most violent 
and serious injuries as the aftermath of feeble and 
evanescent pleasures. Least of all ought the body 
to be stirred to pleasures by the mind's desire, since 
such an origin is unnatural. Just as tickling the 
arm-pits so affects the mind as to produce laughter 
which is not natural, or even mild or happy, but con- 
vulsive and harsh, so whatsoever pleasures the body 
achieves through being prodded and disturbed by 
the mind are deranging and disturbing and foreign 
to Nature. Whenever, then, someone of those rare 
and notorious means of enjoyment is afforded us, we 
ought to take more pr!de in abstinence than in enjoy- 
ment, remembering that just as Simonides " used to 
say that he had never been sorry for haNing kept 
silent, but many a time for having spoken, so we 
have never been sorry either for having put a dainty 
to one side, or for having drunk water instead of 
Falernian >\ine, but the opposite ; not only ought 
Nature not to be forced, but if anything of this sort 
is offered her even when she has need of it, the 
appetite ought to be often diverted from it towards 
the plain and familiar food for the sake of habituation 
and training. 

If one must needs do wrong, 

are the words of the Theban,* who is not correct in 
saying, 

far best it were 
To do it for a kingdom's sake. 

* Eteocles in the Phoenissae of Euripides, i. 524 ; quoted 
by Plutarch also in Moralia, 18 d. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Tjixels Se ^4Xtlov cos, etnep <f>L\oho^€iv npos ra roi- 
avra, eyKpareLo} KaXAtarov vnep vyieias. ov fjirjv 
aAAo, Kal puKpoXoyia koL yXiaxporqs ivlovs avayKo,- 
L,€L TTie^ovras o'lkol rag eTnOujxias Kal KaTiaxvaivov- 
ras efXTnTrXaaOaL Trap* eripois rcov TroXvreXoJv Kal 
aTToXaveiv, KadaTrep e/c 7ToXep,ias d<f)et8cos eTnaLTLt,o- 
p,€Vovs- eira KaKcvs Glared ivres aTriaaiv, els rrjv 
varepaiav €(f)68tov ttjs aTrXr^arLas ttjv aTreipiav e^ov- 
r T€s. o nev ovv K.pa.T7]s Sta rpv(f)7jv Kal TToXvreXeiav 
otofievos ovx T}KL(Tra ras ardaeis Kal rds rvpavvihas 
epb^veadai rats TroXeai, fierd TraiSia? TTapr]V€L 

fJLT) TTpO (f)aKi]S AoTTttS' av^oiv 
alel es^ ardaiv dixjxe ^dXr^s' 

avTos Be Tis iavrco TrapaKeXeveado) " firj npo (l>aKrjs 
XoTrdS av^cov alel " fjir^Se Trdvraj? vTrep^aivajv ttjv 
KapSajXLSa Kal ttjv eXaiav errl to dplov /cat tov 
L^Qvy €Ls ardaiv €k 77X1)0 ixovrjs to acbp,a Kal rapa- 
XO.S ep-^dXXeiv Kal hiappoias. to. yap evTeXrj 
KpareX ttjv ope^LV inl tojv <f>vaLKa)v pbirpaiv, 
126 oipoTTOLcov Se rexvai Kal Srjp^iovpywv Kal 

ra iravovpya ravr* oipdpLa x^'^orpcpLfjcara 

Kara rov kcojjllkov dei rovs opovs rrjg rjSovrjs p.era- 
ridrjcnv elg rovpurpoadev Kal TrapaXXdrrei ro avfi- 
(f)€pov. ovK olSa 8' ovriva rpoTTOv, rjfiaJv ras yvval- 
Kas oaai (j>iXrpa firjxavojvrai Kal yorjreias enl rovs 
dvSpas ^SeXvrrofjLevcov Kal hvax^paivovriov , pnadoi- 

^ eyKparelq. Wyttenbach : iyKpareia, 
* aUi is F.C. B. : eis Athenaeus, iv. p. 158 b: del is. 

" Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr. ii. p. 670, Crates, No. 10 or 
Diels, Poet. Phil. Frag. p. 219, Crates, No. 6. 

* Author unknown; cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. iii. p. 435. 
234 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 125-126 

But we can improve on this by saying that if we must 
needs seek repute in such matters as food and drink, 
" far best it were " by continence for the sake of 
health. Nevertheless stinginess and greediness con- 
strain some persons, who repress and reduce their 
desires in their o'vati homes, to stuff themselves and 
enjoy themselves \vith expensive things at others' 
houses as though they were engaged in ruthless 
foraging in an enemy's country ; then they go away 
much indisposed, and for the next day they have 
an attack of indigestion to pay for their insatiable 
appetite. So Crates," thinking that luxury and ex- 
travagance were as much to blame as anything for 
the growth of civil discords and the rule of despots 
in states, humorously ad\'ised : 

Do not, by always making our fare more ample than 

lentils, 
Throw us all into discord. 

And let ever^'^body exhort himself " not to make his 
fare always more ample than lentils," and by all 
means not to proceed beyond cress and oUves to 
croquettes and fish, and by overeating throw " his 
body into discord," that is to say, into derangements 
and diarrhoeas. For the inexpensive things keep 
the appetite to its natural hmits of moderation, but 
the arts of the chefs and their trained helpers, and, 
in the words of the comic poet,** 

These knavish dainties and these complex foods, 

are constantly advancing and enlarging the bounds 
of enjoyment, and altering our ideas of what is 
good for us. I do not know how it is that, while 
we loathe and detest women who contrive philters 
and magic to use upon their husbands, we entrust 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(126) Tor? re /cat SovXols TTpo'Cejxe6a ra airla /cat to. oipa 
fiovovov fiayyavevcLV /cat (f)apfidTT€iv. et roivvv 
/cat TTLKporepov (fiaveiTai to tov 'Ap/cecrtAaou irpos 
Tovs fJiOLXi'KOvg /cat d/coAaaTous" elprnxlvov , " fjLrjSev 
Stac^epetv omadev Tiva tj epLTrpouOev etvai KLvaiSov," 

B ovK dvap/jLoarov icrri tols VTroKeifievoLs. ri yap (hs 
dXrjdcbs hia<f)ipei crarvpia Trpoadyovra Kivetv /cat 
TTapo^vveiv ro aKoXaarov cttl rds rjSovdg, ^ ttjv 
yevuLV 6ap,als /cat /capu/cetat? epedil,eiv wa-nep rd 
ipcopicovra Kvrjafxdjv del heZadai /cat yapyaXiap.u)v; 
8. "AAAore pikv ovv irpos ra? r)8ovds XeKreov 
iCTO)?, TO KaXov /cat (re/xvov icf)' iavTOV ttjs ey- 
KpaTeiag olov iaTL SeLKVvovTag' 6 Se vvv Xoyog vnep 
TToXXdJv r)8ov(X)v /cat jxeydXcov iaTiv. ovTe yap irpa- 
^ets" ovT^ iXTTiSas our^ dTTodr^pbtas ovt6 Staycoyas at 
voGOL ToaavTag oaas rjhovds 'qjxaJv d(f>aLpovvTaL /cat 

C Si,a</)9€ipovai,v. odev rJKiaTa XvacTeXel KaTa(f)pov€LV 
Try? uyteta? TOt? fidXiGTa ttjv 'qSovrjv Stcu/couat. 
/cat yap (f)iXoao(f)eLV dppcoaTLai ttoXXols^ Trapexovcrt 
/cat UTpaTTjyelv vrj Ata /cat ^aacXeveiv, lySovat Se 
acofJLaTLKal /cat dTroAauaets" evtat juet' ouS' oAco? 
yeVecrtv iv voaco Xafji^dvovcnv, at 8e Xajx^dvovaai 
Ppa)(v TO oliceZov /cat ov KaOapov dAAa GV[X7T€(pvp- 
puevov TToXXo) TO) dXXoTpicp /cat ixep^cvXcoTnofxevov 
wa-nep e/c l,aX'T]<5 /cat \<ei[i(x)vos dva^ipovaiv . ov 

iv TrXrjCTpLOvaLS Kt/Tr/jty, 
dAAd fxdXXov iv evSia aapKos /cat yaXrjvr) /cat 

^ TToXXo?? Meziriacus : TroXXoi;?. 

° Repeated by Plutarch, Moralia, 705 e, in a slightly 
different form. Cf. Aulus Gellius, iii. 5. 

" The sentiment is probably taken from Euripides ; cf. 

236 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 126 

our food and provisions to hirelings and slaves to be 
all but bewitched and drugged. If the saying of 
Arcesilaus <* addressed to the adulterous and hcenti- 
ous appears too bitter, to the effect that ' it makes 
no difference whether a man practises lewdness in 
the front parlour or in the back hall,' yet it is not 
without its application to our subject. For in very 
truth, what difference does it make whether a man 
employ aphrodisiacs to stir and excite licentiousness 
for the purposes of pleasure, or whether he stimulate 
his taste by odours and sauces to require, Hke the 
itch, continual scratchings and tickhngs ? 

8. At some other time, then, it may be that we 
shall have to speak against pleasures, and show what 
an intrinsic beauty and dignity belongs to contin- 
ence ; but the present discourse is on the side of 
many pleasures and great. For diseases do not take 
from us and spoil for us so many of our enterprises 
or hopes or travels or pastimes as they do of our 
pleasures. Hence contempt for health is least 
profitable for those who make pleasure their chief 
aim. For infirmities allow many persons to be 
philosophers, or actually even generals or kings, but 
the pleasures and enjoyments of the body in some 
cases do not come to life at all in time of disease, and 
those that come to life yield but a brief part of what 
they properly should, and even that is not pure, but 
contaminated with much that is foreign, and marked, 
as it were, by the beatings of surge and storm. For 
it is not true that 

In well-gorged bodies Love resides,* 
but rather in serenity and calmness of the flesh does 

Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Euripides, No. 895, and Plutarch, 
Moralta, 917 b. 

«31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(126) KuTrpi? els rjSovrjv reXevra kol ^pcbaig Kal ttoctls- 
J) 7j 8^ vyUia rals rjBovals (Larrep 'q yaX-qvrj ralg aX- 
Kvoaiv datpaXrj /cat KaXr^v yeveaiv Kal Xox^Lav eV- 
8iSct)C76. Kopujjcbs yap eoiKev 6 UpoSiKos emelv ort. 
ToJv 'qSvajxaTCDv apiarov eon to TTvp' a.X'qdicrrepov^ 
8'* av TLS etTTOt rrjv vyUtav -qSvafxa deiOTarov elvat 
Kal 7Tpoar)V€GTaTov €<^da fxev yap Kal ottto. Kal 
TTevTa ^pcofiara voaovaiv r) KpanraXaJaLV ^ vavncb- 
Giv ovSefjiLav -qSovrfV ov8e X^P''^ aTToStScocrt, Kadapa 
Be Kal aKpaL<l)vris ope^is vyiaivovri aajjxarL irdv 
■fjBv TTOiel Kal " dpnaXeov," (hs "Ofxrjpos e(f>rj, Kal 
Ti p6a<j)opov. 

9. 'ETrel 8' woTTep 6 Ar]fjidB7)s TToXcfxiKovs d- 

E Kaipcog rovs ' Adrjuatovs ovras eXeye /xi^SeTTore 

X€Lporov€LV eLp'qvrjv dvev ixeXdva)v liJLaria)v, outco 

Kal rjixels odBenore fiefivijiJieda Xirrjs Siairr^s Kal 

ado(j)povos dvev KXvaewv^ Kal KaraTrXaojxdrcov 

€V T€ TOVTOLS yeVOfieVOL* 7Tl.€^OfJL€V C7(f>68pa Tag 

dfxapTLas, evaTTep€Lh6pi€VOL rfj ixvrjpir^ Kal, Kaddirep 
ol TToXXol vvv p.ev depas vvv Se x^P^^ iirLfxefx- 
<f>6iJL€voi voacoSeLs dTTohrjp,tas SeSteVat* Xeyovcn, e'f - 
aLpovjJievoi rrjs alria'S rrjv dKpaaiav Kal (f)LXr]SovLav 
dAA' ojCTTrep o Avai/jLaxos iv Ferais avaxedels 
BiipT) Kal TTapaSovs eavrov fxera rov arparevixaros 
F alxp-dXoiTOV elra ttlcov vBcop ifjvxpov, " co deoi," 
ehrev, " cos ^paxeias rjBovrjs evcKa fieydXrjv 

^ oK-rjdiffTepov Stobaeiis, ci. 3: aXyidiaraTov. probably from 
the following superlatives. * 5' Meziriacus : yap, 

* KXvaewv F.C. B. : Xvaewv Kronenberg: Kaiaeuv. 

* yevofiivoL F. C.B. : yiyvo/xevoi, 

* Sfduvai F. C. B. : W rifas. 

* Cf. Aristotle, Historia animalium, v. 8 ; Plutarch, 
Moralia, 982 r. 

238 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 126 

love find its end in pleasure, as also do eating and 
drinking ; and health affords to pleasures, as cahji 
weather to the halcyons," a safe and lovely nesting 
and hatching of their young. Prodicus seems to 
have put the matter very neatly in sapng that fire 
is the best of sauces '' ; but one might more truly 
speak of health as being the most divine and agree- 
able sauce. For boiled, baked, or fried foods afford 
no proper pleasure or even gratification to those 
who are suffering from disease, debauch, or nausea, 
while a clean and unspoiled appetite makes everv- 
thing, to a sound body, pleasant and " eagerly 
craved," as Homer has said,'' — that is, agreeable. 

9. As Demades used to say that the Athenians, 
who were for making war in season and out of season, 
never voted for peace save when wearing black, so 
we never give a thought to a plain and restrained 
way of hving except when using enemas and poultices. 
But when we find ourselves in this phght we try hard 
to stifle the thought of our A\Tongdoings, setting 
ourselves against their remembrance, and, as is the 
way of most people who object to this or that air or 
this or that locahty as insalubrious when they say 
that they dread travelUng, we exclude our intemper- 
ance and self-indulgence froiji the cause of our ill- 
ness. Nay, we should recall how Lysimachus ** among 
the Getae was constrained by thirst to surrender 
liimself and the army vrith him as prisoners of war, 
and afterwards as he drank cold water exclaimed, 
" My God, for what a brief pleasure have I throwTi 

* Attributed to Evenus in Moralia, 50 a, 697 d, and 
1010 c. 

" Od. viii. 164. Cf. also 101 c supra. 

<* 292 B.C.; f/. also 3/ora/ia, 183 E and 555 D. Lysimachus 
was one of the successors of Alexander the Great. 

2S9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

evSatfJLOvtav aire^aXofjLrjv ," ovtojs dvoiareov ev 
Tat? appcoanats irpog avrovs d)S Stct ipuxpoTToalav 
7J Xovrpov aKaipov t] crvix7Tepi(f)opav TToXXag [xev 
avTOJV 8L€cf)deLpa[ji€v^ -qSoi'ds, KaXas Se* irpd^eis 
eTTtrepTTets re Staycoya? aTTcoXecraixev . 6 yap e/c 
rcov roiovTcov avaXoyiapiajv Srjyp,6s alfxdaaei, ttjv 
pLvripirjV, ayare olov ovXrjv irapafxevovaav iv to) 
vyLatveiv evXa^earepovs TToieZv Tvepl rrjv hianav. 
127 ovhe yap dyav ro vyiaZvov crai/xa (f)vaei p,eydXas 
eTTidvfXLas ovSe hvaTreidels ouS' davvijOeis ovSe 
hvaeK^idoTOVs , dXXd Set Oappelv^ irpos to,? ope'^ets 
CKcjiepofxevas /cat eTTLTrrjScocras rals dnoXavaeaLV, 
d)S iXa(f)p6v /cat TraiScKov exovaas ro fjLepufjLfjLoipovv 
/cat KXavd[jivpil,6p,€vov, elra Travofxevag dpdeia'r]s 
TTJs TpaTTe^rjs /cat firjSev iyKaXovaas jLfjyS' dSt/cou- 
fjL€vas, dXXd rovvavTLOv Kadapds nat IXapds /cat 
ov ^apetag ouSe vaurtdjSet? Trepifxevovcrag ttjv 
avpiov. a)(JTT€p dfieXei /cat Tcfiodeos eiTre rrj 
B TTporepaia SeSenrvrjKd)? iv 'A/ca87j/>teta Trapd FIAa- 
TCOVL fjiovaiKov /cat Xltov BeiTTVov, cos ol Trapd 
YiXdroiVL SeiTTvijaavres /cat etj avpiov rjSecos 
yiyvovrai. Aeyerat Se /cat ^AXi^avhpos eiTrelv 

TOVS TTJS "ASa? OlJjOTTOLOVS aTTOTTe/Xj/'ajLteVOS' d)S 

ex^L ^eXriovas dyeiv* del avv avrco, Trpos p-^v to 

dpiGTOV TTjV VVKTOTTOpiaV, TTpOS §6 TO SeiTTVOV T7]V 

oXiyapiaTLav . 

10. Ou/c dyvocx) 8' oTi /cat Sta kottovs irvpeTTOV- 

^ 8i€<p9elpanev Reiske : dia(pd€ipo/x€v. 

* 5^ Wyttenbach: re. 

' OappeTv] Oappovvras fxdxeffOai Stobaeus, Florilegium, ci. 7. 

* ^eXrlovas &,yeiv'] ^eXrlovas Stobaeus, Florilegium, ci. 8. 

" That this story had acquired almost a fixed phraseology 
in the source from which Plutarch took it may be seen 
240 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING W^LL, 126-127 

away great prosperity ! " And in the same way we 
ought in our attacks of illness to remember that for 
a cold drink, an ill-timed bath, or a social party, we 
have spoiled many of our pleasures and have ruined 
many an honourable enterprise and dehghtful 
recreation. For the sting caused by such reflections 
keeps the memory raw, so that, hke a scar that 
remains when the body is in health, it makes us more 
circumspect about our way of h\-ing. For the healthy 
body will not, to any immoderate extent, breed 
desires that are vehement, intractable, unwonted, 
and hard to dispossess ; nay, we can boldly and con- 
fidently oppose the appetites which would fain go 
beyond all bounds and assault our enjoyments, know- 
ing that their whining and whimpering is a tri\ial 
and childish manifestation, and that later, when the 
table is removed, they will cease repining and make 
no complaint nor feel themselves aggrieved, but, on 
the contrary, untainted and cheerful rather than 
dulled and nauseated by over-indulgence, await the 
morrow. The remark which Timotheus " made, the 
day after he had dined ^vith Plato at the Academy 
on the simple fare of the scholar, is in point here : 
" Those who dine with Plato," he said, " get on 
pleasantly the next day also." And it is reported 
that Alexander said ^ when he discharged the chefs 
of Ada that he had better ones always to take with 
him — his night marches for breakfast, and for dinner 
his frugal breakfast. 

10. I am not unaware that men contract fevers 

by comparing this passage and Plutarch, Moral ia, 6S6 a, 
Aelian, Varia Historia,u. 18, Athenaeus,p. 419d,andCicero, 
Tusculan Disputations, v. 35 (100). 

* Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 180 a, 1099 c, and Life of Alex- 
ander, chap. xxii. (p. 677 b). 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(127) criu avdpcoTTOi Kal 8t' iyKavcrci^ Kal 8ia nepupu^eis. 
dXX oooTTep at rcov dvdecov oafxal Kad^ iavrds 
aadevetg elai, ^^(deiaai, Se toj eAat'o) pcofirjv 
taxovai Kal rovov, ovtco tols e^cjodev airiaLs Kal 

C dpxals OLOV ovaiav Kal a<ji)p,a Trapex^t to TrXijdos 
v7TOK€ifji€vov. dvev Se rovTov,^ tovtcov ;^aA67r6t' 
ovoiv, aAA' e^a/jLaupovvTai Kal hiax^ovrai paSicos, 
aifxaros Xctttov Kal Trvev/xaros Kadapov Sexopevov 
TT^v KLV7]aLv iv Bg TrXrjdei Kal Trepmojpbari olov 
tXvs dvaTapaTTOfievrj p-iapd -noiel Trdvra Kal 
ovax^py) Kal SvaaTraXXaKra. 8to Set p,r] Kaddirep 
OL ayaarol^ vavKX-qpoL ttoXXol St' dirXriariav 
€p,^aX6p€voi, Tovvrevdev rjhr] SiareXovGLV dv- 
rXovvres Kal VTre^epaJvres^ ttjv ddXarrav, ovtcos 
e/XTrX-qaavTag to aajfia Kal ^apvvavras VTroKadalpetv 

D avdis Kal V7tokXvI,€iv, dXXd Bianqpelv evaraXes, 

OTTOiS, Kav TTLeadfj 7TOT€, (f)€?0iOV SlK7)V VVO KOV(f>6- 

rrjTog ava^eprjTai. 

11. MaAtcrra Se TTpo(f>vXaKr4ov iv rat? npo- 
TTadeiaig Kal TrpoaLodrjueaLV . ov yap aTraaai /caret 
Tov Yialohov eTn<f>oiTCJi)aiv at TOaot 

crtyfj, €7761 (fxxJVTjv cfetAeTO fiTjrUra Zeus', 

aAA' at TrAettTTai KaOdirep TrpoayyiXovs Kal rrpo- 
hpopiovs Kal KTjpvKas exovcnv dTreijsias Kal hva- 
KLinjaias. " ^apvTrjTes Kal kottoi.," (f)'r]alv 'Itttto- 
Kpdrrjs, " avTop^aToi vovaov <f>pdl^ovoi," Bid ttXtjOos 

^ roijTov added by Capps. 

* dyacTTol F.C.B. : ayadoi. The bit of irony escaped the 
copyist. 

^ vTre^epCivTfs Kronenberg (c/. Moralia, 52b): {/we^aipovvrfs. 

242 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 127 

because of fatigue and extremes of heat and cold ; 
but just as the scents of flowers are weak by them- 
selves, whereas, when they are mixed with oil, they 
acquire strength and intensity, so a great mass of 
food to start with pro\ides substance and body, as 
it were, for the causes and sources of disease that 
come from the outside. Without such material 
none of these things would cause any trouble, but 
they would readily fade away and be dissipated, if 
clear blood and an unpolluted spirit are at hand to 
meet the disturbance ; but in a mass of superfuous 
food a sort of turbulent sediment, as it were, is stirred 
up, which makes everything foul and hard to manage 
and hard to get rid of. Therefore we must not act 
like those much admired (!) ship-masters who for 
greed take on a big cargo, and thenceforth are con- 
tinually engaged in baling out the sea-water. So we 
must not stuff and overload our body, and afterwards 
employ purgatives and injections, but rather keep 
it all the time trim, so that, if ever it suffer depression, 
it shall, owing to its buoyancy, bob up again like a 
cork. 

11. We ought to take special precautions in the 
case of premonitory symptoms and sensations. For 
what Hesiod has said ° of the illnesses that go hither 
and thither assailing mankind is not true of all, that 

Silent they go, since the wisdom of Zeus has deprived 
them of voices, 

but most of them have as their harbingers, fore- 
runners, and heralds, attacks of indigestion and 
lassitude. " Feehngs of hea\aness or of fatigue," 
says Hippocrates,* " when due to no external cause, 

* Works and Days, 104, quoted more fully supra, 105 e. 

* Aphorisms, ii. 5 (ed. Chartier, 38, 43, Kuhn, ill. p. 712). 
VOL. II I 243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

a)S €OiK€v ivTos Bidraaiv /cat a(f>rjvo}aLV rov Trepl 
E TO, V€vpa TTvevjJiaTos exovros. aAA' ofxcog avrov 
fiovovovxl Tov acofiaros dvrcrelvovTOS Kal Kora- 
aTTOJVTOs 6771 TO kXlviBlov Kal TTjv Tjovx^av ol jxev 
VTTo Xat/jLapyias Kal <f)i,X'r)8ov[as lp.^dXXovai.v iav- 
Tovg €ttI rd ^aXaveZa Kal airevSovaiv inl rds 

TTpOTTOaeiS, aXTTTep els TToXlOpKiaV €Tnai,TLt,6jX€VOL 

Kal SeStores /nij (f)dday KaraXaBcov avrovs 6 
TTvpeTOs dvapiarovs, ol 8e Kopuporepoi ravTr) fiev 
ovx dXioKovTai, TTavv 8' d^eXrepcos alaxvv6p.€voi 
KpanrdXrjv t] dneifjlav ofJioXoyelv Kal StrjixepeveLV 
iv IfxarloLS, irepcov els to yvpLvdaiov ^aSi^ovTcov 
/cat irapaKaXovvTcov , dvaoTOVTes avvaTToBvovTai 
F Kal rauTO. TrpdTTOvai rot? vyialvovcrL. tovs 8e 
ttXclovs dKpaaia /cat pLaXaKiq} avv-qyopov exovaa 
Trapoi/xiav iXnls dvaTreidei Kal TrpodyeTai ^aSt^etv 
avaCTTarra? tra/xco? evrt ttjv awqdeiav, d)s olvco 
Srj TOV otvov KpaLTrdXr) 8e ttjv KpacTrdXrjv^ i^eXdJVTas 
Kal 8 La<f>oprjaovT as. ^ Trpos fJiev ovv TavT-qv ttjv 
eXirlha ttjv tov Karajvos" evXd^eiav avrtra/creor 
128 '^v ^Tjaiv €K€LVOs 6 dvrjp " ra jxev jxeydXa fiiKpa 
TTOietv ra Se puKpd TravTeXcos dvaipelv," Kal oti 
KpelTTOv evdeiav vTrofielvaL 8ta K€vi]s /cat ■qavxi'O.v 
Tj Sia/cu^eucrat Trpos XovTpov ojaafxevovs /cat 

^ aKpacrlg, Kal fioKaKiq, F.C.B.; aKpaalar Kal /xaXa/ctas Erasmus: 
CLKpacria Kal fiaXaKia, 

* Kock, Comic. Att. Frag. iii. p. 494, extracts an iambic 
trimeter from the words of this proverb. 

* €^e\u}VTas Kal diatpopriffovTas Wyttenbach, and one ms. 
correction: i^eXSvras Kal diacpop-ncravTas. 

" " Similia similibus curentur." The proverb has not 
been handed down in this form, but Plutarch may have in 
mind the proverb found in Pollux, ix. 120 (see Kock, Com. 

244 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 127-128 

indicate disease," since, presumably, the spirit about 
the ner\'es is subjected to tension and pressure owing 
to fullness within the body- Nevertheless, some men, 
although their body itself all but resists and would 
fain drag them to their beds and their rest, are led 
by gluttony and self-indulgence to rush off to the 
baths and eagerly to join in the drinking-bouts, as if 
they were laying in provisions for a siege and were 
fearful lest the fever seize them before they have had 
luncheon. Others, less gross than these, are not 
indeed caught in this folly, but very stupidly, just 
because they are ashamed to admit having a headache 
or indigestion, and to keep their clothes on all day, 
when a crowd on their way to the gjTnnasium invite 
them to come along, they get up and go, strip with 
the others, and go through the same exercises as do 
those who are in sound health. But as for the 
majority, Hope, backed by a proverb which well 
accords with incontinence and weakness of purpose, 
persuades and induces them to get up and go reck- 
lessly to their accustomed haunts, thinking to expel 
and dispel wine with wine, and headache with head- 
ache." Against this hope should be set Cato's 
caution which that grand old man phrased in this 
way ^ : " Make the great small, and abolish the small 
altogether " ; also the thought that it is better to 
submit patiently to fasting and resting with nothing 
to show for it, rather than to take any chances by 
rushing pell-mell to a bath or a dinner. For if there 

Att. Frag. iii. p. 500, and his notes, especially the reference 
to Athenaeus, 44 a) : " Nail with nail and peg with peg " 
(a man drives out). Slightly different versions may be found 
in Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroemiographi Graeci, ii. pp. 
116 and 171. 
» Cf. Moralia, 825 d. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(128) SelTTPov. el ixev yap ean ri, ^Xdijjei to /at) (f>v- 
Xd^aaOai /.tryS' eiriax'^lv' el Se ixrjhev, ov ^Xdifjet 
TO avaraX-qvai tco acvfxari /cat yeveaOat Kadapd)- 
repov. 6 8e TraiSapLcLSrjs eKelvos koX rols <j)iXois 
oeotajs' Kai rols olKerais (j)avep6s yeviaOai hia- 
Ketfievos €K TrXrjafxovijs t] KpanrdX-qs aTySto?, al- 
axvuofxevos aTreiplav ofioXoyrjaai rrjpiepov, avpiov 
ofioXoy^aei Kardppoiav t] TTvperov xj aTp6(f)OV' 

alaxwo/xevos ataxcara ireviav av^ ^epois, 

B TToXi) 8' aiaxt'OV (XTrei/riav Arat ^apvTTjra /cat 
TrXrjafJiovrjv acofjiaros els ^aXaveXov eXKOfievov 
Kadajrep eis ddXarrav aadpov ttXolov /cat fjir] 
areyovTOS. axjTrep yap dfxeXei rrXiovres evioi 
Xetficbvos ovros alSovvrai, SiarpL^eLV ctt' aKrrjs, 
etT avaxdivres aXax^ora hidKeLvrai ^ocovres Kai 
vavTLwvres, ovrois iu viroipia /cat TrpoTradeia 
adifxaros dyevveg 'qyovpievoi fxiav rjfxepav ev kXlvt) 
Sidyeiv /cat firj Trapadeadai rpdrreH^av, aiaxi^orra 
TToXXds rj/Jiepas KeZvrai Ka6aip6p.evot /cat /cara- 
'jrXaTTOfjLevoL /cat dajnevovres larpovs Kal depa- 
TTevovres, otvov alrovvres "q i/jvxpov vScop, drorra 

C x:at dyevvrj ttoXXo. iroLeZv /cat (j)9eyyeaQaL Sta rov 
TTOVov /cat Tov cf)6^ov VTrofievovres. 

Kat fjbrjv Tovs ye Sta ray rjSovds fir] Kparovvras 
eavTcbv dXX* ey/cAtVovra? 7J ^epofievovs vtto tcov 
emdvpiicov KaXojs e;!^et StSaa/cetv /cat dvajjupLvrjUKeiv 
OTL TrXeZarov e/c rov acojiaros at r^hoval Xap^^dvovai' 
(12) /cat Kaddirep ol AdKcoves o^os /cat aAas 

* div added by Porson. 
246 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 128 

is anything the matter with us, failure to take proper 
precaution and to put a check on ourselves will do 
us harm ; and if nothing is the matter, it will do no 
harm for the body to be subjected to some restric- 
tions and cleared of some of its encumbrances. But 
that childish person who is afraid to let his friends 
and servants discover that he is in a state of discom- 
fort from excessive eating or drinking, ■will, if he is 
ashamed to admit having indigestion to-day, to- 
morrow admit having diarrhoea or fever or gripes. 

The shame of want makes want a shame to bear," 
but much more is it a shame to bear indigestion, over- 
loading, and overfullness in a body which is dragged 
to the bath like a rotten and leaky boat into the sea. 
For just exactly as some persons, when they are 
voyaging and a storm is raging, are ashamed to tarry 
on shore, and so they put out to sea, and then are in 
most shameful case, shrieking and sea-sick, so those 
who regard it as ignoble, amidst suspicious premoni- 
tory symptoms of their body, to spend one day in bed, 
and not to take their meals at table, keep to their 
bed most shamefully for many days, under purging 
and poulticing, ser\'ile and attentive to physicians, 
asking for vnne or cold water, and suffering them- 
selves to do and to utter many extravagant and 
i<rnoble thinors because of their distress and fear. 

Moreover, it is well that those who because of 
pleasures fail in self-control, and give way to their 
desires or are carried away by them, should be in- 
structed and reminded that pleasures derive most of 
their satisfaction from the body ; (12) and as the 
Spartans give to the cook \inegar and salt only, 

" From an unknown play of Menander ; cf. Kock, Com. 
Alt. Frag. iii. p. 920. 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(128) BtS6vT€s Tw fiayeipcp to. Xolttol KeXevovaLv iv rco 
lepeio) t,r]T€LV, ovrcos iv rip crfo/xari rod Trpocrifyepo- 
fievov ra KoXXiara rcov rjSvafidrojv iariv, avrrep 
vyiaivovri /cat KaOapco 7Tpoa<f>€prjrai,. yXvKV pLev 
yap rj TToXvreXes efa> /cat /ca0' avro rcov roiovrojv 
cKacrrov earw, i^Su Se TTe(f>VKev iv rip rjhop,evcp 
/cat /Ltera rov rjSopevov yiyveadac Kara <^vaiv 
D €)(ovros' iv Be bvaapearoLs /cat KpanraXaxn /cat 
<f>avXu)S Sta/cet/xevot? TTOvra rrjv avrcov x^P''^ '^'^'^ 
wpav diToXXvai,. 8to Set pL7] OKOTreiv rov l^Ovv 
el rrpocT^aros, pirjSe rov dprov el Kadapos, pL-qSe 
TO ^aXavelov el deppLov, pir]Se rrjV eraipav el 
evp-op^os, dAA' avrov el pirj vavricoSrjs pLrjSe 
doXepos /^T^S' ecoXos pL-qSe rerapaypuevos. el 8e 
pi-q, Kaddrrep els oIkmv irevdovaav epL^aXovres 
€7TLKcop,oL peOvovres ov (f>LXo(f)pocrvv7]v TTapea-^ov 
oi3S' rjhovrjv dXXd KXavdpovs Kal oSvppovs^ 
E eTToirjaav, ovroi /cat dcfipoSlata /cat o0a /cat 
^aXaveXa /cat olvos ev acopbari /ca/ccD? /cat Trapd 
(f)vortv e)(ovri pnyvvpieva rois piT] KaOearoJcn /cat 
St,€(f>9op6ai (f)Xeypa /cat x^Xrjv Kivel /cat rapdrrei 
/cat TTpocre^Lcrrrjatv, rjSv S' ovSev d^ioXoycos ov8' 
aTToXavariKov ovhev olov TrpoaehoKrjaapLev diTO- 
SiScoaiv. 

13. *H pL€v ovv aKpL^rjs acjjohpa /cat St' 6vv)(os 
XeyopLevrj Statra to re aojpia KopuSfj 0o0oSees" -nap- 
e^erat /cat acfiaXepov, avrrjg re' rrjs ^^XV^ "^^ yavpov 
KoXovec Ttdvra rrpdypLara /cat Trdaav ovx rjrrov 

^ KXavd/j-ois Kal 6Svpfjioi)i Stobaeus, Florilegium, ci. 9 : 
ic\av0fj.oiis. * re Stobaeus, Florilegium, ci. 10 : U. 

248 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 128 

bidding him seek whatever else he needs in the 

slaughtered animal itself,* so in the body are the best 
of sauces for whatever is served, if so be that it is 
served to a body which is healthy and clean. For 
everything of this sort is " sweet " or " costly " 
irrespectively of the user and by itself, but Nature 
decrees that it becomes " pleasant " only in and in 
connexion with the person that is pleased and is in 
harmony wdth Nature ; but in those who are captious 
or suffering from a debauch, or are in a bad way, 
all things lose their intrinsic agreeableness and fresh- 
ness. Therefore there is no need to look to see 
whether the fish be fresh, the bread white, the bath 
warm, or the girl shapely, but a man should look to 
himself to see whether he be not nauseated, feculent, 
stale, or in any way upset. Otherwise, just as 
drunken revellers who force their way into a house of 
mourning provide no cheerfulness or pleasure, but 
only cause weeping and wailing, so in a body that is in 
a bad condition and out of harmony with Nature, the 
pleasures of love, elaborate food, baths and wine, 
when combined with such elements in the body as 
are unsettled and tainted, set up phlegm and bile 
and bring on an upset, besides being unduly exciting, 
while they yield no pleasure to speak of, nor any 
enjoyment like what we expected. 

13. The very exact mode of living, " exact to a 
hair's breadth," to use the popular expression,* puts 
the body in a timorous and precarious state, and 
abridges the self-respect of the soul itself, so that it 
comes to look askance at every activity, and to no less 

" A humorous turn is given to this custom in the anecdote 
related by Plutarch, Moralia, 995 b. 
* See tiie note on 86 a in Vol. I. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

€V rjSovais xal ttovois Siarpi^rjv /cat Trpd^iv V(f)- 
opa>iiev7]s /cat tt/do? firjSev Irajxajg koI dappaXiojs 
1 PaSil,ovarjs. Set 8' axTrrep IotLov to crcDjua fx-qre av- 
areXtXetv evSlas ovarjs Kal Tn€t,etv a(f)68pa, fxrir' 
dvetjjievcos ;(p7ya^at re Kal Kara^poveZv iu inroi/jLa 
yevojjievov^ aAA' ivSiSovai /cat TTOieiv iXa^pov 
ojairep elprjrai,, /cat /jlt] TrepiixiveLV aTreifjias /cat hiap- 
poLas fJir^Se depfxacrlas /UTjSe vdpKas, u^' cSi' evioi 
fioXis axTTTep utt' dyyeXcjv 7} KX-qropcDV, TTvperov 
129 Trepi dvpas ovros yjSrj, Oopv^ovpbcvoi crvareXXovaiv 
eamovs, dXXd TroppcoOev i^evXa^eladai 

vpo ;:^eiytaTos", cSctt' am Trovrlav aKpav 
^0/3 ea* TTviovros. 

14. "Atottov yap ecrrt KopaKcov jxev XapvyytcrfMots 
Kal KXcoapiots dXeKTopiScov Kal " crvalv ctti (f)opvra> 
fiapyaivovaats ," cos e(j)rj ^rjp.oKpiro's , eTTcp^eXaJs 
TTpoaix^iVy (Tr}p,€ta vrotou/ieVous" TTvevp.driov /cat 
6p,^p(jjv, rd 8e rov CTctj/xaro? KLvrjp,ara Kal adXovs 
Kal TTpoTTadeias pirj 7TpoXap,^dv€LV ^TjSe Trpo^uAar- 
retv, jLtTjS ^X^^^ (7rjp,ela ^etyucDt'os' ev iavro) yevr]ao- 
fievov Kal pueXXovTOS. 66 ev ov rrepl Tpo(f>r]v p,6vov 
ovSe yvpLvdaia Set (f)vXdrreiv to aa>p,a pirj rrapd to 
B elcoOog aTTTerat tovtcov OKinqpays /cat arrpodvpLcos f] 
TrdXiv Sn/jcbSes iaTt, Kal TreivaXeov d)s ov tt€(^vk€v, 
oAAd /cat TUiv VTTVCov TO /lit) avvex^S pLrjSe Xelov 

^ y€v6/jL€vov Stobaeus, ibid. : yLv6fj.evov. 
* ^op^a Bergk: poppa. 

" Author unknown ; cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraec. iii. 
p. 721. Cf. also Moralia, 455 a, and 503 a. 

* Theophrastus, De siffnis, 49, lists this phenomenon among 
the signs of a coming storm. 
250 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 128-129 

a degree at spending any time or participating at all 
in pleasures or labours, and goes at no undertaking 
with readiness and confidence. A man ought to 
handle his body hke the sail of a ship, and neither 
lower and reduce it much when no cloud is in sight, 
nor be slack and careless in managing it when he 
comes to suspect something is wTong, but he should 
rather ease the body off and hghten its load, as has 
already been said, and not wait for indigestions and 
diarrhoeas, nor heightened temperatures nor fits 
of drowsiness. And yet some people wait until a 
fever is already at their doors and then, being as 
excited as if a message or a svunmons to court had 
come, just manage to restrict themselves ; whereas 
they ought, while these things are still afar off, to be 
cautious 

Before the storm, as though along the strand 
The North wind blew." 

14.. For it is absurd to give careful heed to the 
croaking of ravens, the clucking of hens, and " SAvine 
in their wild excitement over bedding," ^ as Demo- 
critus " put it, making signs of winds and rains out 
of these, and at the same time not to forestall nor 
take precaution against the stirrings, the ups and 
downs, and the premonitory s}Tnptoms in the body, 
and not to hold these to be signs of a storm that is 
going to take place in one's self, and is just about to 
break. Wherefore not merely in the matter of 
food and exercise do we need to keep watch of our 
body, to see whether, contrary to its habits, it takes 
to these reluctantly and without zest, or at another 
time is thirsty and hungry in an unnatural way, but 
also, in the matter of sleep, to beware of lack of 
• Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, ii. p. 88. 
VOL. II I 2 251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(129) aAA' dvojfxaXLas e^ov Kal biaaTraa/jLovs evXa^eladai, 
Kal rojv ivvTTViwv rrjv aTOTTiav, avrrep wai fXTj 
voixijjiot ixrjSe avvrjdeis at (f>avTaaiai, 7tXt]6os tj 
TTO-xos vypojv T] TTvevfxaros^ rapajcrjv ivrog Kar- 
rjyopovaav. rjSr) Se Kal to. rrjs ipv)(rjs KiVTJfxaTa to 
aajfxa fxrjvvei TTpog voaov e7TLcr(f)aXaJs €)(€iv. aXoyoi, 
yap tcrxovGLv ddufxtaL /cat (f)6^oL ttoXXolkls (xtt' 
C ovSevos (f)av€pov, rds iXTTiBas d(f)vco Karaa^ev- 
vvovaat' yiyvovraL he Kal rais opyals eTrixoXoL Kal 
o^ets Kal /JLiKpoXvTTOi, Kal SaKpvppoovai Kal dSr]- 
fMovovGLV orav arpot TTovrjpol Kal dvaOvpudaeis 
TTLKpal avviardpievat, " rals ttjs ipvxrjs," c5j <f)-qaiv 
6 liXaTOiv, dvaKpadayai " TreptdSot?." 8to Set 
GKoveiv ots dv ravra avpTTLnrr] Kal p,v7]pov€V€iv, 
dv p,rjSev rj TTvevpLariKov, ort acopariKov eariv 
aiTLov VTToaroXrjs tivos t] KaraKpaaecog Seop-evov. 
15. ^^prjQLjxov 8e Trdvv Kal to tovs ^lXovs im- 
D (JKCTTTopevov dodevovvTas eKirvvdaveadai Tag acTias, 
p,7] ao(f)LaTLKCos ixr]8e Trepiepycos evaTaaeis Kal 
Trapep^TTTOjaeis /cat KoivoTrjTas XaXovvTa Kal nap- 
CTTiSeiKvup^evov laTptKcov 6vop,dTCov Kal ypap,p,dTa)v 
ep.7T€Lpi,av, aAAa raurt to. (f)avXa Kal Koivd p,rj 
TTapepyoJS d/couovra, rrXfjOos 'qXtcoaLV^ kottov dypv- 
TTviav, /xaAtCTra 8e hiaiTav fj xP^^^H-^^os eirvpe^ev. 
eW wanep 6 HXaTCOv e-ni toZs dXXoTpioig dpLapT-q- 
fiaatv elcoOei XeycLV dincxiv " p,rj ttov dpa Kal iyd> 
TOLovTog; " ovtoj ra Trepl avTOV iv toIs TrXiqaiov 
€6 TideadaL, Kal (j)vXdTT€adaL Kal p,vrjpoweveLv ottcjs 

^ irveiixaros Stobaeus, Florilegium, ci. 11: irvfy/xdruv. 
* i]\l(i}<Tiv Erasmus : ^ Xeiuaiv. 

" Timaeus, p. 47 d. 
» Gf. Moralia, 40 d, 88 e, and 463 e. 

252 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPIXG WELL, 129 

continuity and of evenness, marked by irregularities 
and sharp interruptions, and to beware also of the 
abnormal in dreams, which, if so be that our \isions 
are improper or unwonted, argues an over-abundance 
or concretion of humours, or a disturbance of spirit 
within us. And also the emotions of the soul have 
often given warning that the body is perilously near 
disease. For instance, irrational discouragements 
and fears take possession of people oftentimes from 
no apparent cause, and suddenly extinguish their 
hopes ; in temper they become irascible, sharp, and 
pained at trifles, and they are tearful and dismayed 
whenever bad vapours and bitter exhalations en- 
counter and unite with the " rotations of the soul," 
as Plato " has it. Therefore those to whom such 
things happen have need to consider and to remember 
that, if the cause is not one which concerns the 
spirit, it is one which concerns the body, and that 
it needs reducing or toning down. 

15. It is ver}- profitable when visiting sick friends 
to inquire of them the causes of their illness, not by 
talking pedantically and officiously about stoppages, 
irruptions, and trite generahties, and incidentally 
displaying some acquaintance with medical termin- 
ology and literature, but by listening in no perfunc- 
tory way to these homely and conmnon details of over- 
eating, exposure to the sun, fatigue, sleeplessness, 
and especially the manner of living which the man 
was following when he fell sick of the fever. Then, 
like Plato, who, on his way home, was accustomed to 
say on the subject of others' faults, " Am not I too 
possibly like them ? " ^ a man ought to correct in 
himself the faults he observes in his neighbours, and 
be watchful and mindful not to become involved in 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

E ov TTepLTTeaeZrai rols avrols ovh^ avTos et? ttjv 
kXivtjv KaraTTeuoju vjivqoei TTodcbv rrjv TToXurijJLrjrov 
vyieiav, aAA erepov Trdaxovros evarjfxavelrai npos 
eavTov CO? d^tov ttoXXov to vyiaiveiv Koi Set tovto 
hiarrjpelv avro) TrpocrexovTa Kal <j)€ih6p,evov . ov 
X^ipov Se Koi TTjv iavTCov TrapeTnaKOTrelv hiairav 
av yap ev iroaeai koX Trpoachopalg ri ticti ttovois 
/cat aragiats' erepai? rvyxavcofjiev yeyovores, to oe 
crajpia /^T^Se/xtav VTvo^iav irapexX) pirjSe TrpoaiaOr]- 
aiv, opcos avTOVs Set ^uAarrea^at /cat irpoKaTa- 
Aappdvecv e/c p,ev d(f)po8 latajv /cat kottcov ovTas 
avarravcret /cat Tjcrvx^a, p^eTO, S' oivojaLV /cat avpiTrepL- 
J (popav vhpoTToaia, /uaAtcrTa Se Tpo^ais Kexp'')p-^vovs 
epL^pideGi /cat Kpeajheaiv rj TTOLKiXais oXtyoaiTeZv 
/cat puTjhev vrroXetTTeiv 7T€pLTTa)p,aTos TrXrjOog iv tco 
(TcojUaTi. /cat yap aura TavTa St' aura iroAAcui^ 
atrta voaoiv ecrrt, /cat TrpoaTiOrjai TaZs a'AAat? 
atTtat? iJArjv' /cat Svvapuv. odev aptara AeAe/crat 

Tpocjjrjs aKopirjv Kal iroviov doKviinv /cat arreppLaTog 

lou ovaiTjg avvTiqprjaLV vyteLvoTaTa elvai. /cat yap ^ 

77ept ras" cryt'ouCTtas a/cpacrta to) /^taAtara ri^f Su- 

vapLLV eKXveiv v(f)' ^9 97 Tpo^rj SiaTTOvelTai, irXeov 

TTepiTTOipa TTOLel /cat ttXtjOos. 

16. Avdis ovv dvaXa^ovTcs i^ ^lRXV^ irepl CKa- 
(JTOV, TTpcoTOV Sc TTcpt yvpLvaoicov ^tXoXoyoLs dppio- 
^ovTcov XeycopLev otl (Lairep 6 (fnfjoas p,7]Sev ypd(f)eLV 
TTapaOaXaTTLOts Trept oA/caSo)!'^ eSiSa^e tt^p" ;^petai/, 

^ 6\Kd5wj' F.C.B. : rpioSouTwu ? Bernardakis : 6i/'wi' Sieve- 
king: iShvTuv. 

• C/. Moralia, 732 e. 

* Probably based on Hippocrates : cf. Hippocrates, 
Epidemics, vi. 4. 20 (ed. Chartier, 9, 500, Kiihn, iii. p. 605). 

254. 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 129-130 

the same difficulties, and be himself compelled to 
take to his bed, and there give voice to his yearnings 
for precious health, but rather, when another is 
undergoing this experience, he will impress upon 
himself how valuable a thing is health, and that he 
ought to try to preserve this by giving heed to him- 
self, and by being frugal. It is not a bad thing, either, 
to take a look at our own way of hving ; for if we have 
been engaged in a bout of drinking and eating, or in 
some hardships and other irregularities, and the body 
presents no suspicious or premonitory symptoms, 
nevertheless we ought to be watchful of oiurselves 
and forestall any trouble by means of rest and quiet 
when fresh from the pleasures of love, or when 
fatigued ; also by drinking water after the free use 
of wine and after social gaiety, and especially, after 
indulging in a heavy diet of meat or multifarious 
foods, to eat lightly, and leave no mass of superfluous 
residue in the body. For these very things are of 
themselves the causes of many diseases, and they 
add material and potency to the other causes." 
WTierefore it has been very well said, " Eating not 
unto satiety, labouring not unto weariness, and 
observance of chastity, are the most healthful 
things." ^ For incontinence, by undermining especi- 
ally the powers by which the food is assimilated, 
causes further superfluity and overcrowding. 

16. Let us now take up each topic anew once 
more ; and in the first place, on the subject of exer- 
cises suitable for scholars, we beg to remark that one 
might follow the example of the man who, by saying 
that he had nothing to write for people dwelUng by 
the sea on the subject of ships, showed clearly that 
they were in use ; and so in the same way one 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(130) OVTCO /cat (f>i,XoX6yois <f>air] ris o.v ixrj ypa^eiv Trepl 
yvjjivaaictiv. rj yap Kad^ rjpiepav rod Xoyov XP^^^ 
8ia (fxDvrjs TTepaLvo/xevrj Bavixaarov olov icm yvfivd- 
atov ov [jiovov TTpos vyUiav dAAa koI irpos laxvv, 

B ov TTaXaLaTLKrjv ovSe aapKovaav /cat TTVKvovaav to. 
€KTOs coanep olKohopLrfpLaTos, dAAa rots' ^cotlko)- 
rarois /cat KvpicoraTOLs fiepeo'L pcLynqv evhtdOerov 
/cat Tovov dXrjdtvov ifjuTToiovaav. on p,kv yap larxvv 
ev'StStoat^ TO TTvevpia, S-qXovaLV ol dXelvrai, rovs 
ddXrjTas KcXevovres dvrepeiheiv rat? rpiifjeaL /cat 
TTapeyKOTTTeiv^ Teivovras^ del to. TTXaTTOjJieva p-eprj 
/cat iprjXacfycoixeva rod acojxaros' rj 8e ^oivrj, rov 
TTvevpLaros ovcra KivrjaiSy ovk iimTToXaLCos dAA' 
oiaTTep €v TTTjyals nepl rd aTrXdyxva pcovvvfievq , to 
depfMov av^et /cat XeTTTVvet to alfxa, /cat ndaav p.ev 

C eKKadaipet 0Ae)8a, rrdaav S' dprrjpiav dvoiyei, 
avaraaiv 8e /cat tttj^iv vypoTrjTos ovk id TrepiTTCO- 
(xaTtKTJs wanep VTToaTddfxrjv iyyevecrdai, toIs ttjv 
Tpo(f)rjv TTapaXafM^dvovai /cat KaTepya^^ofievois dy- 
yeiois. Sto Set /xdAtara Trotetr iavTOVs tovtco tco 
yvpivaaicp avvqdeis /cat avvTpocjyovs ivheXex^^s Ae- 
yovTas, dv S' rj tls VTvoipia tov awfiaros evheiare- 
pov rj KOTTOiBearepov exovTO?, dvayiyvojuKovTas rj 
dvac/xjovovvTas . onep yap alcopa rrpos yvjivdaiov 
CCTTt, TOVTO TTpos SidXe^LV dvdyvcoGLS, warrep in 
oxrjjiaTos dXXorpiov Xoyov Kivovaa fiaXaKws /cat 
hia(f>opov(ja rrpdcos rrjv ^ojvrjv. rj 8e StdAeft? 
dycova /cat ai^oSpoTrjTa TrpoariOrjaiVy djxa Trjs 

D *pvxrjS Tcp crcjofjLarL ovv€7nTi6€p.€vr]s . Kpavyds jiiv- 
Tot TTepiTTadels /cat amapayjicoScLs evXa^rjTeov at 

* Iffxi'f Meziriacus, ivblBtaai F.C.B. : IcrxiJeiv diduxri,. 
^ -irapeyKdrrTeiv] wapeyKdirrfiv Madvig. 

256 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 130 

might say that he was not writing for scholars on 
the subject of exercise. For it is wonderful what an 
exercise is the daily use of the voice in speaking 
aloud, conducing, not only to health, but also to 
strength — not the strength of the WTestler which 
lays on flesh and makes the exterior sohd like the 
walls of a building, but a strength which engenders an 
all-per\'asive vigour and a real energy in the most 
vital and dominant parts. That breathing gives 
strength the athletic trainers make clear in telUng 
the athletes to brace themselves against the rubbing 
and stop their breath meantime, and keep tense the 
portions of the body that are being kneaded and 
massaged. Now the voice is a movement of the 
breath, and if it be given vigotir, not in the throat, 
but, as it were, at its source in the lungs, it increases 
the warmth, tones down the blood, clears out every 
vein, opens every artery, and does not permit of any 
concretion or sohdifying of superfluous fluid Uke a 
sediment to take place in the containing organs 
which take over and digest the food. For this reason 
we ought especially to make ourselves habituated 
and used to this exercise by continual speaking, or, if 
there be any suspicion that our body is not quite up 
to the mark or is somewhat fatigued, then by reading 
aloud or declaiming. For reading stands in the same 
relation to discussion as riding in a carriage to active 
exercise, and as though upon the vehicle of another's 
words it moves softly, and carries the voice gently 
this way and that. But discussion adds contention 
and vehemence, as the mind joins in the encounter 
along with the body. We must, however, be cautioxis 
about passionate and con\'ulsive vociferations. For 

* Ttivovras Meziriacus : TTjpovvTas. 

«57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(130) yap avcofiaXoi Trpo^oXal^ /cat Staracrets' tov nvev- 
fjcaros prjyfiara /cat andajjiara ttoiovolv. 

AvayvovTa 8' r] BiaXexdevra XnrapS. /cat oXeeLvfj 
rpvifiei )(pr]aT€ov Trpo tov TTepnrdTov /cat fiaXd^ec 
TTJs aapKos, u)£ dvvarov^ eart, twv OTrXdyxvcov 
7TOLOvfi€vov a(f}Tjv /Cat TO TTvevjjia TTpdois Sto/LtaAu- 
vovTa /cat 8ta;^eot'Ta (JL^xpi tcov aKpcov. [leTpov 8e 
TOV ttXt^Oovs TTJs TpLiliecos eoTCO TO TrpoCT^tAes' T7y 

E uadrjaei /cat oXuttov. 6 yap ovtcd KaTaoTijaas 
TTjv iv ^ddei Tapaxrjv /cat 8taTaCTtv tov TTvevfiaTOS, 
aXvTTcp T€ ;!^p7^Tai Ta> TrepLTTcLfMaTt, Kav aKaipia 
Tt? r] XPfia KcoXvarj tov TrepiiraTov, ovSev ecrrt 
TTpdyixa- TO yap OLKelov rj (f)vaLs aTrelXiqc^ev . o9ev 
ovTe ttXovv TTOirjTiov ovt€ KaTaycayrjv iv nav- 
ooKeCcp ariyTJs 7Tp6(f)a(Ttv , ovS^ av TrdvTes KaTayeXaJ- 
aiv. OTTOV yap ovk ala^pov to ^ayelv, ovhe to 
yvjxvdt,€adaL SrJTTOvdev alaxpov aAA' aicrxtov to 8e- 
SoLKevaL /cat 8yo'6U77eto-^at vavTas /cat opecoKOjJiovs 
/cat Trat'So/cet? /carayeAoji^as' ov tov a^atpLl,ovTos 

F /cat aKtafjiaxovvTOs dXXd tov XeyovTOS, dv dfia 8t- 
SdoKrj TL Kal t'T^fj x'^'- piavddvT] /cat dvafiCfivrjaKrjTai 
yvfiva^ofjievos. 6 pcev yap HcoKpdT-qs eXeyev otl tco 
KivovvTi 8t' opxTJoeoJS avTov eTTTa/cAtros' olkos 
iKavos ioTLV eyyvp.vdl,€adai, tu) 8e 8t' (hhrj's r] 
Xoyov yvfjival^ofievu) yvfxvdaiov dnoxpiov^ /cat earcDrt 
Kal KaTaK€ifjL€va) irds tottos Trapex^f-- fxovov e/cetvo 
(f>vXaKT€ov, 07T0JS />t^Te TrXrjafiovfjv fMiJTe Xayvei.av 

^ TrpojSoXat Salmasius : irpoaPoXal. 
* dwcTTov Stephanus : di'oiaT6i'. 

' yvfxva^ofxevii) yviivaaiov diroxp^f Wyttenbach : yv/Mvdffiop 
diroxpTI yvfivai^ofi^pq), 

258 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, ISO 

spasmodic expulsion and straining of the breath 
produces ruptures and sprains. 

After reading or discussion, before going to walk, 
one should make use of rubbing with oil in a warm 
room to render the flesh supple, extending the 
massage so far as practicable to the inward parts, 
and gently equalizing the vital spirit and diffusing 
it into the extremities. Let the hmits of the amount 
of this rubbing be what is agreeable to the senses 
and not discomforting. For the man who thus com- 
poses the inward disquiet and tension in his vital 
spirit manages the superfluous in his body without 
discomfort, and if unfavourable weather or some 
engagement prevent his going to walk, it does not 
matter, for Nature has received her proper due. 
\\Tierefore neither travelling nor stopping at an inn 
ought to be made an excuse for silence, nor even if 
everybody there deride one. For where it is not 
disgraceful to eat it is certainly not disgraceful to 
take exercise ; nay, it is more disgraceful to feel 
timid and embarrassed before sailors, muleteers, 
and innkeepers, who do not deride the man who 
plays ball and goes through the movements of 
sparring alone, but the man who speaks, even though 
in his exercises he instruct, question, learn, and usje 
his memory. Socrates said " that for a man's move- 
ments in dancing a room that would accommodate 
seven persons at dinner was large enough to take 
exercise in, but for a man who takes his exercise 
through singing or speaking every place affords him 
adequate room for this exercise both when standing 
up and when lying down. But we must observe 
this one caution — not to strain our voices too hard 

" Xenophon, Symposium, 2. 18. 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

fi-^re KOTTOV iavrols avveihores €VT€iva>fxeda rfj 
131 (f)covfj Tpa^vrepov, o TrdayovaL ttoXXol tcov p-qropcov 
/cat Tcov aocfyiarajv, ol fiev vtto So^-qs Kal cjuXoTi- 
piias, OL Se Sta jjLiadovs y] TToXiriKas afXiXXas i^ayo- 
jxevoi TTapa ro (jvjjL(j>ipov ayoivit^eadai. N typos 8' 
o rjfji€Tepos iv TaXaria cro^iarevojv aKavdav irvy- 
Xcivev Ixdvos KaTaTreTTcoKtos . eripov 8' iin^avivros 
e^coOev ao(f)iaTov Kat fieXercovTos, oppcohiov v(f>- 
€ifji€VOV So^av TTapacrx^LV, ert rrjs OLKdvOrjs ivLcr)(o- 
fidvrjs eixeXerrjae- ixeydXrjs Be (j^Xeyfxovijs /cat 
OKX-qpas yevoixevrjs, rov ttovov ov (f)€pcx)v dpeSe^aro 

B rop.rjV e^codev ^adelav. tj fiev ovv aKavda 8td tov 
rpavfiaros iirjpedrj, to 8e rpavfia ^(^aXeTrov yevo- 
fxevov /cat pevfiaTtKov avetXev avrov. dXXd ravra 
fiev dv Tt? varepov evKaipcos vTropLvrjaeie. 

17. AovTpcp 8e ;)^p7^(T0at yv/jLvaaajxevovs ipvxpcp 
fiev e7n8et/CTt/cov Kat veavLKov fxdXXov t) vyieivov 
iaTLV. T^v yap 8o/cet iroielv SuoTrdOeiav Trpos rd 
e^co /cat aKXrjpoTTjTa rov crcofiaros, avrrj [xel^ov 
aTTepydl^erai Trepl rd ivros /ca/cof, evicrrafMevr) rots 
TTopoLs Kal rd vypd avvdyovaa /cat Trrjyvvovaa rds 
dvadvjxidaeis aet -x^aXdaOai /cat hi,a<j)opeladaL ^ov- 
Xofxeuas. ert 8' dvdyKTj tovs iJjvxpoXovrovvTas els 

C €K€Lvr]v avdis fMera^aiueiv 7]^ (j>€vyopi€V aKpi^rj /cat 
TeTay/xevrjv dTToro/jLOts Stairav, del irpoaexovras 
avTols fiT) Trapa^aiveiv ravrr^v, (hs evdvs e^- 
eXeyxopievov rnKpo)? Travrds dp^apryj/jLaros. rj 8e 
deppioXovaia SlScogl ttoXXtjv^ avyyvc6p,rjv . ov ydp 
roaovrov evrovias v<^aipet /cat pcoprjs, daov dxfieXeZ 

^ TToWriv Reiske : ■iro\\(fi, 

" Perhaps in/rat 135 d. 
S60 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 130-131 

when we are conscious of a fullness, venery, or 
fatigue. This is the experience of many of the 
pubhc speakers and sophists, some of whom are led 
on by repute and ambition, others on account of 
emolmnents or political rivalries, to competition in 
excess of what is best for them. Our Niger, when he 
was giving public lectures in Galatia, happened to 
swallow a fish bone. But, as another sophist from 
abroad had made his appearance and was lecturing, 
Niger, dreading to give the impression that he had 
yielded to his rival, still lectured although the bone 
was sticking in his throat ; unable to bear the distress 
from the great and stubborn inflammation that arose, 
he submitted to a deep incision from the outside, 
and through the opening the bone was removed ; but 
the place grew sore and piurulent and caused his 
death. But comment on these matters may well be 
postponed to a later occasion.** 

17. To take a cold bath after exercising is ostenta- 
tious and juvenile rather than healthful. For the 
power of resistance to external influences and the 
hardiness which it seems to create in the body really 
produces a more evil effect on the inward parts by 
stopping up the pores, causing the fluids to collect 
together, and condensing the exudations which are 
always wanting to be released and dispersed. Besides, 
those who insist upon taking cold baths have to make 
a further change into that exact and strictly ordered 
way of living which we are trying to avoid, and they 
have to be always taking heed not to transgress 
this, since every shortcoming is at once bitterly 
brought to book. On the other hand, warm baths 
have much to offer by way of excuse. For they do 
not detract so much from vigour and strength as 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(131) TTpos vyieiav, ivSocnfia rfj Treiffei /cat fiaXaKa rrap- 
exovaa, rots Se ttjv ttci/jlv Sia(f)€V'yovcnv , av ye Sr) 
fXT] TTavTOLTTaaiv (Lixa Kal nerecopa [xeLvr], Sta;^ucretS' 
aXvTTOvs 7rapaaK€vdt,ovaa Kal kottovs eKXealvovcra 
D Xavddvovras. ov pirjv aAA' oTav 7} (fivcTLs Trapexjj 
fxerptcog BiaKeipLevov Kal iKavcbs rod acop^aros 
aicrdr^cTLV, iareov ro ^aXavetov. aAet/x/xa 8e ro 
TTpog TTVpl ^eXnov, av dAea? Seryrat to crcujLta, 
Tap,L€veTaL yap avTO) rrjs deppLOTqTO?. 6 S 
7)Xtos ovT€ /xaAAor ov9^ rJTTOV dXX cos KCKparai 
TTpos Tov dipa Kcxpyjc^dai StScocri. ravra fxev ovv 
LKavd nepl yvpivaaicjv. 

18. Etti Se rpo(f)rfv rrapayevofxcvovs, av p,ev fj 
re Tcov TTpoadev 6(f)eXos Xoycov ols ras ope^eis 
KT]Xovp,€v Kal KaraTTpavvop^ev, dXXo n XPV "^^P' 
aiveZv Tcov it^e^rjs' av S' axJTrep e/c Seap.cov AeAu- 

E p.€Vrj X^^^'^OV Tj XP'^'^^O.l Kal (f)lXoV€LK€LV TTpO? 

yaarepa atra purj exovcrav, d>s eXeye K.drcov, 
8iap,7)xO'Vy]r€0v rrj Troiorrjri, rrjs rpo^rjs iXacf)p6- 
repov TToieiv to ttXtjOos. Kal rd p^ev areped Kai 
7ToXvTpo(j)a Tiov aiTLwv, olov rd KpewSr] Kai 
rvpcoSri Kal avKU>v rd irjpd Kal (hcov rd e(f)9a, 
7Tpoa-(f)4p€adaL Tre^vXaypiivais aTrropbevov {epyov 
ydp del Trapaireiadai) , rots 8e XeTrrots ip.(f>vecTdai 
/cat Kov(f)OLs, oTa rd ttoAAo, tcov Xaxo-vcov /cat ra 
TTrr]vd Kal rcbv Ixdvcov ol pcrj TTLoves. eort yap 
F rd TotavTa rrpoa^epopievov Kal ;;^a/3t^eo-0at Tat? 
ope^eai Kal ro adjpia p,rj 7nel,eiv. pLaXiOTa 8e 

" The same remark is found in Moralia, 198 d, 996 d, and 
Life of M. Cato, chap. viii. (p. 340 a). 
262 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 131 

they help towards health by rendering the food 
yielding and soft for the digestion, and by pro\iding 
for the painless dispersion of whatever escapes 
digestion, at least if it do not remain altogether 
crude and high up, and soothing any latent feelings 
of fatigue. However, when Natin-e affords us a 
sense of a moderate and comfortable condition in 
our body, the bath had better be left alone. A gentle 
rubbing with oil beside a fire is better, if the body 
require warming, for it can take for itself the requisite 
amount of such warmth ; but the sun permits the 
use of its warmth at neither higher nor lower tem- 
perature than is determined by the temperature of 
the air. So much will suffice in regard to exercise. 

18. Gsming now to the subject of food, if there be 
anything helpful in my earher suggestions as to how 
we may beguile and pacify our appetites, we must 
give some fmther ad^^ce regarding what comes next ; 
but if it be difficult to manage a belly that has been 
set free, as it were from bondage, and to wrangle 
with it when it has no ears to hear, as Cato " used to 
say, we must contrive by means of the character of 
our food to make the quantity less burdensome ; and 
of the solid and very nourishing foods, things, for 
example, like meat and cheese, dried figs and boiled 
eggs, one may partake if he helps himself cautiously 
(for it is hard work to decline all the time), but should 
stick to the thin and light things, such as most of 
the garden stuff, birds, and such fish as have not much 
fat. For it is possible by partaking of these things 
both to gratifS" the appetites and not oppress the 
body. Especially to be feared are indigestions 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ra? aTTo Kpeojv cf)o^T]T€ov dneipLas' Kal yap evdvs 
(T^ohpa /cat ^apvvovai, koI Xeiiftavov elcravdts 
TTOvripov o.tt' avTibv TrapafxeveL. /cat Kpariarov 
fiev ediaai to crcD^a /xiySe/nta? Trpoaheiadat aapKO- 
(f)ayias- TroAAa yap ov fxovov TTpog SLaTpo(f)r]V 
a.(f)dova dXXa /cat rrpos evrrddeiav /cat diroXavaLV 
avaSiBcocTLV rj yrj, toi? p-ev avrodev diTpaypovcos 
XP'^crdai 7Tape)(ovaa, rd 8e p^Lyvvfieva TravToSaTToJs 
132 /cat aK€val,6p.€va avvrjSvveiv. cTret Se to edos 
rpoTTOv Tivd (jyvats rod Trapd <j}vaiv yeyovev, ov 
Set ;(p^cr^at Kpeo(f)ayia Trpog dTTOTrXripcjaLV ope^ecos, 
cooTTep XvKovs ^ Xeovras, aAA' otov UTrepetcr/xa 
/cat Sta^oj/xa rrjs rpocfirjs €p,^aXXop,€VOVS eripois 
airioLs XPV^^^'' '^^'' oipois, a /cat ra> crco/xart 
fxaX^ov €GTi Kara cf)V(nv, /cat rrjs iffv)(rjg rjrrov 
dp.pXvv€i ro XoyiKov, wairep e/c Xtrijs /cat iXa(f)pds 
vXrjs dvaTTropbcvov . 

19. TtJov 8' vypwv ydXaKTi p,€V ovx cu? ttotoj 
XP'Tjcrreov, dAA' oi? airiu) Swa/xtv ip^^pLOrj Kai 
B 7ToXvrpo(f)ov exovTi. Trpos 8e Tor otvoi' cxTrep 
EvpiTTtSrjs TTpos rrjv * K^pohiriqv StaAe/creov 

er/j? /Mot, p,crpios^ 8e ttcds" 
etTys", /X178' dTroAetTrot?. 

Kai ydp TTOToiv (h(f)€Xtfjiwrar6v eari /cat ^app^aKOiv 
rjStarov /cat oipcov daiKxdrarov, dv tvxX} '^'^S rrpos 
Tov Kaipov evKpaaias p,dXXov 7) t'^s' Trpos ro vhcop. 
vS(op 8' ov p^ovov rd p,Lyvvp,€vov Trpos olvov, dXXd 

^ /j^rpios Heath : fierpLov. 

" It is worth while to compare Plutarch's essays on eating 
meat, Moralia, 993 a-999 b. 
264 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 131-132 

arising from meats ** ; for they are depressing at the 
outset, and a pernicious residue from them remains 
behind. It is best to accustom the body not to 
require meat in addition to other food. For the earth 
yields in abundance many things not only for 
nourishment but also for comfort and enjoyment, 
some of which it grants to our use just as they are 
with no trouble on our part, while others we may 
make savoury by all sorts of combination and pre- 
paration. But since custom has become a sort of 
unnatural second nature, our use of meat should not 
be for the satisfaction of appetite, as is the case with 
wolves or lions ; but while we may put it in as a sort 
of prop and support of our diet, we should use other 
foods and reUshes which for the body are more in 
accord with nature and less dulhng to the reasoning 
faculty, which, as it were, is kindled from plain and 
hght substances. 

19- Of the liquids milk ought not to be used as a 
beverage but as a food possessing solid and nourishing 
power. With regard to wine we ought to talk as does 
Euripides * with regard to Love : 

May est thou be mine, but moderate be, 
I pray, yet ne'er abandon me. 

For wine is the most beneficial of beverages, the 
pleasantest of medicines, and the least clojdng of 
appetizing things, pro\dded that there is a happy 
combination of it ^vith the occasion as well as A\ith 
water. Water, not only the water that is mixed mth 

* From an unknown play : c/. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Euripides, No. 967. The sentiment is a favourite one with 
Euripides ; c/., for example, Iphigeneia at Aulis, 543-557 ; 
Medea, 627 -6M; Helena, 1105. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(132) /cat TO Kad* iavro rod KCKpafxevov {xera^v ncvofie- 
vov d^Xa^eGTepov TTOiei to KCKpafxdvov. iOiCTTeov 
ovu TTapd rrjv Kad^ ■f]pLipav hianav vSaros Trpoa- 
(fiepeadai Kol hvo /cat rpia TTor-^pia, rrjV re 8vvafxtv 

C rod OLvov TTOiovvra jxaXaKwrepav /cat rov acofxaros 
avvrjdr] rr^v vSpoTToatav, ottcos, orav iv XP^^V 
yevTjTai, ixr} ^evoTraOfj /XTyS' dTravalurjTai,. avfi- 
jSatVet yap iviovs (f)4peadai fidXtara irpos tov 
OLVOV orav pudXiara xpeiav vhpoTToaias excoat. 
/cat yap rjXLCodevres /cat piycoaavres TrdXiv /cat 
acfioSporepov elnovres Kal avvrovcorepov <f)povTL- 
aavT€s /cat oAoj? fierd rovs kottovs /cat rovg 
aytovas otovrat TToreov elvai, tov olvov, co? /cat 
TT^S" (^ucreo;? dTTairovcrqs evTrdOetdv Tiva toj owfiarL 

D /cat fieTa^oX-qv e/c TOJv ttovcov. T) 8e (j>vaL? ev- 
TTadetav fjLev, et tis einrddeiav /caAet ttjv rj^vrrdOeiav, 
ovK aTratret, fxeTa^oXrjv 8' a-TratTet rrjv et? to 
fiecrov TjSovrjs /cat rrovov KadiGrdaav. 8to /cat 
rpo(f)rjs V(f)aLpeT€ov iv tovtois, /cat tov otvov •^ 
Trai/TeAcSs' d^aiperiov •^ TrpoaoiaTeov noXXfj /caTa- 
KepavvvjjLevov Sta pceaov /cat KaTaKXvt,6pLevov vhpo- 
-nooia. TrXiJKTrjs yap a)v /cat dfy? eVtTetVet to.? 
Tou acojxaTOS Tapa^d?, /cat Tpa^VTepa TTOtet /cat 
•napo^vvei Ta 7T€7TXr]yp.eva,^ Traprjyopias heojxeva 
/cat AetoTTjTO?, a?^ fidXicrTa to vScop ivStScoai. 
/cat ya/3 ai^ oj5 hiipdjvTes , dXXcos 8e dep/xov vBcop 

E 7Tiwjji€v fieTa Tovs KOTTovg /cat TO.? StaTttCTet? /cat 
TO, Kavfiara, -xaXdajxaTos /cat fxaXaKOT-qros at- 
aOavofieda Trepl Ta ivTos' TJTnos yap rj tov vhaTos 
vypoTTj^ /cat da(f>VKTOs, rj 8e tou otvou (f)opdv kx^et 

^ Ss Reiske : ol'as Wyttenbach : ors. 

266 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 132 

the wine, but that which is drunk by itself in the 
interim between the draughts of the mixture, makes 
the mixture more innocent. One ought to accustom 
oneself, therefore, in the course of the daily routine 
to partake of two or three glasses of water, thus both 
making the potency of the ^^"ine milder, and making 
the drinking of water habitual ^^•ith the body, so that, 
whenever it comes to be in need of water, it may not 
feel strange towards the drink, and refuse it. For 
the fact is that some people feel most impelled 
towards ^vine when the drink which they most need 
is water. For after being exposed to the sun, and 
again when chilled, and after speaking more earnestly 
and thinking more intently than usual, and, in 
general, after exertions and stri\ings, they think 
they ought to drink wine, feehng that Nature 
requires for the body some comfort and change after 
labours. But Nature does not require comfort, if 
comfort is only a name for self-indulgence, but she 
does require a change, a change which puts the 
body in a state midway between pleasure and pain. 
Therefore in such circumstances there should not 
only be some reduction in food, but -wine should 
be either altogether eliminated or else partaken of 
between times very diluted and practically engulfed 
by the drinking of water. For wine, being truculent 
and keen, intensifies the disturbances of the body^' 
and exacerbates and irritates the contused parts,' 
which are in need of the comfort and alleviation that 
water best supplies. For if, in spite of the fact that 
we are not thirsty, we drink hot water after under- 
going exertion, strain, or heat, we are sensible of a 
relaxing and soothing effect ^vithin us ; for the 
aqueous fluid is mild and does not quicken the pulse, 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TToXXrjv /cat Suvafjiiv ovk eiifxevrj tols irpoacjidroLS 
TTadeaLV ovSe (f)iXa.vdp(jL>TTov. /cat yap as Xeyovaiv 
evioi Tco acofxart Trjv aoLriav hpiixvTTjTas iyyevvdv 
/cat TnKpoTTjTas et rt? SeStev ■^ Kaddirep ol Tratdes 
Seivov Tjyeirai, npo tov Trvperreiv fjirj Traparideadai 
rpaTTe^av iv vTTOiftta yeyovdos, evap/xoaTOV tj 
vBpoTToala jjiedoptov. /cat yap avro) tw Alovvgo) 
7To)\XdKLs vr](f)dXia dvopiev, idLt,6p.evoi, KaXa)s fir) 
F ^-qrelv del tov aKparov. 6 Be MtVto? /cat tov 
avXov d<j)€t\e ttjs dvalas /cat tov OTe^avov vtto 
XvTTTjs. /catTot XvTTOvpLevTjv iffvxrjv tapuev ovd* vtto 
aTe(f)dvojv ov9* v-n avXGiV TtaQovaav crcofxa 8' 
ovSev ovTcos la)(vp6v ecrrtv, cS TeTapaypievcp /cat 
(pXeypiaivovTt irpoaTTeacbv olvos ovk rjblKrjae. 

20. Tous" jLtev ovv AvSoiis iv Tip Xip-w Xiyovat 
hiayayelv rjp^epav Trap' rjpLepav Tp€(f)opL€vovs, efra 
Trai'^ovra? /cat KV^evovTas' (f)iX6Xoyov S' dvSpa 
/cat ^iXopLOvaov ev Kaipo) Seopievco^ ^paSvTepov 
133 SeiTTVOv BidypafxpLa TrapaKeifxevov rj rt jStjSAtStov 
ri Xvpiov ov TTpotevTai Tfj yaaTpl XerjXaTovp-evoVy 
aAA' dTT0(TTpe(j)0}v avvex'MS /cat p.eTa(f)epojv evrt raura 

TTjV SldvOiaV (XTTO TTJS Tpa7T€t,rjS OiOTTep ApTTVLaS 

TCLS 6 pixels Siaao^-qaet, Tats Movaais. ov yap a 
fjL€V llKvdrjs, OTav TTLvrj, TToXXdKLS e^aTTxerat tov 
To^ov /cat TTapaijjdXXei, Trjv vevpdv, eKXvop-evov 
VTTO T^? fxedr^s dvaKaXovp,€VOS rov dvpiov, "EAArjf 
8' dvrjp (f)o^rja€Tai tovs KaTayeXcjvTas avToV, 
ypdfjLfxadi /cat ^t^Aiot? dyrc6/xova /cat SvaTTapaiTTjTOV 
^ dfOfiivcfi Meziriacus : deo/xevov. 

" Cf. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, iii. 15. 7. 

* Herodotus, i. 94. 

• Cf. Plutarch, Life of Demetrius, chap. xix. (p. 897 c). 

268 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 132-133 

whereas that of wine has great impetuosity and a 
potency that is not kindly or humanely disposed 
toward recent affections. As for the acerbities and 
bitterness which some say fasting engenders in the 
body, if anybody fears them, or if, childhke, he thinks 
it a dreadful thing not to have a meal ser\'ed before 
the fever which he suspects is coming, the drinking 
of water is a very fitting middle course. In fact we 
frequently make to Dionysus himself offerings which 
include no ^vine, thus habituating ourselves quite 
properly not to be always looking for strong drink. 
Minos, too, because of grief, abohshed the flute and 
garland from the sacrifice." Yet we know that a 
grie\ing soul is not affected either by garlands or by 
flute. But no one's body is so strong that ■«ine, 
thrust upon it when it is disturbed and feverish, does 
it no harm. 

20. The Lydians, they say,* in a time of famine, 
alternately spent one day in regahng themselves 
•with food, and the next in jollity and games of 
chance. But in the case of a scholarly and cultivated 
man, on an occasion which requires a later dinner 
than usual, a mathematical problem on hand, or 
some pamphlet or musical instrument, will not permit 
him to be harried by his belly ; on the contrary, he 
will steadily turn away and transfer his thoughts 
from the table to these other things, and scare away 
his appetites, Hke Harpies, by means of the Muses. 
Does not the Scythian,*^ while he is drinking, ofttimes 
put his hand to his bow, and twang the string, thus 
summoning back his senses which are being unstrung 
by the liquor ; and shall a Greek man be afraid of 
those who deride him when by letters and books he 
endeavours quietly to ease and relax an unfeeHng 

26a 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(133) eTTiOvfiLav avievros drpefia Kal j(aX(x)VTOs; tcov 

B l^^v yap TTapa T(3 MevdvSpq) veaviaKCOV vtto tov 

TTopvo^odKov TTapd TTorov €Tn^ov\evoix€V(xiv /caAas" 

/cat TToAureAets' eladyoinos Iraipag eKaaros, co? 

<f)r]ai, 

Kvipag Kad^^ avrov rcov rpayr]p,dTOJV €(f)Xa, 
(pvXaTTOfxevos Kal <j)0^ovpLevos ifx^XeTreLV ol Be 
^iXoXoyoL TToXXds /cat /caAa? /cat rjheias aTTOifjets 
/cat d7TO(TTpo(/)ds exovaiv, dvirep aXXoJS f^rj Svvcovrai 
TO KVviKov /cat dr]pi6jhes rcov ope^ecov /carep^etv 
7TapaK€Lp,dv7]s rpaTTetpq?. aXeiTTTibv Se (f)tovas Kai 
TraiSorptjStDv Xoyovs eKdorTore Xeyovrcuv <Ls to 
irapd helTTVOV ^iXoXoyetv ttjv Tpocf>rjv hia<j)deipei 
/cat ^apvvei ttjv Ke<f)aXrjv t6t€ (fjo^rjTeov, OTav 

C TOV *\vh6v dvaXv€Lv •^ SiaXeyeadai Trepi tov 
KupteuovTOS" iv heirrvu) [xeXXajfjiev. tov jxev yap 
iyK€(f}aXov tov ^oCvlkos, yXvKvv ovTa, a^oBpa 
K€(f)aXaXyrj^ Xiyovaiv elvai' StaAe/criKi] 8e " Tpoj- 
ydXiov " CTTi heLTTVcx) " yXvKV " [xev ouSa/xtD? 
K€(f)aXaXy€s Se /cat kottcoScs taxvpcos eoTLv. 
av 8' rjfjids fir} dXXo rt l^rjTelv r) (f>i,Xoao(f>elv 
T] dvayiyvcooKeiv Trapd Betrrvov ecDcrt Toii/ €V 
TO) KaXo) /cat d)cf)eXiixa) to inayajyov V(j>^ rjBovrjs 
/cat yXvKu [loptov ixovTOJV, KeXevaofiev avTovs 

D /x')7 evoxXeiv, dXX' aTnovTas ev tco ^votw raura 
/cat rat? TraXaiaTpais BiaXiyeadat tols ddXiqTal?, 
^ Ka.0' Wyttenbach from Moralia, 706 b : es. 
^ Ke<pa\a\y7j] Ke^aXaXybv »iss. 

" PVom an unknown play; cf. Kock, Com. Att. Frag. 
iii. p 183, No. 607. Cf. also Plutarch, Moralia, 706 b. 

* These are both thought to be logical fallacies of the type 
of iVchilles and the tortoise, or the " Liar." Cf. also Moralia, 
1070 c. 
270 



i 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 133 

and inexorable desire ? When the young men de- 
scribed by Menander " were, as they were drinking, 
insidiously beset by the pimp, who introduced some 
handsome and high-priced concubines, each one of 
them (as he says). 

Bent down his head and munched his own dessert, 

being on his guard and afraid to look at them. But 
scholars have many fair and pleasant outlooks and 
diversions, if so be they can in no other way keep 
under control the canine and bestial element in their 
appetites when at table. The utterances of athletic 
trainers and the talk of teachers of gymnastics, who 
assert on every occasion that scholarly conversation 
at dinner spoils the food and makes the head hea\y, 
are to be feared only when we propose to solve the 
Indian problem or to discuss determinants *» during 
dinner. The leaf-bud at the top of the date-palm is 
sweet, but they say that it brings on a \aolent head- 
ache " ; and an exercise in logic is by no means a 
" sweet morsel " •* to top off a dinner, but, on the 
contrary, it is qviite Ukely to bring on a headache, 
and is extremely fatiguing as well. But if they 
A^ill not allow us to start any other inquiry or scholarly 
discussion,* or to read while at dinner any of those 
things which, besides being beautiful and useful, 
contain also the element of pleasurable allurement 
and sweetness, we shall bid them not to bother us, 
but to take themselves off, and in the training 
grounds and buildings to engage in such talk with 
the athletes, whom they have torn from their books, 

' Cf. Xenophon, Anabasis, ii. 3. 15. 

** From Pindar, Frap. 124 (ed. Christ). 

• C/. Moralia, 612 r, where this topic is treated more fully. 

2:1 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(133) ovs rcbv ^L^Xiojv i^eXovTCs KaV^ SirjiJiepeveiv iv 
aKuj[Xfxaai, /cat jSa)/xoAo;\;tats' idH^ovres, ws 6 
Koynpos 'ApLcrrcov eXeye, rots iv yvp^vaalo) Kioaiv 
oixoLUJS XLTTapovs TTeTTOL'qKaGt /cat XlOlvovs. avTol 
o€ TT€Ld6jxevoi TOLs larpoXs TTapaivovGLv det rod 
Seiuvov Kai rod vttvov Xap-^dveiv fiedopiov koI 
fxrj (TV pL^opriaavT as ets ro acofxa to, atria /cat to 
TTvevfia KaradXupavrag evdvs^ ^H-fi '^^^ ^eovar) 
rfj rpo^fj ^apvveiv ttjv ttci/jlv dAA' dva7TVor)v Kai 
XoiXaap,a Trapi^^iv ,^ ojarrep ol rd awfiara KweZv 

E /Ltera h^lTtvov d^iovvres ov Spofiots oySe TrayKpariois 
Tovro TTOLovaiv dXXd ^Xrj^^poLs* TreptTTdTOt? /cat 
Xopetais ijjifjLeXecnv, ovtcds r]p,etg olrjaop-eda Setv 
ras ipvxds Sta^epetv pLcrd ro Selvvov fx-qre Trpdy- 
fiacrL jji-qre <j>povriai. pLr^re aro(f)iariKOLS dycDcri 
Trpog djjLiXXav eTrtSei/crt/ci^v t] KLvrjrLKrji^ Trepai' 
vopievoLs. aXXd noXXd puev iari raJv ^vglkcov 
TTpo^XrijxdroiV iXacjipd /cat TTtdavd, iroXXal 8e 
Si-qy^aeis T^^i/cd?* aKeiftetg exovaai /cat rovrd' 
Stj ro " ixevoetKes," djs "Op^-qpos ^4>f], xal pjr] 
airnrvTTOV. rds 8' iv^ laropiKaZs Kai TTOL-qrtKals 
l,rjrrja€ai Siarpt^ds ovk drj8a>s evioi Bevrepas 
rpaTril,as dvSpdcn ^iXoXoyois /cat (j)iXop.ovaoLs 
rrpoaeLTTov. elcrl Se Kai SLrjyi^aeis aXviroi, Kai 

F pLvdoXoyiaiy Kai rd irepl avXov ri Kai Xvpas 
aKovaat Kai elvciv iXacfjporepov rj Xvpas avrijs 

* Kai Capps : del. * eiidvs Xylander : firj eiidis. 

* irapix^iv Benseler : ix^Lv. 

* dWa p\r)Xpoh L. Dindorf, : dXX' d^Xrjxpoh. 

' Kivr)TiKy)v Wyttenbach : (piKoveiKrjTiKriv Duebner : vLKrtriKTjv 
Bernardakis: the ms. reading could not be learned from 

272 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 133 

and by accustoming them to spend the whole day 
in jesting and sciirrility, have, as the clever Ariston 
said, made them as glossy and blockish as the pillars 
in a gjTnnasium. But as for ourselves, vre shall follow 
the ad\ice of the physicians who recommend always 
to let some time intervene between dinner and sleep, 
and not, after jumbhng our victuals into our body 
and oppressing oxu" spirit, to hinder our digestion at 
once with the food that is still unassimilated and fer- 
menting, but rather to pro\ide for it some respite 
and relaxation ; just as those who think it is the 
right thing to keep their bodies mo\"ing after dinner 
do not do this by means of foot-races and strenuous 
boxing and wresthng, but by gentle walking and 
decorous dancing, so we shall hold that we ought not 
to distract our minds after dinner either vrith business 
or cares or pseudo-learned disputations, which have 
as their goal an ostentatious or stirring rivalry. But 
many of the problems of natural science are light and 
enticing, and there are many stories which contain 
ethical considerations and the " soul's satisfaction," 
as Homer has phrased this, and nothing repellent. 
The spending of time over questions of history and 
poetry some persons, not unpleasingly, have called 
a second repast " for men of scholarship and culture. 
There are also inoffensive stories and fables, and it is 
less oneroxis to exchange opinions about a flute and 
a lyre than to listen to the sound of the lyre and the 

« C/. Maralia, 672 e. 

the earlier editors, but according to the Teubner edition of 
1925 the Mss. are divided between KivrtTucT]v and viicrp-iKi]v. 

• rjdiKas Duebner: i)dri Kai. 

^ Kal TovTo Bernardakis: toDto, 

• rij 5' iv Xylander and Meziriacus : raTs 5^. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^deyyo/jievqs aKoveiv Kal avXov. fxirpov he rod 
Kaipov TO TTJg rpo<j)ris Kadiarafxevrjs drpefia 
Kai ovpiTTveovaris r-qv Treifjiv iyKparrj yevecrdac /cat 
VTTepSe^iov. 

21. 'ETTet S' 'ApiaTOT€Xr]s oterat tcDv SeheLnvq- 
KOTOJV Tov jxev TTepivarov dvappt7ril,€LV to depjxov, 
Tov 8 VTTvoVy dv evdvs KadevScoat, KaKaTTviyeiv, 
€T€poi 8e TTjv fiev 'qavx^ctv otovTai Tas Trdifteis 
^eXriovas ttoicIv, ttjv 8e KLvrjaiv Taparretv to.? 

134 dvaSoaeis, Kal tovto tovs pikv TTepLvaTeiv evOvs 
dTTO BeiTTVOU tovs S' aTpefielv 7T€7T€LK€V, djuLc/yoTepoJi' 
dv oiK€Lcos e(f)d7TT€a6aL 86^eL€v 6 TO [x€v adjfia 
avvdaXTTCov /cat avve)(0)v jxeTa to Selrrvov, ttjv 
8e SidvoLav jxrj KaTacftepofievos p-T^h' dpywv evdvs 
dXX' cooTTep etprjTai Bia(f)opa)v eXa^pcos to TTvevp,a 
Kal XeTTTvvoiv TO) XaXeZv tc Kal dKoveiv tcDv 
TTpoarjvcov /cat p.r) SaKvovTCOV pir)Be ^apvvovTCOV. 

22. 'E/ueToy? 8e /cat KoiXias Kaddpaeis vtto 
(f)app,dKOJV, pLiapd " rrapapbvdia TrXrjupLOvrjs," dvev 

B p^eydXrjs dvdyKTjs ov KtvrjTeov, cooTrep oi TToAAot 
Kevcoaeojs eVe/ca TrXripovvTes to acD/xa /cat irdXiv 
'n-Xrjpcoaecos KevovvTes rrapd (fivauv, tols ttXtj- 
apLOvaZs ovx tJttov r^ rat? evheiais dvtcopevoi, 
fidXXov 8' oXws TT^v p-ev TrXrjpcocnv d)s KcoXvaiv 
drroXavaecos ^apvvop-evoi, ttjv 8' eVSetap- d)s 
XfJ^pav del Tals rjSovals 7TapaaKevdl,ovTes. to 
yap ^Xa^epov ev tovtols TTpovTTTov eoTL' Tapa^OLS 
Te yap dp-cfiOTepa Tcp awp^aTi 7rape;\;eTai /cat 



» Frag. 224 (233 in Rose's edition). 
' Supra, 130 a-e. 
* Plato, Critias, p. llo u. 

274 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 133-134 

flute itself. The length of time for this is such as the 
digestion needs to assert itself and gain the upper 
hand over the food as it is gradually absorbed and 
begins to agree with us. 

21 . Aristotle holds " that walking about on the 
part of those who have just dined revives the bodily 
warmth, while sleep, if they go to sleep at once, 
smothers it ; but others hold that quiet improves 
the digestive faculties, while movement disturbs the 
processes of assimilation ; and this has persuaded 
some to walk about inunediately after dinner, and 
others to remain quiet. In \iew of the two opinions 
a man might appear properly to attain both results 
who after dinner keeps his body warm and quiet, and 
does not let his mind sink at once into sleep and 
idleness, but, as has been previously suggested,** 
lightly diverts and enlivens his spirits by talking him- 
self and hstening to another on one of the numerous 
topics which are agreeable and not acrimonious or 
depressing. 

22. The use of emetics and cathartics, abominable 
" comforts for an overloaded stomach," " ought never, 
except under the stress of great necessity, to be 
inaugurated, as is the way of most people, who fill 
up their bodies for the sake of emptying them, and 
then empty them for the sake of filling them up 
again, thus transgressing against nature, and are 
vexed no less at their fullness than at their empti- 
ness — or, better, they are utterly depressed over 
their fullness, as being a hindrance to enjoyment, 
but set about bringing on emptiness with the idea 
of making room always for pleasures. The harmful- 
ness in all this is manifest ; for both procedures give 
rise to disorders and convulsive movements in the 

VOL. II K 275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(134) anapayixovs . t'Stov Se to) [xev ifidro) KaKov 
TTpoaeari to Trjv dTrXrjcrrLav av^€t,v re /cat rpe^ctj/' 
yiyvovTai yap at Treti'at Kaddrrep rd KOTTTOfxeva 
C peWpa Tpaxetai /cat ■)(apahpcLheis, koL ^ia ttjv 
rpo(ji7]v e'A/coufftv del AuTTtoaat/ ot5/c dpe^eatv 
eoiKvZai aiTLCOV Seo/xeVat? aAAo. (jyXeypbovals (f>ap- 
fidKcov /cat Kara-nXaafjudrajv . odev rihovai fiev 
o^eiai /cat dreAet? /cat ttoXvv exovaat a(f)vyp,6v 
Kal olcrrpov iv rat? dTToXavaeat, XapL^dvovaiv 
avrovs, Stardaeis Se /cat TrXrjyal TTopwv /cat 
TTvevfiaTcov ivaTToX-^ifjets Sia^exovrai., p,rj nepi,- 
fievovaai rds Kara (f)vaLV i^aycoyds, dXX eiri- 
TToXd^ovaai rols awfiaaiv woirep virepdvTXois 
aKd(f)€(jL, (j)opriojv eK^oXrjs ov TrepiTTCOixaTCov 
SeOjLteVot?. at 8e irepl rrjv /caroj KoiXiav e/cra/aa^eis 
8ta ^ap/xa/cetaj ^deipovaai /cat TT^/coucrat ra 

VTTOK€LfX€Va TrXciova TTOLOVai TTCpLTTCOCnV Tj i^- 

D dyovaiv. oiOTrep ovv, ei tis '^XXrjVcov oxXov iv 
TToAet ^apvvofxevos (jvvolkov, 'Apd^cov ipiTrX-qaeie 
/cat HkvOwv TTjV ttoXlv €7T7]XvScOV, ovtojs kvLOi 
Tov TTavTos hiajxaprdvovaiv ctt' eK^oXfj Trepir- 
Taifidrcov avvqdcov /cat avvTp6(f>cov ipL^aXXovres 
e^coOev els ro crdjfia kokkovs rtvds K^vlSlous /cat 
aKap,cxiviav /cat SvvdfxeLs dXXas dauyKpdrovs^ /cat 
dypias /cat KaOapp^ov Seo/xeVaj p,dXXov r] Kadrjpai, 
TYjv cfiVGLV Svvap,evas. dpiarov p.ev ovv ro pLerpLa 
Sialrr) /cat aa>(f)povL to adjpa Troielv Trepi re 
TrX-qpcoaeis Kal Kevdoaeis avTOTeXes dei /cat avpL- 
pieTpov. 

Et S' avdyKi] ttotc KaraXd^oi, tovs p-ev ep.eTovs 



276 



^ XvTraicrai Bernardakis : XvTTuxray or Xvirovvra^. 
* davyKparovs Meziriacus : aavyKplrovs. 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 131 

body. What is peculiarly bad in the use of an 
emetic is that it increases and fosters an insatiate 
greediness. For the feehngs of hunger become 
rough and turbulent, like rivers that are interrupted 
in their course, and they gulp the food down violently, 
always ravening and resembling not appetites that 
need victuals, but inflammations that need medicines 
and poultices. For this reason the pleasures that 
lay hold upon such persons are s^nft in their action 
and imperfect, and attended by much palpitation and 
agitation while being experienced, and these are 
succeeded by distensions and sharp pains in the 
passages, and retention of gases, which cannot wait 
for the natural movements, but stay in the upper 
part of the body as in water-logged ships which 
require the jettisoning of their cargo, not merely of 
their surplus. The \iolent disturbances lower dovm 
in the bowels resulting from medication, by decom- 
posing and hquefying the existing contents, increase 
rather than relieve the overcrowding. Just imagine 
that anybody, feehng much troubled at the crowd of 
Greeks li\ing in his city, should fill up the city with 
Arab and Scythian immigrants ! Yet it is just this 
radical mistake that some people make in connexion 
with the expulsion of the surplus of habitual and 
familiar foods, when they introduce into the body 
from the outside Cnidian berries, scammony, or other 
incongruous and drastic agents, which have more 
need of being purged away than power of purging 
our nature. It is best, therefore, by moderate and 
temperate living to make the body constantly self- 
sufficient and well adjusted as regards filling the 
stomach and emptying it. 

If ever absolute necessity befall us, vomiting 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTOi-qreov dv€V (f>apfji,aK€ias /cat irepiepy tag , firjSev 
E eKrapaTTOVTas dAA' oaov drreifjiav Sta^uyetv av- 
Todev d(f)LevTag aTrpay/Jiovajs rco TrXeovd^ovn rrjv 
aTTepaoLV. d)s yap rd odovia pvfiijiaai, /cat ;(aAa- 
arpaloLs TrXwofxeva fidXXov iKrpifierai^ rcbv vSaro- 
KXvaroiv, ovTws ol fxerd ^ap/xa/cwv eixeroL Xv- 
fiaivovrat rep acofMart /cat biacfideipovaLV. u^tara- 
fi€vr]s 8e KotAta? ovBev (fidpfxaKov ola rcov airicov 
evLa jJiaXaKas ivBiSovra Trpodvfilas /cat StaAuoi^Ta 
TTpdcos, thv Tj re rrelpa Trdai avvqdrjg /cat rj ■)(priaLS 
F dXvTTog. dv Se tovtols direiOrj, TtXeiovag rjfiepas 
vSpoTToaiav r] aaiTiav 7] KXvarrjpa TTpoaheKreov 
fidXXov ■^ rapaKTiKag /cat (fidapriKas (f>app.aK€Lag, 
i<f)^ a? ot 77oAAot (f)4povTaL Trpop^etpo*?, Kaddir^p 
d/coAacTTot yvvaiKGs, e/c^oAtot? XP^H-^^'^^ '<'ct^ 
<f>6opiois VTTep rod ttoXlv TrXrjpovadai /cat rjSvTTadeXv. 
23. 'AAAd TOUTOu? /xev iareov ol S' dyai' au 
TidXiv dKpL^eXg /cat rerayixevas rivds e/c TrepioSov 
135 KpLTiKijs^ e/jL^dXXovres daLTLag ovK opddJs rrjv (fivaiv 
fjLT) S€op,€vqv StSdcr/coucrt Setcr^at cryCTroAi^S' /cat 
TTOteti' dvayKaiav riqv ovk avayKaiav V(f)aipeaLV iv 
Katpcp t^-qTOVfievov edos dTraiTovvTi. ^iXnov yap 
iXevOepois tols tolovtois xPV'^^^'' KoXaafiots els 
TO ard)fia, /XT^Se/ntas' Se npoaLadrjcreojs oucxrjg /ofryS' 
VTTOtplas /cat TTjv dXXrjv Slatrav, oja-nep eiprjraL, 
Trpos TO avvrvyxavov aet Tat? ixera^oXatg vtttJkoov 
e;^eiv, fXTj Kara8€8ovXa)p.einjv /xt^S' €v8e8ep,€vrjv ivl 
o^T^/xaTt j8tou Trpo? Tifa? Katpovs rj dpidpiovs "^ 

^ iKTpi^eTai Bernardakis : ivrpi^erai, or ^/cTrXiyyerai, " lose 
their colours." 

* KpiTiKTjs suggested by Wjrttenbach : kpltikcis. 

» Supra, 128 e. 
278 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 134^135 

should be induced without medication and a great 
ado, and -without causing any disturbance bevond 
merely avoiding indigestion by at once allowing the 
excess to be peacefully ejected. Just as hnen 
cleansed with lye and washing powders wears out 
faster than that washed in plenty of water, so 
vomitings \nth drugs maltreat and ruin the body. 
If the bowels are getting sluggish, there is no 
medicine like some sorts of food that afford a mild 
stimulus to the inclinations and gently dissolve the 
cause of trouble. Experience >vith these is famihar 
to all, and their use is not attended by discomfort. 
But if it will not yield to these, the drinking of water 
for several days, or fasting, or an enema, should be 
tried next rather than disturbing and pernicious 
dosing to which most people hiuriedly resort, after 
the manner of licentious women who employ drugs 
and instruments to produce abortion for the sake of 
the enjoyment of concei\ing again. 

23. But we need say no more about this class of 
persons. However, to speak once again of those 
too exact persons who interject set periods of fasting 
according to a fixed schedule, they are wrong in 
teaching their nature to feel a need of restraint 
when not in need of it, and in making necessarv the 
unnecessary retrenchment at a time which makes 
demand for what is customarily required. It is 
better to apply such discipline to the body vrith a 
certain freedom, and, if there be no premonitory or 
suspicious sj-mptoms, to keep, as has been already 
suggested," our general mode of hfe responsive to 
changes so as to meet whatever may befall it, and 
not to let it be enslaved or bound to one formula of 
hfe, which has trained itself to be guided by certain 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B rrepioSovs dyeadai fie ixeXerr) kotos . ov yap da(f)aXes 
(135) ovSe pahiov ovhk ttoXitlkov ovb^ dvdpajTTtKov aAA' 
oarpeov tlvos C^^fj TrpocreoLKos ^ areXexovs to 
dfierdarTarov rovro /cat KarrjvayKaafxevov iv rpo- 
(fyats /cat d7ro;^ats' /cat KivqcreaL /cat rjav)(io.i5 et? 
€7rt(T/ctor Tti^a ^iov /cat axoXaarr]v /cat fxovorpoTTov 
Tiva /cat d(f)iXov /cat dho^ov diraJTaTO) TroAtreta? 
Kadidaaiv eavrovs /cat aucTTetAaCTti/* ou " /card ye 
Trjv l[i.r\vy e^>?, " yvcopirjv." (24) oi) ydp dpyias 
covLov -q vyUia /cat dirpa^ias, d ye 8?) p.eyLara 
KaKcov TOLs voaoLS TTpoaeari, /cat ouSev Sta^e'pet 

C Tou rd opuxara to) /Lti^ Sta^AeVeti' /cat ti^v (f}iovrjv 
TU) p-r^ (fideyyeadaL ^vXdrrovros 6 ttjv vyUiav 
dxpT^cTT^o. /cat rjavxi-o- ocv^eiv olop^evos' Trpos ov8ev 
yap iavTO) ;;^p7^cratT' dv ti? vytatVoi^t Kpelrrov r^^ 
Trpos TToXXds /cat" (f)iXav6pa)7Tovs Trpd^eis. rJKiaTa 
8r} TTjv dpyiav vyteivov V7ToXr]7TTeov , et to ttjs 
vyieias TeXos dTToXXvaiy /cat ouS' aXrjdes eaTi to 
/xaXXov vyiaLvetv tovs rjavx^av dyovTas' ovTe yap 
ZevoKpaT'qs [xaXXov Sivylaive ^cokhovos ovt€ 
AT]p,'qTpLOV (r)e6(f>paaTos, 'EiTTiKovpov re /cat tows' 
Trept 'ETTi/coupov' ouSev (Lvqae Trpos ttjv vpLvovfxiviqv 
aapKos evaTaOeiav rj irdaiqs (fjiXoTifiiav ixovar]s 

D 7Tpd^€cos aTToSpaats. dAAd /cat eTepais evn- 
fieXeiais hiaGOiUTeov cotl toj acofxaTL ttjv /caTa (f)vaiv 
€^tv, CO? TravTO? ^tou /cat voaov Sep^o/xeVoi* /cat 
vyietai'. 

Oi) p/r]V dAAd /cat Tot? TroAtTt/cots €(f>rj irapaiveTeov 
etvai TovvavTtov oS HAdTOJi' TTaprjveL toIs viois. 

1 KpeiTTOv fj Meziriacus : KpeirTovi. 

* (cat F.C.B. : Kal oi/ (pL\av0pibirovs or /cot d^(.\aydpwTrovs, 
due probably to the corruption KpelrTovi. 

280 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 135 

seasons, or numbers, or schedules. For it is not safe, 
nor easy, nor befitting a citizen or a man, but like 
the life of an oyster or the trunk of a tree — this im- 
mutability and forced compliance in the matter of 
food and abstinence, movement and rest ; it is fitting 
only for men who have reduced and restricted them- 
selves to a retired, idle, solitary, friendless, and in- 
glorious life, far removed from the duties of citizen- 
ship. " No," said he, " it fits not ^v^th my opinion." "* 
(24) For health is not to be purchased by idleness 
and inactivity, which are the greatest evils attendant 
on sickness, and the man who thinks to conserve his 
health by uselessness and ease does not differ from 
him who guards his eyes by not seeing, and his voice 
by not speaking. For a man in good health could 
not devote himself to any better object than to 
numerous humane acti\"ities. Least of all is it to 
be assumed that laziness is healthful, if it destroys 
what health aims at ; and it is not true either that 
inactive people are more healthy. For Xenocrates 
did not keep in better health than Phocion, nor 
Theophrastus than Demetrius, and the running 
away from every acti\ity that smacked of ambition 
did not help Epicurus and his followers at all to attain 
their much-talked-of condition of perfect bodily 
health. But we ought, by attention to other details, 
to preserve the natm-al constitution of our bodies, 
recognizing that every life has room for both disease 
and health. 

However, our friend said that to men in public life 
should be given advice opposite to that which Plato ^ 

' A paraphrase of Homer, 11. ix. 108, 
* Not extant in Plato's writings, but a faint suggestion of 
the idea may be found in Laws, p. 643 b. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(135) eKelvos fxev yap Xeyeiv eV rijs SLarpi^ijs aTraXXar- 
TOfxevos €nx)deLj aye, ottco? elg KaXov tl Kara- 
6r]Gecrde Tr]v axoXijv, cS TralSeg"' i^/xet? S' av tols 
TToXnevoixivoLs TrapaLveaaiixev els to. KaXa xP^^^olI' 
rots TTOvoLS Kai avayKoia, p,7] fiiKpcbv evcKa fxrjSe 

E (f)avXa>v TO acofxa TrapareLVOVTas , (Zanep ol ttoXXoX 
KaKOTTadovaiv €7tl toTs Tvxovatv, aTroKvaLovres 
iavTOvg dypvTTVtais Kal TrXdvais Kal TTepiSpofxaLS 
els ovSev ^(p-qaTOV ovb dcrrelov, dXX* eTrrjped^ovres 
erepois '^ (fidovovvres rj (f)tXov€iKovvT€s rj So^as 
dKdpTTovs Koi Kevds ScwKovres. Trpos tovtovs yap 
otfjLai fidXiarra rov Arjp^oKpLTOV el-neiv cos el to 
acofjua SiKaaaLTo rfj ifjvxfj KaKcoaecos, ovk dv 
avTrjv dTTO<f)vyeLV . lctcos p-ev yap rt Kai Qeo^paaros 
dXrjdes evnev, elitiov ev p,eTacf)opa ttoXv rep aw pari 
reXeiv evoiKiov rrjv ifjvxT]v. nXetova pLevrot to 
aojpa TTJs ^^XTJS diToXavei KaKa p-rj Kara Xoyov 
avTO) XP^^H-^^V^ P-V^ ^^ Trpoar]K€L depairevopievov' 
OTav yap ev Trddeaiv ISlois yemr^Tai Kai dycouL Kal 

F a7TOv8als , d^etSet tov adopiaTOS. o p,ev ovv ^Idacov 
OVK ofS' o Tt TTadwv, " rd puKpd heZv dhi,KeZv," 
eXeyev, " eveKev rod Ta peydXa BiKaioTrpayelv." 
^p,ets 8' av evXoycos tco ttoXltlko) TTapatveaaipiev 
rd piiKpd padvpLeXv Kal axoXd^ecv /cat ai/a7raueti/ 

" Mullach, Frag. Philos. Graec. i. p. 342 ; cf. also Diels, 
Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, ii.^ p. 91. 

" This and the preceding quotation are given in greatly 
amplified form in Fragment i. 2 of De anima (vol. vii. p. 2 
of Bernardakis's edition of the Moralia). 

' Despot of Pherae ; cf. the note supra on 89 c. Cf, also 
for the sentiment Plutarch, Moralia, 817 f, and Aristotle, 

282 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 135 

used to give to the young men. For the pliilosopher, 
as he took his leave after the exercise, was in the 
habit of saying, " Be sure, my boys, that you store 
up the lesson of this hour of leisure for some good 
end." But we would ad\ise those who take part in 
the government to employ their active labours for 
good and necessary ends, and not subject their 
bodies to stress on account of small and paltry 
matters, as is the way of most people, who make 
themselves miserable over incidental things, and wear 
themselves out \vith loss of sleep, going to this place 
and that place, and running about, all for no useful 
or decent purpose, but only from a spirit of insolence, 
en\y, or rivaW against others, or in the pursuit of 
unprofitable and empty repute. It was in special 
reference to such people, as I think, that Democritus 
said," that, if the body were to enter suit against the 
soul for cruel and abusive treatment, the soul would 
not be acquitted. Perhaps, too, there is some truth 
in what Theophrastus said,* in his metaphorical 
statement, that the soul pays a high rental to the body. 
At any rate, the body reaps the fruit of more e^^ls 
from the soul than the soul from the body, inasmuch 
as the soul uses the body unreasonably, and the 
body does not get the care that it deserves. For 
whenever the soul is occupied ^^^th its o^vn emotions, 
'strivings, and concerns, it is prodigal of the body. I 
do not know what possessed Jason <^ to say : " We 
must do -WTong in small ways for the sake of doing 
right in large ways." But we, ^vith good reason, 
would ad\'ise the man in pubhc hfe to be indifferent 
to small things, and to take his ease and give himself 

Rhetoric, i. 12 ; also The Epistle to the Romans, ill. 8 and 
vi. 1. 

VOL. II K 2 283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

avTov iv €K€LVOLs, 61 fiovXerai tt/oo? ra? KoXas 
TTpd^eis Kal jxeydXas fJir] SiaTrovov ex^iv to aajfjua 
136 jJ'fjB^ dfjL^Xv /xtyS' OLTTayopevov dAA' wanep iv 
vecoXKia rfj crxoXfj TedepaTTevjjievov , oncos avdis inl 
rds XP^t'ct? TTJs ^VXV^ dyovcrr]s 

dO'qXos Itttto) TTcbXos co? afxa Tpexj)- 

25. Aio TcDv TTpaypidrajv hLhovrojv dvaXr]7TT€ov 
eavTOVs p^'^O vttvov (f)dovovvTas ro) acvpari p-rir' 
dpiorov p'^re paarwvrjs rod peaov^ -qSuTradeias Kal 
KaKonadeias, p.'qSe^ (jivXarrovras^ opov olov* oi 
TToXXol (f>vXdTrovres eTnrpi^ovat to aojpa tols 
/Aera^oAat?, wanep tov ^amopevov aihiqpov, oTav 
ivTaOfj Kal TTLeadfj a(f>6hpa toZs irovotg, avOis eV 
B rjSovalg TrfKopevov dpcTpcos Kal Xei^opevov,^ etra 
TTttAtv i^ d(f)po8i(JLa>v Kal o'ivov hidXvTov Kal 
pcaXaKov elg dyopdv rj avXrjv i^ Tiva TrpaypaTeiav 
hiaTTvpov Kal avvTOVOV heopeviqv aTTOvhrjs iXavvo- 
pevov. 'H/aa/cAetTOS' p^ev yap vSpojindaas e/ce- 
Xevaev " avxp^ov ef cTTop^pias " TTocijaai tov 
laTpov ol 8e TToAAot tov TravTos dpapTdvovaiv , 
OTav iv KOTTOLs Kal TTOvois Kai evheiais yeva)VTai, 
paXiGTa Tals rjhovals i^vypaivetv Kal dvaT-qKeiv 
Ta GOipaTa TrapaStSovTes, avdi? he /xera to,? rjhovds 
olov imaTpi<f}ovTes Kal KaTaTeivovTes . t] yap 

^ TOV /ji^ffov F.C.B. : rbv fxiffov Salraasius : t6 fj-iaou. 

* ^Tj5^ F.C.B. : ixy)T€. 

• (pvXaTTOVTas Wyttenbach : ^vXarTovres or (pvXaTTovffrjs, 

* oloi'] 6v Salmasius. 

* Xei^onevov Wyttenbach : dXi^hftevov. 

« Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr. ii. p. 738, Simonides of Amorgus, 
No. 5 ; repeated in Moralia, 84 d, 446 e, 790 f, and in a 
fragment quoted by Stobaeus, Florilegium, cxv. 18. 
284 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 135-136 

plenty of rest while attending to them, if, when he 
comes to honourable and important activities, he 
wishes to have his body not worn by drudging, nor 
dull, nor on the point of giving out, but refreshed by 
quiet, like a ship in the dock ; so that when the soul 
again points the way to needful activities, it 

May run like weanling colt beside its dam.* 

25. Therefore, when circumstances afford us oppor- 
tunity, we should give ourselves a chance to recuper- 
ate, and to this end we should not grudge to our 
body either sleep or luncheon or ease, which is the 
mean between indulgence and discomfort,'' nor 
observe the sort of hmit that most people obser\'e 
whereby they wear out their body, hke steel that 
is being tempered, by the changes to which they 
subject it ; whenever the body has been strained and 
oppressed by much hard work, it is once more soft- 
ened and relaxed immoderately in pleasures, and 
again, as the next step, while it is still flaccid and re- 
laxed from venerj- and ^\■ine, it is coerced into going 
to the Forum or to Court or into some business requir- 
ing fervent and intense appBcation. Heracleitus, 
suffering from dropsy, bade his physician to " bring 
on a drought to follow the wet spell " ; " but most 
people are completely in error, inasmuch as, when 
they are in the midst of exertions, labours, and de- 
privations, they are most inclined to surrender their 
bodies to pleasures to be made languid and relaxed, 
and then, after their pleasures, bending them, as it 
were, into place, and stretching them tight again. 

* An adumbration of the Aristotelian doctrine that virtue 
is a mean. 

« Cf. Diels, FragnunU der Vorsokratiker, i. pp. 67-68. 

285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(136) jtvcris ov ^rjret Toiavrrjv avTaTToSoaiv rod aa>[JLaTOs. 

aAAa TTJs ^i>xy]S TO aKoXaarov Kal dveXevdepov ck 
rcov eTTLTTovcov ojanep ol vavrai irpos rjhova? /cat 
aTToAavaeLs v^pei (f)€p6fxevov Kal piera rag rjSovas 
TTciXiv in* epyacrias Kal TTopiapiovs (hdovp,€vov ovk 
ea Xa^etv ttjv (jyvaiv rjs pLoXiara Setrat KaTaardcrecos 
Kal yaXTjvTjs, dAA' i^iarrjaL Kal rapdrTei Sta rrjv 
avcopiaXiav . ol 8e vovv e)(ovres rJKt,aTa pukv rjhovds 
TTOvovvTL Toi CTcojUttTi 7Tpo<j(f)€pov(nv OV yap SeovTai 
TO napairav ov8e p.ep,vrjVTaL rcov tolovtcov Trpos rco 

D KoXix) TTJs TTpd^eois rrjv StdvoLav exovres, Kal ro) 
XaipovTi rrjs ifjvx^s ■^ aiTovhdiC,ovri rds aAAa? 
i^apiavpovvres eTnOvpiias} oirep yap (f)aaiv elTrelv 
Tov Enap-eLvcovBav pLcrd TratStas', dvSpos ayadov 
Trepl TO. AevKrpiKCL vocrcp reXevrqaavTos , " cb 
'H/aa/cAet?, ttojs iaxoXaaev dvrjp diTodaveiv iv 
roaovTOL? 7Tpdyp,aaL," tout* dXrjdcbs cotlv etVeiv 
CTT avS/DO? ^ TroXiTLKr]v TTpd^Lv r) (jnX6ao(f}OV (f)pov- 
riSa Sid x^^pos exovros, " rig Se axoXr] rep dvhpl 
TOVTCp vvv aTTeTTreiv r^ pLeOveiv iq Xayveveiv ; " 
yevopicvoL Se TrdXiv aTTO rcov Trpd^ecov iv rjavx^a 
Kararidevrai to crdJpLa Kal SiavaTravovai, ru)v re 

E TTOvuiv rovs dxp'TjOTOvg /cat pidXXov en rdJv -qBovcov 
rds OVK dvayKaias cos Trj <j>vaeL noXepLLas (f)vXarr6- 
pievoi Kal i^evyovres. 

26. "HKOvaa^ Ti^epiov TTore Katcrapa elTTetv cos 
dvrjp VTTcp i^rjKOvra yeyovcos err] Kal Trporeivcov 
larpd) x^^P^ KarayiXaaros iariv. ip,oi Se rovro 

* tAs dXXas . . . iiridvfiias Xylander : rats AWais . . . ^iriOvfilais. 
* iJKovcra Wyttenbach : iJK0V(Ta roivw. 

' Cf. Moralia, 794 b ; Tacitus, Annals, vi. 46. 
286 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 136 

For Nature does not require any such form of com- 
pensation in the case of the body. But, on the other 
hand, in the soul the licentious and unmannerly 
element, immediately after undergoing hardsliips, 
is carried away, as sailors are, by wantonness to 
pleasures and enjo}Tnents, and, after the pleasures, 
it is again coerced to tasks and business ; and the 
result is that it does not allow Nature to attain the 
composure and calm which she needs most, but 
deranges and disturbs her because of this irregularity. 
But people who have sense are least given to proffer- 
ing pleasures to the body when it is busied with 
labours. For they have absolutely no need, nor even 
recollection, of such things, inasmuch as they are 
keeping their thoughts intent on the good to be 
accomplished by their acti\-ity ; and by the joy or 
earnestness in their souls they completely dwarf 
their other desires. There is a jocose remark attri- 
buted to Epameinondas in regard to a good man who 
fell ill and died about the time of the battle of 
Leuctra : " Great Heavens ! How did he find time 
to die when there was so much going on ? " This 
may be repeated with truth in the case of a man 
who has in hand some pubhc acti\'ity or philosophic 
meditation : " What time has this man now for 
indigestion or drunkenness or carnal desires ? " But 
when such men find themselves again at leismre 
following upon their activities, they compose and rest 
their bodies, guarding against and avoiding useless 
toils, and more especially unnecessary pleasures, on 
the ground that they are inimical to Nature. 

26. I have heard that Tiberius Caesar once said 
that a man over sixty who holds out his hand to a 
physician is ridiculous." To me that seems a pretty 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/Ltev elprjadat, Sokcl ao^apiorepov , eKelvo S* dXr^des 
elvat, TO Selv eKaarov avrov liTjTe a(f)vyii(x)v 
lSiottjtos elvat, aTreipov (TroAAat yap at Kad' 
eKaarov Sia^opai) fi'^re Kpaaiv ayvoetv rjv ep^ei to 
acbfjia depfioTTjTOs /cat ^rjpoTTjTOs, p^Tjd^ ols cu^eAet- 
adai xp^^P-^^ov rj ^XaTTTeadai 7T€(f)VK€v. avTov yap 
avaiadrjTOS icrTiv Kal TV(f)X6s ivoLKei to) aco/iari 
F /cat KO)(f)6s 6 Tttura fiavdavcov Trap CTepov /cat 
TTwdavofievos tov laTpov TtoTepov pidXXov depovs tj 
X^tpicovos vyiaivei, /cat iroTepov to. vypa paov rj 
TO. ^rjpa TTpoaSex^Tai, Kal noTepov (fivaei ttvkvov 
ex^i' TOV (Tcfyvypov rj p,av6v' Kal yap cu^e'At/Ltov 
eiSeVat to, ToiavTa Kal paSiov, act ye Srj Treipco- 
fievovs Kal crvvovTas. 

BpcDpLaTOJv Se Kal Trcu/xarcai^ to. ;^|07^CTt/xa p,dXXov 
Tj TO. rjSea yiyvcoaKeiv TrpocxTy/cet, /cat pidXXov ep,- 
TTeipov etvai tcov evaTop,dxoJv r) tojv evoTopcov, /cat 
137 T(x)v TTjv neiptv pbTj TapaTTovTOiv ri tcov ttjv yevaiv 
a(f)68pa yapyaXil,6vTajv . to yap nap* laTpov ttvv- 
ddveadai tl hvaireTTTOV 7} evTremov avTO) /cat ti 
SuCT/cot'Ator r) evKoiXiov ovx yJTTOV alaxpov eoTiv rj 
TO TTwddveadai tl yXvKV Kal tl iTLKpov /cat avoTTj- 
pov. vvv he Tovs p^ev oipoTTOLovs erravopSovaLv, 
epLTTeLpcos 8Laiadav6p.€voL ttov TrXeov to yXvKV tov 
TTpoa-qKOVTOs ■^ TO dXpLvpov Tj TO avGTrjpov eveoTLV, 
avTol 8' dyvoovcjL tl tco crcopiaTL piixOev eXa(f)p6v 
Kal dXvTTOV eaTaL Kal XRV^^'-H-ov . odev ^ojpLOv p-ev 
dpTVCTLS ov TToXXdKLs dp.apTdv€TaL Trap avTots, 
B avTOVs Se <f>avXais 6p,ov Kal KaKcos dpTvovres 
oarjfiepaL rroXXd irapexovaL 7Tpdyp,aTa tols laTpols. 

« Cf. Moralia, 735 r. 
288 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING W^LL, 136-137 

strong statement, but this does seem to be true, that 
each person ought neither to be unacquainted \\'ith 
the peculiarities of his own pulse (for there are many 
individual diversities), nor ignorant of any idiosyn- 
crasy which his body has in regard to temperature 
and dryness," and what things in actual practice have 
proved to be beneficial or detrimental to it. For 
the man has no perception regarding himself, and is 
but a bhnd and deaf tenant in his own body, who gets 
his knowledge of these matters from another, and 
must inquire of his physician whether his health is 
better in summer or winter, whether he can more 
easily tolerate liquid or solid foods, and whether his 
pulse is naturally fast or slow. For it is useful and 
easy for us to know things of tliis sort, since we have 
daily experience and association with them. 

In regard to food and drink it is expedient to note 
what kinds are wholesome rather than what are 
pleasant, and to be better acquainted with those 
that are good in the stomach rather than in the mouth, 
and those that do not disturb the digestion rather 
than those that greatly tickle the palate. For to 
inquire of a physician what is hard or easy for one- 
self to digest, and what is constipating or laxative, 
is no less disgraceful than to inquire what is sweet 
and what is bitter and what is sour. But nowadavs 
people correct the chefs, being expert at detecting 
what dish has in it more sweetening or salt or sour- 
ness than is proper ; but they do not themselves know 
what, when taken into their o\s'n bodies, vnW be light 
and painless and beneficial. Therefore, a mistake 
is not often made in seasoning a soup at their houses, 
but by their vile and pernicious seasoning of them- 
selves ever)' day they provide a plentiful business 

289 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(137) ^cojxov ixev yap ovk dpLcrrov rj-yovvrat tov yXvKV- 
rarov, dAAa /cai TTiKpa /cat Spifiea avfifiiyvvovaiv 
els Be TO acofxa TroAAa? /cat KaraKopovs ep-^aX- 
Xovaiv rjSovds, to. pev dyvoovvres rd 8' ov pvr^po- 
vevom-es on tols vyieivols /cat cb(f)eXipois rj <f>vais 
rjBovTjv dXvTTOv /cat dperapiXriTov TrpoaTidrjaiv. 
dXXd /cat ravra Set p,vr)poveveiv, rd avp(f)vXa /cat 
7Tpocr(/)opa TO) acLpari,, /cat Tovvavriov ev ratg /ca^' 
copav pera^oXals /cat rat? aAAai? Trepiardcrecnv 
etSoras" oiKeicvs TrpoaappoTreLV eKdoTrf' rrjv Stairav. 
C 27. "Ocra pev ydp piKpoXoylas /cat dveXevdepias 
TTpoaKpovpara Xap^dvovcnv ol TroAAot Trepi re 
avyKopLL^ds Kapnajv /cat Tiqprjaeis eTniTovovs, dypv- 
TTVLULs Kal TTepihpopaZs e^eXeyxovres rd cradpd /cat 
VTTOvXa rov crcoparos, ovk d^iov eari SeStevai /at) 
vddojaiv dvhpes ^iXoXoyoL /cat ttoXltlkol, irpos ovs 
evearrjKev rjpXv 6 Xoyos' dXX' erepav rivd (f>vXaKreov 
can rovroLs Spipvrepav iv ypappuaai /cat p.ad'qpacn 
p,iKpoXoyiav, V(f>' rjs d^eiSetv' /cat dpeXeZv rov acopa- 
ros avayKa^ovrat, 77oAAd/cis" dirayopevovros ovk 
D evhthovres dXXd Trpoar^ia^opevoL Ovrjrov ddavdrcp 
/cat yrjyeves ^OXvpiricp avvapiXXdadaL /cat cruv- 
e^avvreiv. eW (Ls 6 ^ovs Trpos rrjv opoSovXov eXeye 
KaprjXov, erriKOV^iaai rov ^opriov prj ^ovXopevrjv, 
" dXXd Kape /cat ravra ndvra perd piKpov otcreig," 

^ eKdcTTTj F.C.B. : £KdffT(fi. 

290 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 137 

for the physicians. Now such persons do not regard 

the sweetest soup as the best, but they mix in also 
bitter and pungent flavourings ; on the other hand, 
they inject into the body numerous clojing pleasures, 
partly from ignorance, and partly because they do 
not remember that to whatever is healthful and 
beneficial nature adds a pleasure which causes 
neither pain nor repentance. But we must keep in 
mind both those things that are congenial and suit- 
able to the body, and, conversely, as changes attend- 
ant on the season occur and different circimistances 
arise, we should, in full knowledge of the facts, suit- 
ably adjust our mode of li^^ng to each. 

27. Now as to various difficulties, due to obser\ance 
of petty detail and to lack of freedom, which most 
men encounter — men who are engaged in the toil- 
some business of harvesting and caring for their 
crops and by sleepless nights and running hither and 
thither bring to light the latent infirmities of their 
bodies — there is no good reason to fear that such 
Mill be experienced by scholars and men in public 
hfe, with reference to whom our discussion has taken 
its present form ; but these must guard against 
another and more subtle kind of pettiness that 
inheres in letters and learning, an influence which 
compels them to be unsparing and careless of their 
body, so that they oftentimes, when the body is 
ready to succumb, will not surrender, but ^nll force 
the mortal to be partner with the immortal, and the 
earth-bom with the celestial, in rivalry and achieve- 
ment. Then later, to quote the words of the ox to 
his fellow-servant the camel, who was unwilUng to 
lighten his burden : " Well, before long you will be 
carrying me as well as all this load " (as actually 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(137) o /cat avve^T) reXevr-qaavros avrov, ovtoj ov/x^atVei 
T7J ipvxfj' fitKpa ;\;aAao-at /cat vapetvai [X7] ^ovXo- 
fj,€vrj TTOvovvTL Kal Seoixevco, [xer* oXtyov TTvperou 
TLvos rj (jKorcLpiaTos iix-neaovros a^elaa to, ^i^Xia 
/cat rovs Xoyovs /cat ras hiarpi^as dvayKat^erai 
E avvvoaeZv e/cetVo; /cat avyKapiveiv. opdaJs ovv 6 
TLXaTcov TTap-pveae fii^re crcD/xa Kivelv dvev tpvxrjs 
pb-qre *}fvxr]v dvev aiopLaros, dXX olov riva ^vvo)- 
ptSo? laoppoTTcav 8ia</>uAaTTetv. ore fidXiara rfj 
t/jvxfj cruvepyel ro acofxa Kal avyKdjxvei, TrXeiarqv 
emfieXeiav avrcp /cat OepaiTelav dTTohihovrag /cat 
rr]v KaXrjv /cat epdafxiov vyieiav^ cov StSoicrtv dyadwv 
KaXXiarov rjyovfievovs StSoi'at to npos Krrjaiv 
aperrjs Kat, XPV^^^ ^^ "^^ Xoyois /cat npa^eaiv 
aKOiXvTOv aincJov. 

* vykiav Reiske : vyUiav a.TroSi56vTas. 



992 



ADVICE ABOUT KEEPING WELL, 137 

resulted when the ox fell dead)." And this is just 
what happens to the mind : if it is unwilling to relax 
a little and give up to the body in distress and need, 
a httle later a fever or a vertigo attacks it, and it is 
compelled to give up its books and discussions and 
studies, and share vriih the body its sickness and 
weariness. Plato * was right, therefore, in ad\-ising 
that there should be no movement of the body 
without the mind or of the mind %^ithout the body, 
but that we should preserve, as it were, the even 
balance of a well-matched team ; when the body 
shares most in the work and weariness of the mind 
we should repay it by gi\ing it the most care and 
attention, and we should feel that of the good gifts 
which fair and lovely Health bestows the fairest 
is the unhampered opportunity to get and to use 
virtue both in words and in deeds. 

" C/. Aesop's Fables, No. 125. * Timaeus, p. 88 B. 



99S 



J 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND 

GROOM 

(CONIUGALIA PRAECEPTA) 



INTRODUCTION 

The modem bride ^\ill undoubtedly turn up her nose 
and shake her independent head in disapproval of 
Plutarch's suggestions about subordinating herself 
to her husband, and nobody a"11 attempt to deny 
that the status of women has changed materially 
since Plutarch's time ; but, apart from this, she 
will find in Plutarch's short essay many suggestions 
regarding whole-souled co-operation and cheerful 
intellectual companionship ^v■ith her husband, which 
mutatis mutandis hold as good to-day as they did 
when they were -wTitten, nearly two thousand years 
ago. Nor is the husband neglected ; he can find 
much sound advice regarding his attitude towards 
his Avife and the respect and consideration that is 
always due to her. 

Plutarch was no mere theorist in these matters. 
He himself was happily married, and anyone who 
doubfs this should read his letter to his wife (Moralia, 
608 a). 

The essay is included in the catalogue of Lamprias 
(see Vol. I. Introd. p. xviii) and is not infrequently 
quoted or referred to by later \\-riters, Stobaeus, for 
example, in his Florilegium, especially Ixxiv., and 
Hieronymus (St. Jerome), Adverstts lovinianum, i. 
ad Jin. It is well worth while, in this connexion, to 
read Jeremy Taylor's sermon. The Marriage Ring, 
to see how a famous preacher served up many of 
the ideas of a heathen philosopher to a Christian 
congregation. 

297 



138 TAMIKA HAPArrEAMATA 

nAOTTAPXOS nOAAIANni KM ETPTAIKHI ET nPATTEIN 

■B Mera top TrdrpLov deafiov, ov vplv rj rrjs A'qfirf- 
rpos tepeia avveLpyvvixevoLS i(f)t]pp,ocrev, olp^at, koa, 
rov \6yov 6p.ov (jvv€(f)aTTr6pLevov vpicov /cat avv- 
Vfj,€vat,ovvTa -)(priaLpLOV dv Tt TTOLrjcrai Kal rep vop,cp 
TrpoGcvSov. 

El/ jjiev yap tols puovaiKOLS eva tcov avXrjTiKOJv 

VOpLCOV LTTTTodopOV eKoXoVV , fieXoS Tt TOt? tTTTTOt? 

oppLTJs eTTcyepTiKov (Ls eoLKev erStSov re^ TtepL 
rds ox^las' (j)L\oao(f)ia Se ttoXXwv Xoycov /cat KaXdJv 
C ivovTcov, ovBevos rjTTOV d^ios avovSrjs 6 yap.ijXios 
eoTLV ovTos, CO KaraSovaa tovs ^ttl ^lov KOLVcovca 
avviovras els ravro rrpdovs re 77ape;^et Kat p^etpo- 
rjdeis dAAT^Aots'. (x)V ovv dKrjKoare ttoXXolkis iv (^tAo- 
ao(f>la 7TapaTp€(f)6p,€vot, Ke^dXaia avvrd^as ev Tiaiv 
OfiOLOTTjaL ^pax^iais, (vs evpLvrjp^ovevra [xdXXov eirj, 

KOWOV d/JL(f)OT€pOtS TTefXTTOJ BcopOV, €VXOfJ.€VOS TTj 

^ €vdi86v re F.C.B. : iirg.8ovTes Sauppe : ivdidovTa. 

" Cf. O. Gruppe, Griechiscle Mythologie und lieligions- 
geschichte, p. 1176. A few references are given regarding 
marriage rites and customs which are here touched upon, 
but anyone interested in these matters will consult some 
book like Westermarck, The History of Human Marriage 
(5th ed. 1922). * Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 704 f. 

298 



I 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM 

From Plutarch to PolUanus and Eurydice, health and 
prosperity. 

Following close upon the time-honoured rites which 
the priestess of Demeter " applied to you when you 
were retirinor together to the bridal chamber, a dis- 
course which equally touches both of you and swells 
the nuptial song ^^ill, I think, have a useful effect 
which will also accord with convention. 

In music they used to call one of the conventional 
themes for the flute the " Horse Rampant," ^ a 
strain which, as it seems, aroused an ardent desire 
in horses and imparted it to them at the time of 
mating. Of the many admirable themes contained 
in philosophy, that which deals with marriage 
deserves no less serious attention than any other, 
for by means of it philosophy weaves a spell over 
those who are entering together into a hfelong 
partnership, and renders them gentle and amiable 
toward each other. I have therefore drawn up a 
compendium of what you, who have been brought 
up in the atmosphere of philosophy, have often 
heard, putting it in the form of brief comparisons 
that it may be more easily remembered, and I 
am sending it as a gift for you both to possess in 
common ; and at the same time I pray that the 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(138) A(f)poSLT7j ras Mouaas" Trapelvai koI crvvepyelv, cos 
/LtT^re Xvpav riva p,rjT€ KiOdpav fxdXXov avrais y] 
TTjv 7T€pl ydfJLOv Kal oIkov eyu/Lte'Aetar rjpfxoajjLevrjv 
TTapex^LV hid Xoyov /cat dpfxovlas /cat cf)iXoaocf)Las 
TTpocn]Kov. /cat yap ol TraAatot rfi ^ A^pohirrj tov 
EpjXTJv avyKadihpvaav , (Ls ttjs trepl tov ydfiov 
D rjSovrjs fxdXtaTa Xoyov Seojjievqg, rrjv re Heidu) 
/cat rds Xaptraj, lvo. Treidovres hiaTrpdrroivraL 
Trap dXXrjXojv a ^ovXovrai, p.rj fiaxdfievoi /XT^Se 

<f>t,XoV€tKOVVTes . 

1. *0 HoXcov eKeXeve rrjv vu/i^Tjv rep vvp,(f)L(x) 
avyKaraKXiveadaL jjL-qXov kvSojvlov Kararpayovaav , 

aiVLTTOpLeVOS to? €OLK€V OTt Sct TT^V ttTTO GTOpaTOS 

/cat (ficovrjs X^P^^ evdppuoarov ctvat, irpajrov /cat 
Tjhelav. 

2. 'Ei^ BotWTta Tr]v vvp.<f)rjv KaraKaXvifjavTCs 
acrcf)apaycovLS} aT€(f)avov(jiv eKelmj re yap tJSkjtov 
€K rpaxvrdrrjs aKdvdrjs KapTTov dvahihojaiv , rj re 
vvfi(f>r] rep pLTj (f)vy6vri pLTjhe^ Svax^pdvavrL rrjv 
Trpcorrjv ^(^aXeTTor'qra /cat drjSiav avrijs rjpepov Kai 

E yXvKeZav Trape^ei avp,^icoaLv. ot Be ras Trpcoras 

■~ rcov Trapdevcov Sla^o/ad? pirj VTrofxeivavres ovhev airo- 

XeiTTOvcn rGiv 8ta rov o/Li(^a/ca ry]V ara(f>vXrjv ere- 

poLS TTpo'Cefxevcov. TToXXal 8e /cat rcov veoydfiiov Sva- 

X^pdvaaai 8ta rd Trpdjra rovs vvpL<l)iovs opLOiov 

^ i<T(papayiwv raivlg, ? 
* in]d^ Sauppe : /ii^re. 

" Hermes as the patron of arts and sciences, including 
300 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 138 

Muses may lend their presence and co-operation to 
Aphrodite, and may feel that it is no more fitting 
for them to provide a Ijtc or lute well attuned than 
it is to provide that the harmony which concerns 
marriage and the household shall be well attuned 
through reason, concord, and philosophy. Indeed, 
the ancients gave Hermes * a place at the side of 
Aphrodite, in the conviction that the pleasure in 
marriage stands especially in need of reason ; and 
they also assigned a place there to Persuasion and 
the Graces, so that married people should succeed in 
attaining their mutual desires by persuasion and 
not by fighting and quarrelling. 

1 . Solon ^ directed that the bride should nibble a ' 
quince before getting into bed, intimating, presimi- 
ably, that the delight from lips and speech should 
be harmonious and pleasant at the outset. 

2. In Boeotia, after veiling the bride, they put 
on her head a chaplet of asparagus ; for this plant 
yields the finest flavoured fruit from the roughest 
thorns, and so the bride will provide for him who 
does not run away or feel annoyed at her first display 
of peevishness and unpleasantness a docile and sweet 
life together. Those who do not patiently put up 
\sith the early girhsh disagreements are on a par with 
those who on account of the somrness of green grapes 
abandon the ripe clusters to others. Again, many 
of the newly married women because of their first 
experiences get annoyed at their husbands, and find 

speaking and writing ; c/., for example, the familiar instance 
in Actf xiv. 12. 

* Plutarch mentions this again in Moralia, 279 f, and in 
his Life of Solon, chap. xx. (p. 89 c). 

801 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

erradov iraQos toIs Trjv fiev TrXrjyrjv rrjs fieXiTTqs 
VTro/jLeivaai, to Se Krfpiov Trpoefievois. 

3. Ei' apXTJ Z-taAtCTra Set to.? Sta^opas' Kal tols 
TTpoaKpovaeis (f)vXdTTeadai rovs yeyafjLrjKoras, opwv- 
ras on /cat ra avvappioadevra twv (jKevcov /car dp- 
Xd-s fJLev VTTO TTJs Tvxovcrqs paStcos StaCTTrarat Trpo- 

Y (f>aaeois, XP^^<p Se tcov appicov avfnrrj^Lv Xa^ovTcuv 
fxoXis VTTO TTvpos Kal aihrjpov hiaXverai. 

4. "Q.aTTcp TO TTvp e^dTTrerai ficv cvx^ptos iv 
dxvpois Kol dpvaXXtSi Kal dpi^l Xay<LaLS, a^evw- 
Ttti 8e rdxi'OV dv purj rivog irepov hvvafxevov crrdyeiv 
dfxa Kal Tp€(f>€LV eTnXd^rjrai^ ovtoj tov (xtto awfiaTOS 
Kal wpas d^vv epcora tcov veoydficov dva(f>X€y6- 
fievov Set firj StapKrj fir]8e ^e^aiov vojxil^eiv, av p/t) 
irepl TO -^dos ISpvdels Kal tov (f>povovvTos d^dpievos 
ejjLi/fVXOV Xd^T) Biddeatv. 

139 5. 'H Std Twv (f)app,dKa)v dripa Taxv fxev alpeZ 
Kal XapL^dvei, paStcos tov ix^vv, d^pwTov Se Trotet 
Kal <j)avXov ovTcos at ^t'Arpa tip'o. /cat yorjTeias 
i7rLT€xvcop,€vai TOLS dvSpdaL Kal ;!^etpou/xevai St 
rjBovrjs avTovs ipiTrX'qKTOis Kal dvo'qTOLS Kal hi€<j)dap- 
pbivois avp^^LOvaiv. ouSe yap tt^v Ktp/C7yj> ojvrjaav 
ol KaTa(f>app,aKev6€VT€S , ouS' ixp'r]oaTO Trpos ovhkv 
avToZs vol Kal ovois yevopiivois, tov S' 'OSuaaea 
vovv exovTa Kal avvovTa (j)povLp.a)s VTTeprjydTrrjaev, 
6. At ^ovX6p,€vai pidXXov dvoiJTcov /c/aaretv dv- 
SpdJv iq <f)povL{JLa)V dKoveiv eot/caat rot? ev o8d) 

^ Cf. Moralia, 454 e. 
?02 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 138-139 

themselves in like predicament with those who 
patiently submit to the bees' stings, but abandon 
the honeycomb. 

3. In the beginning, especially, married people 
ought to be on their guard against disagreements 
and clashes, for they see that such household vessels 
as are made of sections joined together are at the 
outset easily pulled apart by any fortuitous cause, 
but after a time, when their joints have become 
set, they can hardly be separated by fire and steel. 

4. Just as fire catches readily in chaif, fibre, and 
hares' fur, but goes out rather quickly, unless it 
gets hold of some other thing that can retain it and 
feed it, so the keen love between newly married 
people that blazes up fiercely as the result of 
physical attractiveness must not be regarded as 
enduring or constant, unless, by being centred about 
character and by gaining a hold upon the rational 
faculties, it attains a state of xitality. 

5. Fishing with poison is a quick way to catch 
fish and an easy method of taking them, but it 
makes the fish inedible and bad. In the same way 
women who artfully employ love-potions and magic 
spells upon their husbands, and gain the mastery 
over them through pleasure, find themselves con- 
sorts of dull-witted, degenerate fools. The men be- 
witched by Circe were of no senice to her, nor did 
she make the least use of them after they had been 
changed into swine and asses, while for Odysseus, 
who had sense and showed discretion in her company, 
she had an exceeding great love. 

6. Women who prefer to have power over fools 
rather than to hearken to sensible men, are like 
persons who prefer to guide the blind on the road 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(139) ^ovXoijLevoLS fxdXXov oSrjyelv TV(f)Xovs t] toXs yiyv(iy- 
OKovaiv oiKoXovdelv Kal ^XeTTovai. 
B 7. T17V Y{aaL(f>dr]v aTTiaTovai ^oos ipaadijvat 
PaatXec avvovcrav, ivias opcjaat, rovs fxev avcn-qpovs 
Kal crco(f)povas ^apvvofxevas, tols S' ef oLKpaatas 
Kai (f)LXr]8ovLas KCKpapievois cScTTre/) Kvalv •^ rpdyots 
tJSlov avvovaa?. 

8. Ot TOt? L7T7TOIS i(f>dXXea6ai fjirj Svvdfievot, 8t' 
aadeveiav "q fiaXaKcav avTOvs eKeCvovs o/cAct^etv 

Kal VTTOTTlTTTeiV BtSdaKOVCTLV OVTOJS eVlOl TU)V Xa- 

/ ^ovTcov €vy€V€Ls 7] TrXovcTias yvvaiKas ovx iavrovs 
TTOLovai ^eXriovs dXX e/cetVas" TrepiKoXovovatv , d)S 
fidXXov dp^ovres raTreivcov yevofievojv. Set 8' cocrTrep 
LTTTTov TO jxeyedos (f)vXdrTovTa Kal to d^lcopia rrjs 

"'yvvaiKos XPV^^^'' "^4^ X'^^''^H'- 
C 9. Ttjv' aeXijvTjv, orav aTToaTTJ tov tjXIov, irepi- 
<f>avrj Kal XafXTrpdv opcufjiev, d^avit^eTai 8e Kal Kpv- 
TTTerai TrXiqaiov yevop.€in)' ttjv Se aax^pova yvvaiKa 
Set Tovvavriov opdadai fidXiara p-erd rod dvhpos 
ovaav, OLKOvpelv Se /cat KpvTtTeaQai p,rj Trapovros . 

10. OvK opdws 'HpoSoTO? elirev on rj yvvrj dpa 
- Toj x^TCJVL e/cSueTat Kai ttjv atScS* rovvavriov yap 

Tj a<jj<f)poiv dvTCvhvGTai, rrjv aiScS, /cat tov pidXi- 
ara ^tAetv tco paXiara aiheZadai avp^oXcp xpcovTai 
TTpos dXXy^Xovs. 

11. "Q.a7T€p dv (f>d6yyoL Suo avp<f>ojvoi, Xrj^dcoai, 
D TOV ^apVTepov ytyveTat, to peXos, ovtco Trdaa 

TTpd^iS €v OLKLO. aco(j)povovar) TTpdrrerai p.kv vtt* 



*» Herodotus, i. 8. Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 37 c, and 
Hieronymus, Adversus lovinianum, chap, xlviii. (vol. ii. 
p. 292 of Migne's edition). 
S04. 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 139 

rather than to follow persons possessed of know- 
ledge and sight. 

7. Women will not believe that Pasiphae, the 
consort of a king, fell in love with a bull, in spite of 
the fact that they see some of their sex who feel 
bored by uncompromising and virtuous men, and 
take more pleasure in consorting with those who, 
like dogs and he-goats, are a combination of licentious- 
ness and sensuaht}'. 

8. Men who through weakness or effeminacy are 
unable to vault upon their horses teach the horses to 
kneel of themselves and crouch down. In like manner, 
some who have won \sives of noble birth or wealth, 
instead of making themselves better, try to humble 
their Avives, with the idea that they shall have more 
authority over their wives if these are reduced to a 
state of humihty. But, as one pays heed to the size 
of his horse in using the rein, so in using the rein on 
his wife he ought to pay heed to her position. 

9. Whenever the moon is at a distance from the 
siui we see her conspicuous and brilUant, but she dis- 
appears and hides herself when she comes near him. 
Gjntrariwise a \irtuous woman ought to be most 
\isible in her husband's company, and to stay in the 
house and hide herself when he is away. 

10. Herodotus was not right in saying " that a 
woman lays aside her modesty along with her under- 
garment. On the contrary, a virtuous woman puts 
on modesty in its stead, and husband and wife bring 
into their mutual relations the greatest modesty as 
a token of the greatest love. 

11. Whenever two notes are sounded in accord 
the time is carried by the bass ; and in hke manner 
every activity in a \irtuous household is carried on 

805 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(139) afjL(f}OT€pcov ofxovoovvTcov, CTTK^aiVet 8e rr^v rov 
dv8p6g TjyefxovLav /cat Trpoaipeaw. 

12. *0 tJXlos rov ^opeav eviKrjaev. 6 yap dv- 
OpcoTTog rod fjLev dvepcov jSta^o/xeVou to IpcdrLoi' d(f)- 
cAeadai /cat Xapbrrpov Kararrveovros fidXXov €a(lyi,yye 
/cat (Tuveix^ rrjv Trepi^oX-rjv rov 8' r^Xiov fjuerd ro 
TTvevfxa depfiov yevojilvov daXTTOfxevos etra Kavfiarc- 
tfOjjievos /cat rov -)(^Lrd)va rep Ipiaricp TrpoaarreSvaaro . 
rovro TTOLOvaiv at TrXelarai yvvalKes' d<f)aipovpL€VOLS 

E roLs dvSpddL ^ia rrjv rpvcjyrjv /cat r7]v TroXvreXeiav 
Siafiaxovrai /cat x'^XeTTaivovaLV' dv 8e TreiQcovrai 
fxerd Xoyov, Trpdcos dTToridevrai /cat jjLerpid^ovaiv.. 

13. '0 lidriov i^e^aXe rijs ^ovXrjs rov (f>iXrjaravra 
TT]v eavrov yvvaiKa rrjs dvyarpos Trapovcrr^s- 
rovro p.kv ovv tocos o^ohporepov el 8' alaxpov 
iarrtv, oiairep earlv, krepoiv napovrcov daTrd^eadai 
/cat (f>iXetv /cat rrepi^aXXeiv dXXrjXovs, ttcos ovk 
alaxi'Ov iripoiv Trapovrcov Xoihopeiadai /cat 8ia- 
<f}4peadai irpos dXXiqXovs, /cat rds^ pi€V ivrcv^eis 
/cat (f)LXo(f)poavvas dTTopp-qrovs Trpos rrjv yvvaiKa 

F TTOieXadaL, vovdeaia 8e /cat piipujjeL /cat Trapprjaia 
XP'fjcrOat (f)avepa /cat dvaneTTrajJievr) ; 

14. "Qavep iaoTTrpov KareaKevaofievov XP^^H^ 
/cat XlBols 6(f>€Xos ovSev iariv, el jjlt) SeiKWOL rrjv 
fiop(f)rjv ofioCav, ovrcos ovSe TrXovolas yap-erijs 
ovrjats, el purj 7Tape;\;ei rov ^iov ofxoiov ra> avopi 
/cat avfi(f>u)vov ro rjQos. jet ;!^at/)ot'TOS' p^ev etKova 
OKvdpojTTrjv dTToSiSojcFL ro eaoTTrpov, dx^ofxevov 8e 

^ Ktti raj Xylander : ras. 

» Nos. 306 and 307 of the Fables which pass under the 
name of Aesop. C/. also Athenaeus, 604 f. 
306 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 139 

by both parties in agreement, but discloses the 
husband's leadership and preferences. 

12. The Sun won a victory over the North Wind." 
For the vrind tried by force to rob a man of his cloak, 
and blew briskly against him, but the man only 
drew his garment closer, and held it more tightly 
together. But when the heat of the sun succeeded 
the ^vind, the man began to get warm, and later very 
hot, and ended by stripping off his shirt as well as 
his cloak. This is the way most women act. When 
their husbands try forcibly to remove their luxury 
and extravagance they keep up a continual fight 
and are very cross ; but if they are convinced with 
the help of reason, they peaceably put aside these 
things and practise moderation. 

13. Cato expelled from the Senate * a man who 
kissed his own wife in the presence of his daughter. 
This perhaps was a little severe. But if it is a dis- 
grace (as it is) for man and wife to caress and kiss 
and embrace in the presence of others, is it not more 
of a disgrace to air their recriminations and dis- 
agreements before others, and, granting that his 
intimacies and pleasures with his wife should be 
carried on in secret, to indulge in admonition, fault- 
finding, and plain speaking in the open and without 
reser\e ? 

14. Just as a mirror, although embellished with 
gold and precious stones, is good for nothing unless 
it shows a true likeness, so there is no advantage in a 
rich wife unless she makes her life true to her hus- 
band's and her character in accord with his. If the 
mirror gives back a gloomy image of a glad man, 

' The story is told with more humorous details by Plutarch 
in his Life of Cato Major, chap. xvii. (p. 346 c). 

VOL. II I. 307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/cat aKv9pa)7rd^ovTas IXapav koI aearjpvtav, -qfiapTrj- 
{xevov iarl Kal (f)avXov, ovkovv koX yvvrj <^auAos 
/cat aKaipos rj Trat'^etv p,kv wpixrjfjievov Kal (f)tXo- 
(fypoveiadai rov dvSpos iaKvdpojTTaKvla, aTTovSd- 
^ovTos Se TTai^ovaa Kal yeXcoaa' to fiev yap dr^Bias, 
140 TO S' oXiyojpiag. hei he, coairep oi yeco/ter/jat 
Xeyovai rds ypap^jxas koI Tag €Tn<j>av€iag ov 
KLvelad ai Kad^ eavrds dXXd avyKiveiadat, tois" 
acofiaatv, ovtco ttjv yvvouKa pirjSev lBlov Trddos 
ex^iv, dXXd KOLV(ov€LV TO) dvSpl Kal aTTovbrjs Kai 
TT-atStas" Kal avvvoias Kal yeXojros. 

15. 01 rds yvvatKas [xrj rjhecos ^Xeirovres eadi- 
ovaa? fJi€T* avTcbv SiSdaKovacv ipLTTLirXaadai [xovas 
ycvofievas . ovrcos ol [x-q avvovres IXapcbs Tats yv- 
vai^l /ATjSe TTatSta? kolvcovovvtcs avTals Kai yeXojTOS 
ISias rjhovds xw/Dt? avTcov t,r)T€LV StSacr/couCTiv. 
B 16. Tot? Tcov Uepadjv ^aaiXevcnv at yv7]aiai 
yvvaiKes TrapaKddrjVTai Senrvovcrt Kal avveaTidiv- 
Ttti* ^ovXojjievoL Se Trait^evv Kal piedvaKeadai TavTas 
p,ev d7T07T€fX7TOvai, ij-ds Se fiovaovpyovs Kal TTaX- 
XaKiSas KaXovcTLV, opOcos tovto y avTO ttolovvtcs, 
OTL Tov^ avvaKoXaoTaiveiv Kal Trapoivelv ov jxcTa- 
StSdaort rat? yafieTaLs7\ dv ovv ISlcottjs dvqp, 
aKpaTTjs Se Trepl Tas rjBovds Kal dvdyojyos, ef- 
ap-dpTrj Tt TTpos eTaipav rj depaTraiviha, Sei TrfV 
yafxeTTjv fxrj dyavaKTeiv /LirjSe X'^XeTraiveiv , Xoyi,t,o- 
pbevTjv OTL Ttapoivias Kal dKoXaalas Kal v^pews 
alSovjxevos avTrjv eTepa fiCTaSlBwaiv. 

^ Tov Hatzidakis, Hartman, and Kronenberg, all in- 
dependently apparently (!), now confirmed by two mss. 
according to the Teubner edition of 1925: rb. 

308 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 13^140 

or a cheerful and grinning image of a troubled and 
gloomy man, it is a failure and worthless. So too a 
\\ife is worthless and lacking in sense of fitness who 
puts on a gloomy face when her husband is bent 
on being sportive and gay, and again, when he is 
serious, is sportive and mirthful. The one smacks of 
disagreeableness, the other of indifference. Just as 
lines and surfaces, in mathematical parlance, have no 
motion of their own but only in conjunction with the 
bodies to which they belong," so the wife ought to 
have no feehng of her own, but she should join with 
her husband in seriousness and sportiveness and in 
soberness and laughter. 

15. Men who do not Uke to see their wives eat in 
their company are thus teaching them to stuff them- 
selves when alone. So those Avho are not cheerful 
in the company of their wives, nor join with them in 
sportiveness and laughter, are thus teaching them 
to seek their own pleasm-es apart from their husbands. 

16. The lawful wives of the Persian kings sit beside 
them at dinner, and eat with them. But when the 
kings wish to be merry and get drunk, they send their 
wives away, and send for their music-girls and con- 
cubines.'' In so far they are right in what they do, 
because they do not concede any share in their 
licentiousness and debauchery to their wedded 
wives. If therefore a man in private life, who is 
incontinent and dissolute in regard to his pleasures, 
commit some peccadillo with a paramour or a maid- 
servant, his wedded wife ought not to be indignant 
or angry, but she should reason that it is respect for 
her which leads him to share his debauchery, licen- 
tiousness, and wantonness with another woman. 

• Cf. Moralia, 63 b. » C/. Moralia^ 613 a. 

309 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C 17. Ot (f)iX6iJt,ovaoL Tcjjv ^aaiXecov rroXXovs fxov- 
(140) ^y^Kovs TTOiovaiv, ol (f)t,X6Xoyot Xoyiovs, ol (f)LXadXr]- 
Tttt yvjjivaaTiKovs. ovrcog dvrjp (fiiXoacofjiaTOs KaX- 
XoiTriarpiav yvvaiKa ttolgZ, (f)iX'qhovos iTaipiKrjv Kal 
aKoXaarov, (f>LXdya6os Kal (fyiXoKaXos ai6(f>pova Kal 
KocrpiLav. 

18. AaKatva TratSia/CTy, TTUvdavofxevov rivos et 
•^St^ TavSpl^ TTpocreX'qXvdev, " ovk eycoy* ," elTrev, 
" aXX* ipol eKeXvos." ovtos 6 rponos, olpLai, rrjs 
olKoheaiTOLvqs , P-t^tc (f)evyeLV pirjre hva)(^epaiveLV rd 
TOiavra rod dvSpos dp)(op,€vov p^'qr* aurr)v Kar- 

D dp^ecrdai' to p,€V yap eratpiKOV Kal lrap.6v, ro 
8' V7Teprj(f)avov /cat d(f)iX6arTopyov. 

19. 'IStovs Ol) Set <j>iXovs KrdaQai rrjv yvvacKa, 
Koivols Se XPV^^^'' '^^^^ ''"'^^ dvSpos' ol 8e deol 
(^t'Aot TTpcoTOL Kal pLeyLGTOL. Sto Kal deovs ovs 6 
dvTjp vop,Ll^€L ai^eadai rfj yapberfj Kal yiyvcoaKCiv 
piovovs TTpoarjKeL, Trepcepyois 8e dprjGKeiaLg Kal ^e- 
vaLS SeLacSaip-ovLats diroKeKXeZadai, ttjv avXeiov. 
ovBevi yap dedJv lepd KXerrTop-eva Kal Xavddvovra 
Spdrai K€xa.pLCTpL€i'cos vtto yvvaLKos. 

20. '0 IlXdrajv (f)r]alv evSatpLova Kal p.aKapiav 
eti^at TTOALV, ev jj ro epLOV Kat to ovk epov 

£ Tj/ctcrra (f)deyyop,eva>v dKovovai, 8ta to koivols cos 
evL pidXiara XPV^^'^'' "^o^? d^iois OTTOvhrjs rovs 
TToXiras. < TToXv Se pidXXov €K ydpuov Set ttjv 

* riudpl Piatt: avdpi. 
* Kal rb Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixxiv. 43 : Kal. 



» Cf. Moralia, 242 b. 

^ Republic, p. 462 c. Cf. also Plutarch, Moralia, 484 b 
and 767 d. 
310 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 140 

17. Kings fond of the arts make many persons 
incline to be artists, those fond of letters make many 
want to be scholars, and those fond of sport make 
many take up athletics. In hke manner a man fond 
of his personal appearance makes a wife all paint 
and powder ; one fond of pleasure makes her mere- 
tricious and licentious, while a husband who loves 
what is good and honourable makes a wife discreet 
and well-behaved. 

18. A young Spartan woman, in answer to an 
inquiry as to whether she had already made ad- 
vances to her husband, said, " No, but he has made 
them to me." " This beha\iour, I take it, is char- 
acteristic of the true mistress of the household, on 
the one hand not to avoid or to feel annoyed at such 
actions on the part of her husband if he begins them, 
and on the other not to take the initiative herself; 
for the one course is meretricious and froward, the 
other disdainful and unamiable. 

19. A wife ought not to make friends of her owtq, 
but to enjoy her husband's friends in common with 
him. The gods are the first and most important 
friends. Wherefore it is becoming for a wife to 
worship and to know only the gods that her husband 
beheves in, and to shut the front door tight upon 
all queer rituals and outlandish superstitions. For 
with no god do stealthy and secret rites performed 
by a woman find any favour. 

20. Plato * asserts that the state is prosperous and 
happy in which the people hear " mine " and " not 
mine " most rarely uttered, the reason being that 
the citizens, so far as in them lies, treat all things 
of real importance as common property. Much 
more should such expressions be ehminated from the 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Toiavrrjv (fxovqv dvr)prjadat,. TtXrjv uyairep ol larpol 
Xiyovai ras tcov evcovvfuov TrXyyas rrjv atadrjaiv 
iv Tols Se^tot? dva(f)epeiv, ovtoj riqv yvvoLKa tols 
Tov dvSpos avjXTTadelv koXov^ /cat tov dvSpa tols 
TTJs yvvatKos, tv' waTrep ot, Seaixol Kara, rqv in- 
aXXaiiv^ IqXvv Si' aAA7^Aa»i^ Xap^^avovaiv , ovtcos 
eKarepov r-qv evvoLOV dvTiarpo<f>ov aTTohihovros 'q 
Koivuivia acp^TjTaL St' dp,(j}olv. /cat ydp rj (f)vai,s 
F fxiyvvai Sta tcov acop-dTUiv Tjfjids, Iv* e^ eKaripiov 
fiepos Xa^ovcra /cat arvyx^ctaa kolvov dpL^orepoLS 
aTToZcb TO yewcofievov, coare fjirjSeTepov Siopiaai 
{xrjSe hiaKplvaL to tStor "q ro dXXoTpLov. avTiq 
Toivvv /cat ^(priixdTOiv Koivcovia TrpoarjKei fidXiara 
TOLS yapLOvaiv, els fxiav ovaiav Trdvra Kara- 
p^ea/xevots" /cat dvap,ei^aaL firj to fJiepos lSlov /cat 
TO jxipos dXXorpiov dXXd rrdv iSlov -qyelcrdat /cat 
pnqhev dXXorpiov . ojairep to Kpdp,a /catVot vSaTOs 
fji€re)(ov vXeLovos olvov KaXovjjLev, ovtoj ttjv ovaiav 
Set /cat TOV oTkov tov dvSpos Xiyeadai, Kav rj 
yvvT) TrXelova ovpi^dXXrjTai. 

21. OtAoTrAouTOS' "q 'EiXevrj, (fnXy^Sovos 6 Hdpt.s' 
(f)p6vLjios 6 ^OSvcraevs, (Tc6(f)pcov r) YlrjveXoTrr} . Sid 
toCto [xaKapios ydfxos 6 tovtojv /cat ^-qXcoTos, 6 

141 S' cKelvcov 'lAtctSa KaKCov "EAAr^ai /cat ^ap^dpois 
eTTolrjaev. 

22. '0 'PcOpLOLOS VTTO TCOV (filXojv vovdeTovficvos 
oTt acL)(f)pova yvvaiKa /cat rrXovalav /cat (vpalav (xtt- 

^ KaXbu Wyttenbach : fiaWov. 

" Cf. Plutarch's Life of Aemilius Paulus, chap. v. (p. 
312 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 140-141 

married state ; save that, as physicians tell us that 
blows on the left side of the body record the sensa- 
tion on the right side, so, in the same way, it is a 
lovely tiling for the wife to sympatliize with her 
husband's concerns and the husband with the wife's, 
so that, as ropes, by being intertwined, get strength 
from each other, thus, by the due contribution of 
goodwill in corresponding measure by each member, 
the copartnership may be preserved through the 
joint action of both. For Nature unites us through 
the commingling of our bodies, in order that, by 
taking and blending together a portion derived from 
each member of a pair, the offspring which she 
produces niay be common to both, so that neither 
can define or distinguish his own or the other's part 
therein. Such a copartnership in property as well 
is especially befitting married people, who should 
pour all their resources into a common fund, and 
combine them, and each should not regard one part 
as liis own and another part as the other's, but all 
as his owTi and nothing as the other's. As we call 
a mixture " wine," although the larger of the com- 
ponent parts is water, so the property and the estate 
ought to be said to belong to the husband even 
though the wife contribute the larger share. 

21. Helen was fond of wealth and Paris of pleasure; 
Odysseus was sensible and Penelope virtuous. 
Therefore the marriage of the latter pair was happy 
and enviable, while that of the former created an 
" Iliad of woes " for Greeks and barbarians. 

22. The Roman,* on being admonished by his 
friends because he had put away a virtuous, wealthy, 

257 b), and Hieronymus, Adversus lovinianum, i. chap, 
xlviii. (vol. 11. p. 292 of Migne's edition). 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(141) CTTefJufjaTO, tov kglXtlov^ avrols TTporeivag " Koiyap 
ovTO?," €(l)7], " KaXos tSett' /cat /cantos', aAA' ovSels 
olSev 07T0V fx€ BXi^ei." Set rolvvv firj TrpotKi /xrjSe 
yivei jxrjSe /caAAet t7]v yvvaiKa iriareveiv , dAA' iv 
^ ols aTTTerai ndXiara tov dvSpos, 6p.LXia re koL rjOei 
Kal avfJiTTepicfjopa, ravra [xtj aKXrjpd jU-tjS' dviaJvra 
B Kad^ rjfxepav oAA' evdpfiocTTa /cat dXvTva Kal Trpoa- 
(f)iXrj 7Tap€)^€LV. ojairep yap ol larpoL rovs i^ alriajv 
dS'^Xwv Kal Kara p,t,Kp6v avXXeyojxivoiv yevvcxi- 
fjLevovs TTvperovs p.dXXov SeSot/caatv' rj tovs ipi<f)av€.Ls 
Kal fxeydXas 7Tpo(f>da€Lg exovras, ovro) rd Xav- 
ddvovra tovs ttoXXovs p.LKpd /cat ovvex'fj Kai Ka9- 
rjixepcvd TTpoaKpovp,aTa yvvaiKos Kal dvhpos p-aXXov 
hdaTTjai /cat Xvp.aiveTai ttjv avpb^iojaiv. 

23, *0 ^aaiXevs OlXlttttos yjpa QecrcraXijg yvvai,- 
Kos aiTiav ixovarjs KaTa(j>apixaKev€iv avTov. ianov- 
Saaev ovv rj 'OXvfXTnds Xa^eiv ttjv dvdpcjTTov vtto- 
Xetpiov. (hs S' ei? oijjiv iXdovaa to t etSos 
€V7Tp€7Trjs i(f)dvr] Kal SceXexdr] Trpos avTTjV ovk 

C dyevvdJs 01)8' davveTCos , " ;^atpe'Ta>crai/," etirev rj 
^OXv/xTTLas, " at Sta^oAai. av yap iv aeavTrj Ta 
(jidpjxaKa e^et?." dp,a)(ov ovv tl yiyveTat TTpdyfxa 
^ya/jLeTTj yvvrj Kal vopupios, av iv avTjj rrdvra 
defxevTf], Kal TTpoiKa /cat yevog Kat, (l)dpiJLaKa Kal 
TOV KecTTOv avTov, TJdeL Kal dpeTTJ KaTepydar^Tai 
TTjv evvoLav. 

24. TldXiv rj 'OXvfjLTnds, avXiKov tivos veavioKov 
yijfiavTOS €V7Tp€7Trj yvvaiKa /ca/caj? aKovovaav, 

^ koKtlov in Life of Aemilius Paulus, p. 257 b : KaXinov, 
KaWiyiov Stobaeus, Ixxiv. 45. 

• Much the same story is told of the wife of Hystaspes by 
314 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, itl 

and lovely wife, reached out his shoe and said, 
" Yes, this is beautiful to look at, and new, but 
nobody knows where it pinches me." A -wife, then, 
ought not to rely on her do\\Ty or birth or beauty, 
but on things in which she gains the greatest hold 
on her husband, namely conversation, character, and 
comradeship, which she must render not perverse 
or vexatious day by day, but accommodating, in- 
offensive, and agreeable. For, as physicians have 
more fear of fevers that originate from obscure causes 
and gradual accretion than of those which may be 
accounted for by manifest and weighty reasons, so 
it is the petty, continual, daily clashes between man 
and ^^-ife, unnoticed by the great majority, that 
disrupt and mar married life. 

23. King Philip was enamoured of a Thessalian 
woman who was accused of using magic charms upon 
him. OljTnpias accordingly made haste to get the 
woman into her power. But when the latter had 
come into the queen's presence and was seen to be 
beautiful in appearance, and her conversation with 
the queen was not lacking in good-breeding or 
cleverness, Olympias exclaimed, " Away ^vith these 
slanders ! You have your magic charms in yourself." * 
And so a wedded and lawful -wife becomes an irre- 
sistible thing if she makes ever}'thing, do's\Ty, birth, 
magic charms, and even the magic girdle* itself, to 
be inherent in herself, and by character and virtue 
succeeds in A^inning her hvisband's love. 

24. On another occasion, when a young man of the 
court had married a beautiful woman " of bad reputa- 

SatjTus in his Life of Euripides (Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vs.. 
p. 157). » Homer, II. xiv. 214. 

« Pantica of Cyprus, according to Phylarchus, as quoted 
by Athenaeus, 609 c. 

VOL. II L 2 315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1 41) " ovTOSy" etnev, " ovk ex^c Xoyiafiov ov yap av 

TOLs 6<f)da\jxoi9 eyrjfjLe." Set §e firj roZg ofx/jiaaL 

yafieXv fjirjSe rolg SaKTvXois, woTrep evtoi ifjrjcjjl- 

D aavres TToaa (f)epovcrav Xafx^dvovaiv , ov Kpivavres 

TTcDs" avix^LCoaoiJievrjv. 

25. *0 TiCOKpdTTjs e/ceAeue tojv eaoTTrpit^opilvoiv 
veaviGKCov roiis fi^v alaxpovs eTravopOovcrdat, rfj 
dperfj, Tovs Se KaXovs prj KaraiCTxyveiv rfj /ca/cia 
TO elhos. KaXov ovv /cat Tr]v OLKoSeaTTOLvav, orav 
iv rats x^P^'-^ ^XV ''"° ^oorrrpov, avrrjv iv iavTrj 
StaAoAetv, TTjv fxev alcrxpd-v " tl ovv, dv fjurj aa)<f)pcov 
yevwfxai; " rr^v Se KaXijv " rt ovv, dv /cat acocjipcov 
yevcojxai; " rfj yap alcrxpd arcfjivov et <j)iXeZTai 
Sto. TO rjOos fxdXXov r] to KaXXos. 

26. Tat? Avadvdpov dvyarpdatv 6 Tvpavvos 6 
Si/ceAt/cos' IpidTia /cat irXoKia tcov TToXvreXCbv enefi- 

E tpev 6 Se Avaavhpos ovk eXa^ev elrrcov, " ravra rd 
Koafxta KaTaiaxvveZ jxov fidXXov rj Koafx-^aet Tas 
dvyaTcpas." Trporepos Se AvadvSpov So^o/cAtJs' 
TOVT elTtev, 

ov KoafjLog, ovk, d> tXtjixov, dAA' aKoafxta 
^aivoLT' dv eivat awv re fiapyoTrjs (f)pevix)v. 

KoajJios yap eoTLV, d)s eAeye K/oarTys", " to 
KoafjLovv." Koafxel Se to Koa/jLiwrepav ttjv yvvatKa 
7TOIOVV. TTOtet Se TOLavTTjv ovT€ XP^^°S ovT€ ap,d- 

" Attributed to Bias by Stobaeus, Florilegium, iii. 79 f, 
and by Demetrius Phalereus, Sayings of the Seven Wise Men. 
Other authors {e.g. Diogenes Laertius, ii. 33) assign it to 
Socrates. 

^ Dionysius according to Plutarch; Moralia, 190 e, 229 a, 
and Life of Lysander, chap. ii. (p. 439 d). The same story 
is told of Archidamus in Moralia 218 e. 
316 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 141 

tion, Olympias said, " That fellow has no brains ; 
else he Avould not have married on sight." Marriages 
ought not to be made by trusting the eyes only, or 
the fingers either, as is the case vith some who take 
a viife after counting up how much she brings with 
her, but \^ithout deciding what kind of a helpmate 
she will be. 

25. Socrates* used to vuge the ill-favoured among 
the mirror-gazing youth to make good their defect by 
virtue, and the handsome not to disgrace their face 
and figure by -vice. So too it is an admirable thing 
for the mistress of the household, whenever she holds 
her mirror in her hands, to talk with herself — for the 
ill-favoured woman to say to herself, " What if I am 
not virtuous ? " and the beautiful one, " What if I 
am \-irtuous as well ? " For if the ill-favoured woman 
is loved for her character, that is something of which 
she can be very proud, far more than if she were 
loved for her beauty. 

26. The Sicihan despot'' sent clothing and jewellery 
of the costly kind to the daughters of Lysander ; 
but Lysander would not accept them, saying, " These 
adornments >\'ill disgrace my daughters far more 
than they will adorn them." But Sophocles," before 
Lysander, had said this : 

Adornment ! No, you wretch ! Naught that adorns 
*T would seem to be— your crazy mind's desire. 

For, as Crates used to say, " adornment is that which 
adorns," and that adorns or decorates a woman 
which makes her more decorous. It is not gold or 
precious stones or scarlet that makes her such, but 

« From an unknown play ; c/. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. 
p. 310, Sophocles, No. 762. 

317 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

payoos ovre kokkos, dAA' ocra aeixvoTrfros ei5- 
ra^Las alSovs cficfyaaLv TTepiTidrjaLV. 

27. Ot rfi ya/xTjAta dvovreg "Hpo. rrjv x^^W ^^ 
i avyKadayi^ovcn rot? aAAoi? lepoig, aAA' i^eXovres 

eppiipav TTapa rov ^cofiov, alviTTopievov rod vofio- 
uerov TO fi-qdeTTore Selv x^^W H'V^^ opyqv ydfico 
TTapelvai. Set yap elvai Trjs olKohea7Toivr]s c5cr7rep 
otvov TO avari-jpov (h^e\Lp.ov /cat r]hv, {xtj TTiKpov 
woTTep aXoris fJLrjSe (^ap/xa/cajSes". 

28. '0 YlXdrojv TO) "E^evoKparet ^apvrepcp to 
Tjdos ovTi TttAAa 8e KaXco Kayadch TrapeKeXevero 
dveiv Tat? \dp(,aiv. olfxai, Srj /cat tt^ a(L(f)povL 
IxaXiara heZv Trpog rov dvSpa ;^a/3tTa»i/, Iv' , (Ls cAeye 

142 M.r]Tp68a)pos, " rjSecos avvoLKrj /cat p,7] opyi^ojjLevrj 
OTL acjLxjypovel." Set yap /^ti^Te ti^v evTeA^ /ca^- 
apLOTTjTOs dfieXetv pL'qre. ttjv (f)iXavhpov ^iXo<f)poavvr]g' 
TTOtet yap rj ;^aAe7TOT7j? aTySi] tt^i' evra^tav Trjs 
yvvaiKos, coairep rj pvTrapla ttjv d^eXeiav. 

29. 'H cfjo^ovfxevr] yeXdaai Trpos rov dvSpa /cat 
TToi^ai^ Tt, pbT] (f>avjj dpaaela /cat a/coAao'TOS', ov8ev 
Sia^e'pet tt^? ii'a /xi^ SoK-fj pLvpit,eadai rrju K€(f)aXr]v 
p,7jS dXet(f)oiJL€vr]s, Kal tva fxrj (f)VKova9ai to Trpoa- 
(OTTov fiTjSe VL7TTop,€vrjs. opcjjxev Se /cat TTotT^Ta? /cat 
prjTopas, oaoL (^evyovai to Trepl rrjv Xi^iv oxXlkov 

B /cat dveXevdepov /cat /ca/co^7jAov, Tot? irpdypiaai /cat 

^ valval Wyttenbach : irpd^ai. 

" C/. O. Gruppe, Griechische Mythologie und Relig'ions- 
geschichte, p. 1134; also Plutarch, Frag. 2 of Le Daedalis 
Plataeensibus (in Bernardakis's edition, vol. vii. p. 44). 

" The same advice in Moralia 769 d, in Plutarch's Life of 
C. Marius, chap. ii. (p. 407 a), and a slightly different 
inference in Moralia^ 753 c. 
318 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 141-142 

■whatever invests her with that something which 
betokens dignity, good behaviour, and modest}'. 

27. Those who offer sacrifice to Hera, the Pro- 
tectress of Wedlock," do not consecrate the bitter 
gall >nth the other parts of the offering, but remove 
it and cast it beside the altar — an intimation on 
the part of him who established this custom that 
bitterness and anger ought never to find a place in 
married life. For the acerbity of the mistress, hke 
that of wine, ought to be salutary and pleasant, not 
bitter Uke that of aloes, nor suggestive of a dose of 
medicine. 

28. Plato * ad\ised Xenocrates, who was somewhat 
churhsh in character but otherwise a ffood and honour- 

o 

able man, to sacrifice to the Graces. It is my opinion 
that the A-irtuous woman has especial need of graces 
in her relations ^ith her husband, in order that, as 
Metrodorus " used to put it, " she may hve pleasantly 
vrith him and not be cross all the time becaiise she 
is \'irtuous." The thrifty woman must not neglect 
cleanUness, nor the lo\'ing Avife cheerfulness ; for 
asperity makes a Anfe's correct beha^-iour disagree- 
able, just as untidiness has a similar effect upon 
plain living. 

29. The woman who is afraid to laugh and jest a 
bit with her husband, lest possibly she appear bold 
and wanton, is no different from one who will not 
use oil on her head lest she be thought to use per- 

.fiune, or from one who vriW not even wash her face 
lest she be thought to use rouge. But we obsers'e 
both poets and pubhc speakers, such as tr}' to avoid 
vulgarity, narro'wness, and affectation in their 
diction, employing all artistry to move and stir the 

• Cf. Moralia, 753 c. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(142) rals oiKovofxiaLs /cat rots rjdeaiv dyeiv koI KLvelv 
rov aKpoanqv (f)t,XoTe)(vovvTas . Sio Set /cat rrjv 

V oiKoodaTToivav ort rrdv to Trepirrov /cat iraipiKov 
Kai TTavrjyvpLKov, ev Troiovaa, ^euyet /cat Trap- 
atretrat, jxdXXov ^iXorexvelv iv rat? tjOlkols /cat 
^LOiTLKals X'^P''^'' '^pos rov avhpa, rat kuXo) /xe^' 
7]8ov7Jg avvedil,ovaav avrov. av S' apa (^ucret Tt? 
avoTqpa /cat aKparos yevrjrat Kai dvriSvvTOs, 
evyvcoixoveiv Set tov dvhpa, /cat Kaddirep 6 Ooi/ctcuv, 
Tou AvTLTTarpov TTpd^LV avTcb irpocrrdrTovTOS ov 

C KaXrjv ovSe Trpeirovaav^ elirev " ov SvvacraC [jlol 
Kai ^iXcp XPV^^*^^ '^^^ /coAa/ct," ovtco Xoylt^eaQai 
TTcpL TTJs acu(j)povos KOL avaTTjpds yvvaiKos " ov 

*" hvvafiaL rfj avrij /cat d)9 yafMerfj Kai (os eratpo. 
ox'vetv'at." 

30. Tat? AtyyTTTtais' UTroS^ju-acri ;^/)'^o-^at Ttdrpiov 
ovK rjvy OTTOJS iv OLKU) hirjpiepevcoai. rd>v Se rrXei- 
OTOiv yvvaLKcbv dv VTroS-qnara hidxpvaa TrepieXrjs 
Kai ifieXXia Kai Treptcr/ceAtSaj /cat TTop^vpav Kai 
fxapyapiras , evSov fxevovcnv. 

31. 'H Oeavco 7Tape(f)r]V€ ttjv X^^P^ irepi^aXXo- 
fxevT] TO LfjidTtov. €L7t6vtos Se' Tivos^ " KaXos 6 Trfj- 
X^S, aAA ov OYjfjLoaios, e<p^' oei oe p.rj fiovov 

D Tov TTTJxvv dXXd fjLTjSe Tov Xoyov hrjixoaiov elvat 
TTJs crco(f)povos, Kai rrjv (fxjovrjv cuj diroyvpLvmaiv 

^ oi)/c olaav di npiirovaav Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixxiv. 49, 
* elirdvTos di Ttvos Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixxiv. 49 : rivbs S' 
eiirSvTOs, 

" Cf. Moralia, 64 c, 188 r, 533 d; Plutarch's Life of 
Phocion, chap. xxx. (p. 755 b); Life of Agis, chap. ii. 
(p. 795 e). 
320 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 142 

hearer by means of their subject matter, their 
handling of it, and their portrayal of characters. 
So too the mistress of the household, just because 
she avoids and deprecates everything extravagant, 
meretricious, and ostentatious (and she does well to 
do so), ought all the more, in the graces of her 
character and daily life, to employ all artistry upon 
her husband, habituating him to what is honourable 
and at the same time pleasant. However, if a woman 
is naturally uncompromising, arbitrary, and un- 
pleasant, the husband must be considerate, and do 
as Phocion did when Antipater prescribed for him 
a dishonourable and unbecoming course of action. 
Phocion said, " You cannot use me as a friend and 
flatterer both,"" and so the husband must reason 
about his virtuous and uncompromising wife, " I 
cannot have the society of the same woman both as 
wife and as paramour." 

30. The women of Eg}-pt, by inherited custom, 
were not allowed to wear shoes,^ so that they should 
stay at home all day ; and most women, if you take 
from them gold-embroidered shoes, bracelets, anklets, 
purple, and pearls, stay indoors. 

31. Theano," in putting her cloak about her 
exposed her arm. Somebody exclaimed, " A lovely 
arm." " But not for the pubUc," said she. Not 
only the arm of the virtuous woman, but her speech 
as well, ought to be not for the pubhc, and she ought 
to be modest and guarded about saying an\-thing 

* This is quite contrary to the classical Greek tradition 
(Herodotus, ii. 35; Sophocles, Oedipus Col<Tneus 339), which 
errs just as badly in the other direction. ' 

* Wife of Pythagoras the philosopher. The story is told 
a little more fully by Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, iv. 
p. 522 c. 

321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(142) dtSeicr^ai /cat ^uAarrecr^ai Trpos rovs cktos" 
' evopdrai yap avrfj /cat rrddos /cat rjdos /cat Sta^eCTt? 
AaAouaTjs". 

32. Trjv ^aXeicov 6 OeiSia? ^ A.<j>pohiTr]v iTToirjae 
)(^e\(i)V7]v irarovaav, oiKovpias avp,^oXov rat? 
yui^at^t /cat gicotttjs. Set yap '^ Trpoj Toi' avSpa 
XaXelv -q Sta tou dvSpos, p.rj Svax^paivovaav el 
St' aAAorpta? yXcoTTrjs axnrep avXr]Trjs ^deyyerai 
aepivorepov } 

33. Ot TrAoucrtot /cat ot jSaatAet? TLficovres tovs 
<^LXoa6(f)ovs avrovs re KoapLovai /cd/cetVou?, ot 8e 
(f)iX6ao^oi rovs ttXovctlovs depairevovTes ovk eKei- 

E voi;? TTOLovaiv ivSo^ovs aAA' avrovs dSo^orepovs. 
TovTo avpL^aivei /cat vrept ra? yui^at/cas'. VTrordr- 
rovaai pcev yap eavrds rols dvSpdacv iiraivovvrai, 
Kpareiv Se ^ovXopLGvai [idXXov rdjv Kparovp-evcov 
a(JXf]P'Ovovat. Kparetv Se Set* rov dvSpa ttjs 
yvvaiKos ovx c^s SecnroTrjv KT-qfiaros aAA' a>s" 
ipvxrjv acLpiaros, avpiTradovvra /cat avpiTT€<^vK6ra 
TTJ evvoia.^ uxJTrep ovv G<jup.aTos eari, Ki^Seadai purj 
SovXevovra rais rjSovals avrov /cat rat? iTTidvpLiais, 
ovTio yvvaiKos dpx^tv ev^paivovra /cat xapLt,6- 
fievov. 

34. TdJv acop-drcov at (f)iX6ao(f)OL rd p,€v e/c 
SiearcoTOJv Xiyovaiv elvai Kaddirep aroXov /cat 

F (TTparoTTeSov, rd S' e/c avvaTrropievcov cos oiKtav 
/cat vavv, rd S' 'qvcopLeva /cat avpi(l)vrj Kaddnep 

^ <T€/j,v6Tepov] omitted by Stobaeus, ibid., perhaps rightly. 
* Many m^s. omit del and add diKaidv iariv after evvoiq.. 

" Pausanias, vi. 25. 1 ; cf. also Plutarch, Moralia, 381 e. 
Roscher, Lexikon d. gr. u. rom, Mythologie, i. p. 412, 

322 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, U2 

in the hearing of outsiders, since it is an exposure 
of herself ; for in her talk can be seen her feehngs, 
character, and disposition. 

32. Pheidias made the Aphrodite of the Eleans 
with one foot on a tortoise," to tj^pify for womankind 
keeping at home and keeping silence. For a woman 
ought to do her talking either to her husband or 
through her husband, and she should not feel 
aggrieved if, like the flute-player, she makes a more 
impressive sound through a tongue not her own. 

33. Rich men and princes by conferring honours 
on philosophers adorn both themselves and the 
philosophers ; but, on the other hand, philosophers 
by paying court to the rich do not enhance the 
repute of the rich but lower their own. So is it 
with women also ; if they subordinate themselves 
to their husbands, they are commended, but if they 
want to have control, they cut a sorrier figure than 
the subjects of their control. And control ought to 
be exercised by the man over the woman, not as the 
owner has control of a piece of property, but, as the 
soul controls the body, by entering into her feelings 
and being knit to her through good^^ill. As, there- 
fore, it is possible to exercise care over the body 
•\Wthout being a slave to its pleasures and desires, so 
it is possible to govern a ■wife, and at the same time 
to dehght and gratify her. 

34. Philosophers '' say of bodies that some are 
composed of separate elements, as a fleet or an army, 
others of elements joined together, as a house or a 
ship, and still others form together an intimate union, 

mentions two ancient bronzes, one Greek and one Etruscan, 
in which Aphrodite is represented with one foot on a tortoise. 
* Undoubtedly the Stoic philosophers are meant; cf. 
Moralia, 4J6 a. 

.S23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

CCTTi Tcbv ^wcov eKacrrov. ax^Sov ovv Kal ydfxos 
6 fjiev Tcov ipwvTOjv r]va)ii€vos kol av^(^vr^s icrnv, 
6 8e TOiv Sta TTpoLKas r] reKva yafiovvTCov ck 
avva7TTO[jLevcov, 6 Se rcvv avyKadevSovTiov^ eK 
SLearcoTCOv, ovs avvoLKelv av tls aAAT^Aot? ov 
avfjL^iovv voyiiaeie. Set 8e, wairep ol (f)vaiKol rcov 
vypuiiv Xeyovai 8t' oAcuv yeveadai ttjv Kpdaiv, 

143 OVTOJ Tcbv yafJLOVVTCOv /cat acop^ara Kal ;)^p7y|LiaTa 
Kal (f)LXovs Kal OLKeiovs dvapeLxdrjvoLL 6t' d?^rjXojv. 
Kal yap 6 'Pcopalos vop,o6err]s eKcoXvae Scbpa 
SiSoi^at Kal Xap,^dv€iv Trap' dXX-^Xojv rovs ye- 
yap,rjK6ras, ovx ^va ju-T^Sevo? iieTaXap^^dvcxjcriv , 
dAA' Iva Trdvra Koivd voixit^cjjutv. 

35. 'Ev Alrrrei rrjs Ai^v-qg TroAei TrdrpLOV iarL 
rfj jLtera rov ydp,ov rjpepa ttjv vvpL(f>r]v irpos rqv 
Tov vvp,(f)Lov pr^repa Trepipaaav aLreZadai p^yrpai'* 
1] 8' Ol) hihojaiv ovSe (f)7]aiv ex^t-v, ottcds (itt' dpx^js 
CTnaTapiivri to rrjs CKvpds p^rjTpvicbSes, dv vurepov 
Tt (Tvp,^aLvrj rpaxvrepov, p,r} dyavaKrfj p,rj8€ 8ucr- 
KoXaivrf. rovro 8et yiyvojaKovaav ttjv yvvaiKa 
depanevetv rrjv trpoSaaiv eari 8e t^rjXorvTria rrjs 

•^ B pn]rpos V7T€p evvoias rrpos avrrjv. QeparreLa 8e 
)u,ia rod rrddovs t8ia. pikv evvoiav rco dvhpl rroielv 
rrpos iavrrjv, rrjv Be rrjs p,r]rp6s firj TrepiOTrdv pur^b' 
iXarrovv. 

^ oil (TiryKadevddvruv Madvig. 

" The meaning of this passage is made quite clear by No. 
4 of the frat/menta incerta of the Moralia, in vol. vii. of 
Bernardakis's edition, p. 151, and Musonius, pp. 67-68 of 
O. Hense's edition =Stobaeus, Florilegium, Ixix. 23. 

" Cf. Moralia, 265 e. 

* Hieronymus, Adversus lovinianum, i. chap, xlviii. (vol. 
ii. p. 292 of Migne's edition), amplifies this by a reference 

324 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 142-143 

as is the case with every living creature. In about 
the same way, the marriage of a couple in love A^ith 
each other is an intimate union ; that of those who 
marry for do^vTy or children is of persons joined 
together ; and that of those M'ho merely sleep in the 
same bed is of separate persons who may be regarded 
as cohabiting, but not really living together.** As 
the mixing of hquids, according to what men of 
science say, extends throughout their entire content, 
so also in the case of married people there ought to 
be a mutual amalgamation of their bodies, property, 
friends, and relations. In fact, the purpose of the 
Roman law-giver * who prohibited the giving and 
receiving of presents between man and wife was, 
not to prevent their sharing in anything, but that 
they should feel that they shared all things in 
common. 

35. In Leptis, a city of Africa, it is an inherited 
custom ^ for the bride, on the day after her marriage, 
to send to the mother of the bridegroom and ask for 
a pot. The latter does not give it, and also declares 
that she has none, her purpose being that the bride 
may from the outset reahze the stepmother's atti- 
tude in her mother-in-law, and, in the event of some 
harsher incident later on, may not feel indignant or 
resentful. A wife ought to take cognizance of this 
hostiUty, and try to cure the cause of it, which is the 
mother's jealousy of the bride as the object of her 
son's affection. The one way to cure this trouble is 
to create an affection for herself personally on the 
part of her husband, and at the same time not to 
divert or lessen his affection for his mother. 

to Terence, Hecyra, ii. 1. 4 : " All mothers-in-law hate their 
daughters-in-law." 

325 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(143) 36. Toys' vlovs ^oKovai fxdXXov dyandv at 
^ fX7]T€p€s tos Swa/jievovs avrais ^oiqdetv, ol 8e 
TTarepes ras dvyarepas d)s Seofievas auTcuv 
PoTjOovvTcov LCTcos 8e /cat Tt/i^ rfj irpos aXXriXovs 
o €T€pos TO /JLoiXXov oIk€lov TO) irepco ^ovXerai 
fidXXov daTTa^ofxeuos Kal dyaTTcov (f)av€p6s etvac. 
/cat TOVTO fxev lgcos hta.(j)op6v icrriv, eKeZvo 8' 
aarelov, av -q yvvrj fxdXXov aTro/cAtVacra rfj rififj 
TTpos Tovs yovetg rov dvSpos t] tovs iavrrjs 
C pXeTTTjTai,, Kav ri XvTrrJTai,, TTpos eKeivovs dva- 
(f)€povaa, TOVS 8' iavTrjs^ Xavddvovaa. Trotet yap 
TO TTtCTTeveiv So/ceir TTiaTeveadat, /cat to ^iXelv 
^lAetCT^at. 

37. Tot? Trept tov Yi^vpov "EAAi^o't 'nap'qyyeiXav 
oi aTpar-qyoL tovs TToXe/XLOvs, dv fxev ^ocovTes 
iTTLOicn, Sex^crdai jLtera aicoTrrjs, dv 8' e/cetvot 
atcoTTCoatv, avTovs /Ltera ^orjs dvTe^eXavveLv.^ al 
Se vovv exovaai yvvalKes iv tols dpyats tcov 
dvSpdJv KeKpayoTCov jxev rjavxd^ovoL, aicoTTcovTas 
8e TTpoaXaXovaai /cat TrapafjivdovfJievaL KaraiTpav- 
vovaiv. 
D 38. ^Opdcos d FtvpnrCS'qs aiTidTai, tovs ttj Xvpa 
XpiOfJ^^vovs Trap olvov e8et yap cttl ras opyas 
Kal Ta vevdr} fiaXXov T-qv [xovaLKrjv TrapaKaXelv 
•^ TTpoaeXKveiv^ tovs ^v rat? i^Sovat? orra?. 
vop.it,eTe ovv vfiels dp^apTaveiv tovs rjSovfjs evcKa 



^ 5' iavTTjs Bernardakis : 5^ avTrjs. 

* avTe^eXai'ifeii'] fieya. ^oi}aa.vTai e^eKaiveiv Stobaeus, Florl- 
legiutn, Ixxiv. 51. 

' TTpoffeXKveiv F.C. B. : wpoaeKKufiy, 

326 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 143 

36. Mothers appear to have a greater love for their 
sons because of a feeling that their sons are able to 
help them, and fathers for their daughters because 
of a feeling that the daughters have need of their 
help. Perhaps, also, because of the honour accorded 
by man and wife to each other, the one \\'ishes openly 
to show that he feels greater esteem and affection 
for the attributes which are more characteristic of 
the other. And herein there may perhaps be a 
divergence, but, on the other hand, it is a nice thing 
if the wife, in the deference she shows, is observed 
to incHne rather toward her husband's parents than 
her own, and, if she is distressed over anything, to 
refer it to them without the knowledge of her own 
parents. For seeming confidence begets confidence, 
and love, love. 

37. The generals issued orders to the Greeks in 
Cyrus's army," that if the enemy advanced shouting 
they should receive them Avith silence, but, on the 
other hand, if the enemy kept silent, they should 
charge against them ^\^th a shout. Women who 
have sense keep quiet while their husbands in their 
fits of anger vociferate, but when their husbands are 
silent they talk to them and molUfy them by words 
of comfort. 

38. Euripides * is right in censuring those who 
employ the lyre as an accompaniment to vine. For 
music ought rather to be invoked on occasions of 
anger and grief rather than to be made an added 
attraction for those who are engaged in their 
pleasures. So you two must regard those persons 

" Possibly a confused reminiscence of Xenophon, Ana- 
basis, \. 7. 4, and i. 8. 11. 

* Medea, 190. C/. also Plutarch, Moralia, 710 e. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(143) avyKaOevSovras dXXijXoLSy orav S' eV opyfj tlvl 
yivcovrai /cat hLa(f>op5,, x^P'-s dvaTravofievovs /cat 
fjur] Tore /xaAtara rrfv ^A(f)poBiT7]v TrapaKaXovuras , 
larpov ovaav tcov toiovtcvv dpiarrjv. cos ttov 
/cat o 7TOLr)Tr]s StSaa/cet, rrjv "Hpav ttolojv Xiyovaav 

/cat cr^' d'/cpira vet/cea Aucto) 
E et? evvrjv dveaaaa ojjiwdrjvat (fiiXoTqTi. 

39. 'Aet pi€v Set /cat Travraxov ^evyetv ro Trpoa- 
Kpoveiv TCp dvSpl TTjv yvvoLKa /cat rfj yvvaLKL rov 
dvhpa, pboXiara 8e ^vXarTeaOai rovro vrotetr iv 
TCp avvavaTraveadai /cat avyKadevSeiv. rj p,ev 
yap oiStVoucra /cat Sv(j(f)opovaa TTpos tovs Kara- 
KXivovTas avTTjv e'Aeye, " tzcus' S' ai' ij KXivrj ravra 
6epa7T€V(J€i€v OLS irrl ttjs kXlvtjs TrepieTreaov ; " 
as S' ?5 kXlvt) yevvd hia(f)opds /cat AotSopta? /cat 
o/jyas", oi) pdhiov ioTiv ev dXXco tottco /cat XP'^^V 
SiaXvOrfvat. 

40. *H 'Kpfitovr] So/cet ti Aeyetv' aAi^^e?^ Aeyouffa 

F KaKoJv yvvaiKCxiv e'iaohoi fi' drrcoXeaav. 

TOVTo S' ovx aTrXcbs yiyvofxevov iaTtv, dXX* otov 

at TTpos TOVS dvSpas Siacfjopal /cat t,7]XoTVTnaL 

Tat? TotauTat? yvvai^l {jltj Tas dvpas pcovov aXXd 

Kal Tas a/coas" dvotyojCTt. tot' ovv Set pLoXiaTa 

TTjv vovv exovaav dTTOKXeUtv to, (Lra /cat ^vXdr- 

readai rov ipLdvpiafiov, Iva firj TTvp eTrl irvp 

^ A\i]6€s] Wyttenbach, followed by Hartman, thinks the 
adjective unnecessary. 

" Adapted from Homer, II. xiv. 205, 209. 

* Euripides, Andromache, 930 ; cf. also Hieronymus, 
Adversus lovinianum, i. chap, xlviii. (vol. ii. p. 292 of 
Migne's edition). 

328 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 143 

in error who for the sake of pleasiire occupy the same 
bed, but when they get into some angry disagree- 
ment repose apart ; they ought, instead, at that 
time especially to invoke Aphrodite, who is the best 
physician for such disorders. Such no doubt is the 
teaching of the poet '^ when he represents Hera as 
sapng, 

I will settle their uncomposed quarrels. 
Sending them back to their bed to a union of loving 
enjoyment. 

39- At all times and in all places a wife ought to 
try to avoid any clash with her husband, and a 
husband with his wife, but they ought to be especially 
on their guard against doing this in the privacy of 
their bedchamber. The woman in travail and pain 
kept saying to those who were trying to make her go 
to bed, " How can the bed cure this ailment which 
I contracted in bed ? " But the disagreements, 
recriminations, and angry passions which the bed 
generates are not easily settled in another place and 
at another tinae. 

40. Hermione seems to speak the truth when she 
says,'' 

Bad women's visits brought about my fall. 

This, however, does not come about so simply, but 
only when marital disagreements and jealousies open 
not only a wife's doors but also her hearing to such 
women. So, at such a time especially, a woman 
who has sense ought to stop her ears, and be on her 
guard against whispered insinuations, so that fire 
may not be added to fire,'' and she ought to have 

• Cf. the note on 123 f tupra. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

yevqrai, /cat irpox^tpov e;^etr to rov OtAiTTTrou. 
Aeyerat yap eKeZvos vtto rcJbv (f>i\cov napo^vvoixevos 
e77t Tovs "FiXXrjvas (os ev TrdaxovTas /cat KaKcbs 
avrov Xeyovras elTielv " ri ovv, av /cat /ca/ccDj 
TToiojjxev avTovs; " orav ovv at^ Sia^dXXovaai 
Xeyaxnv on " AuTret ae ^iXovaav 6 dvrjp /cat 
144 aoj(f)povovaav," " ri ovv, dv /cat pLiaeiv avrov 
dp^cofxaL /cat dSt/cett'; " 

41, '0 rov SpaTTerrjv ISwv Bid xP^vov /cat Bico- 
Kcov, COS Kar€cf)vy€ (f}9daas et? fxvXCova, " ttov 8' 
dv," €<f)7}, " ere yitaAAov evpeZv e^ovXrjdir]v rj ivravda;" 
yvvT] roivvv Std t,'qXorvTTiav dTToXeitjjtv ypd(f)ovaa 
/cat ^(^aXeTTdjs e)(ovaa Xeyeroi irpds cavr-qv " ttov 
8' dv 7] (,r]Xovad fxe [xaXXov rjadeir] deaaaju-evr] 
/cat ri TTOLOvcrav ■^ XvTTOvfievrjv /cat araatdl^ovaav 
TTpos rov dvBpa /cat rov oIkov avrov^ /cat rov 
ddXafiov 7Tpo'C€[jL€vr]v ; 

42. ^AdrjvaloL rpels dporovs lepovs dyovai, 
B TTpwrov inl JuKipcp, rov rraXatorarov rdJv (nropcov 

VTTOjjLvrjua, Sevrepov iv rfj 'Papia, rpirov vtto 
ttoXlv^ rov KaXovfxevov Boy^uytov. rovrcov 8e 
■ndvrcov Upcoraros* eoriv 6 yafi'qXios OTTopos /cat 
dporos 6771 TTaihojv rcKvwcrei.j KaXcos rr]v 'A(f)po- 

^ al omitted by Stobaeus, Ixxiv. 52, 

* avrbv] avrr^v Wilamowitz, perhaps righth*. 

' 7r6/\ij' Basel edition, 1542 : vdXiv. 

* iepwrards] iepwrepd^ Madvig, 



" Cf. Moralia, 179 a and 457 f. A similar remark of 
Pausanias is quoted in Moralia, 230 d, 

* A remark of the same tenor is attributed to Phocion by 
Plutarch, Moralia, 188 a, and Life of Phocion, chap. x. 
(p. 746 e). 
330 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 14S-144 

ready in mind the saying of Philip." For it is told 
that when he was being incited by his friends against 
the Greeks on the ground that they were being well 
treated, but were speaking ill of him, he said, " What 
would happen, then, if we were to treat them ill? " 
So when these back-biters say, " Your husband 
treats grievously his lo\'ing and virtuous wife." " Yes, 
what would happen, then, if I were to begin to hate 
him and "vvrong him ? " 

41. A man whose slave had run away, on catching 
sight of the fugitive some time later, ran after him ; 
but when the slave got ahead of him by taking refuge 
in a treadmill, the master said, " Where else could 
I have wished to find you rather than here ? " ^ 
So then let the woman who, on account of jealousy, 
is entering a vrrit of divorce, and is in a high dudgeon, 
say to herself, " Where else would my rival like 
better to see me, what would she rather have me do, 
than feel aggrieved vvith my husband and quarrel 
with him and abandon my verj' home and chamber ? " 

42. The Athenians observe three sacred plough- 
ings : the first at Scirum " in commemoration of the 
most ancient of sovvings ; the second in Raria,*' and 
the third near the base of the Acropolis, the so-called 
Buzygius '^ (the ox-yoking). But most sacred of all 
such sowings is the marital sowing and ploughing for 
the procreation of children. It is a beautiful epithet 

' Scirum was near Athens on the road to Eleusis ; the 
Rarian plain was near Eleusis ; the most convenient 
references regarding these sacred ploughings are Roscher, 
Lexikon der oriech. vnd rom. Mythologie, s.v. Buzyges, and 
Harrison and Verrall, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient 
Athens, pp. 166-8. 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(144) Slttjv 6 ^o<f)OKX7Js " evKapTTov Kvdepeiav " vpocr- 
Tjyopevae. 8l6 Set p-oXiara tovtco p^pT^a^at /xer' 
evXafieiag rov dvSpa /cat ttjv yvvoLKa, raJv dviepojv 
^■^ Kai TrapavopiCDv Tvpos erepovs dyvevovras ofjuXicbv, 
Kat fjiT] aTTeipovras ef wv ovSev avrolg <f)vea9ai 
oeAovaiv dXXd kolv yevrjrai Kaptros ala^^vvovrai 
/cat aiTOKpvTrrovai. 

43. Topylov rou p-qropos dvayvovros iv 'OXvp,- 
TTta Xoyov TTepl of^covolas TOt? "EAArjcrtr o MeXavdios,^ 
" ovros rjfxiv," €(l)7], " avfji^ovXevei Trepl 6p,ovoias, 
OS avTOV /cat 1-171' yvvaiKa Kal ttjv depdrratvav 
tSta rpels ovrag ofxovoeiv ov 7re7ret/cev." ■^v yap 
cos €OiK€ ris epois rov Vopyiov /cat ^r]XoTV7rLa rrjs 
yvvaiKGs TTpos TO depaTraivihiov. ev roivvv rjpjjio- 
ayuevov rov oIkov etvai Set to) piiXXovrf, dp}x6t,ea9aL 
TToXiv /cat dyopdv /cat (fiiXovs' jxdXXov yap eoiKe 
ra Tcjjv yvvaiKcov r] Ta Trpos yvvaiKas a/xapTTj/xara 
Xavddveiv rovs ttoXXovs. 

4A. Et Kaddrrep rov alXovpov dcrfifj {xvpcov e/c- 
Tapdrreadat, Kal pLaiveadai Xeyovcriv, ovrco rds 
D yvvoLKas dypiaiveiv /cat TTapa<f)poveLV vtto pLvpojv 
avve^aive, Seivov '^v jxtj dnex^crdai fxvpov tovs 
dvSpas, dXXd St' rjSovrjv avrcov ^paxetav ovrco 
KaKovjjievas Trepiopdv. reVet roivvv ravra Trdo^ov- 
aiv ov p-vpL^ofxevcov rcov dvSpcov oAAa cruyyiyvo- 
fievcov irepais, aSt/cov icrrtv rjSovrjs eVe/ca fiiKpds 
irrl roaovro^ XvTrelv /cat crvvrapdrreiv rds yvvaiKas 
Kal fJLT], KadaTvep rals pLeXirrais (ort' So/couat 

^ MeXctr^tos Hieronymus, Arayot, and Xylander: aeXavOos. 
* ToaovTo Reiske : roaouTu}. ' on] at Hercher. 

" Nauck, Trap. Graec. Frag. p. 310, Sophocles, No. 763. 
» Cf. Plato, Laws, p. 839 a. 

332 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 144 

wliich Sophocles applied to Aphrodite when he called 
her " bountiful-bearing Cytherea." " Therefore man 
and wife ought especially to indulge in this with 
circumspection, keeping themselves pure from all 
unholy and unlawful intercourse with others, and not 
sowing seed from which they are unwilling to have 
any offspring,'' and from which if any issue does result, 
they are ashamed of it, and try to conceal it. 

43. When the orator Gorgias read to the Greeks 
atOlympia a speech about concord," Melanthius said, 
" This fellow is gi%'ing us ad\ice about concord, and 
vet in his o^vn household he has not prevailed upon 
himself, his vrife, and maidservant, three persons 
only, to hve in concord." For there was, apparently, 
some love on Gorgias 's part and jealousy on the ^\ife's 
part towards the girl. A man therefore ought to 
have his household well harmonized who is going 
to harmonize State, Forum, and friends. For it is 
much more likely that the sins of women rather than 
sins against women will go unnoticed by most people. 

44. They say that the cat is excited to frenzy by 
the odour of perfumes. Now if it happened that 
women were similarly made furious and frantic by 
perfumes, it would be a dreadful thing for their 
husbands not to abstain from perfume, but for the 
sake of their own brief pleasure to permit their 
wives to suffer in this way. Now inasmuch as women 
are affected in this way, not by their husbands' using 
perfume, but by their having connexion with other 
women, it is unfair to pain and disturb them so much 
for the sake of a tri\ial pleasure, and not to follow 
■with wives the practice observed in approaching bees 

' Cf. Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, ii.^ pp. 248-9 
{Gorgias, b 7-8"). 

333 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(144) hvax^po.ivew /cat ycdx^odai rots fxera yvvaiKwv 
yevofxevoLs) , dyvovg /cat Kadapevovras irepcov 
avvovaiag Trpoaievat, rat? yvvai^iv. 

45. Ot TTpoGLOvres eX4(j)aaiv iadrjra XafMirpdv 
E ov Xap-^dvovGLV, ouSe (j)OLvtKL8ag ol ravpois' 

StayptatVerat yap vtto tcjv ■)(^po}pLdT(x)v tovtcov 
IxdXtara rd ^oja* ra? Se riypeis (f>aal Treptrv/x- 
7Tavi[,ofjLevas CKfiaLveadai TravrdTraat /cat SiaaTrdv 
iavrds. evret roivvv /cat rajj/ dvhpix}v ol jxeu 
eadrJTas KOKKivas /cat TTopcfyvpds opcovres Bva- 
avaax^TOvaiv, ol 8e /cu/x^aAoi? /cat TVfnrdvots 
d^SovTai, ri heivov airexeadai tovtcov ra? yvvaiKas 
/cat /Lti7 TapaTTCiv fiTjSe Trapo^vveiv tovs dvhpas, 
dAAa avvcivai fxcT evaTadetas /cat TrpaoTrjTos ; 

46. Fi't'Ty Ttj Trpos" TOi/ OtAtTTTTOV' aKovoav icf>- 
eXKOjJievov avT-qv, " d(f>es p- ," CLTre' " Trdaa yvvrj tov 

F Xv^vov dpdevTOS rj aurrj eoTL." tovto TTpos tovs 
pLOLXLKovs /cat aKoXdoTOVs etprjTai KaXcos, Tr]v 8e 
yapeTTjv Set /LtaAtara tou cfxxiTos dpdevTos etrat 
^t) T-j^i^ avTTjv TOis Tvxovarais yvvai^iv, dAAa 
^aiveadai tov orcopaTOS pr) ^Xeiropevov to aco(f>pov 
avTTJs /cat lSlov tco avSpt kul TeTaypevov /cat 
<f>LX6aTopyov. 

47. '0 W-XdTiov Tols TTpea^vTais /xaAAov Traprjvec 
" alaxpveadaL tovs veovs," tva /cd/cett'ot Trpos 
avTovs cdhriixovois €X<oaiv " ottov " ydp " drat- 
axvvTovac yepovTCs," ovhepiCav atScD rot? V€Oi,s 

" A wide-spread ancient superstition ; the classical refer- 
ences may be found in Magerstedt, Die Bienenzucht des 
Altertums, Sondershausen, 1851. 

* Cf. Moralia, 330 b. 

« Of. Moralia, 167 c. 
334 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 144 

(because these insects are thought to be irritable and 
bellicose towards men who have been with women) " 
— to be pure and clean from all connexion with others 
when they approach their Avives. 

45. Those who have to go near elephants do not 
put on bright clothes, nor do those who go near bulls 
put on red *" ; for the animals are made especially 
furious by these colours ; and tigers, they say, when 
surrounded by the noise of beaten drums go com- 
pletely mad and tear themselves to pieces.'' Since, 
then, this is also the case \yiih men, that some cannot 
well endure the sight of scarlet and purple clothes, 
while others are annoyed by cjnmbals and drums,'* 
what terrible hardship is it for women to refrain 
from such things, and not disquiet or irritate their 
husbands, but live with them in constant gentleness ? 

46. A woman once said to Philip, who was trying 
to force her to come to him against her will, " Let me 
go. All women are the same when the lights are 
out." This is well said as an answer to adulterous 
and hcentious men, but the wedded wife ought 
especially when the light is out not to be the same as 
ordinary women, but, when her body is invisible, her 
\-irtue, her exclusive devotion to her husband, her 
constancy, and her affection, ought to be most in 
evidence . 

47. Plato* used to advise the elderly men more 
especially to have the sense of shame before the 
young, so that the young may be respectful toward 
them ; for where the old men are without sense of 
shame, he felt, no respect or deference is engendered 

^ An indication that the wife was interested in some 
foreign religion like the worship of Cybele. 
- ' Laws, p. 729 c. Also cited or referred to by Plutarch, 
Moral la, 14 b, 71 b, and 272 c. 

33.5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ouS' evXd^eiav iyyiyveadai. tovtou Set fiefjivrj- 
fxevov Tov av8pa /iiySeVa jxaXXov alSeladat ttjs 
145 yvvaiKos, chs tov ddXaixov avrfj StSacr/caAeior 
evra^Lag rj oLKoXaaLas yevrjaofjievov. - 6 8e rcbv 
avrajv rjSovwv avros [xev aTToXavcov eKcCi^v 8' 
aTTorpeTtcov ovhev Sia^epet rov KeXevovros 8ta- 
fjidx^crdai ttjv yvvacKa irpog rovg TToXepiiovs, ols 
avTOS iavTov Trape'Sco/ce. 

48. Ilepl Se ^iXoKoapLLas crv /xeV, c5 EjJpuSt/CT^, 
Ta 77/305' ^ApiaTvXXav vno Tipio^evas yeypapifxeva 
dvayvovaa Treipaj hiafivripioveveiv av he, a> IloA- 
Xiavi, firj vojJLL^e Trepiepyias d(j>e^eadai, ttjv yvvaiKa 
Kol TToXvTeXeias, av opa ae fxr] Karacjipovovvra 
B TOVTOJV iv erepoLs, dXXd /cat ;[^at/)oi'Ta ;i^puo-6ucreatP' 
eKTTCxipidrcov kol ypa(f)aL£ OLKrjfjLarLOjv Kal xXtScjat,v^ 
rj/JLLOvcov Kal lttttcov vre/JtSepatot?. ov yap eamv 
, i^eXdaaL Trjg yvvaiKOJViTLSos ev p-icrrj rfj dvSpcoviTiSi 
TTjv TToXvreXeiav dvaarpe(f>opievriv . 
, Kat ai) fiev wpav exojv tJSt] (f)LXocro(f}elv rois /u.6r' 
dTToSei^ecos' /cat /caracr/ceyT)? Xeyofievois imKoaixeL 
TO rjOoSy ivrvyxdvwv /cat TrXtqaid^cov ro2s d)<f>eXovGf 
rfj 8e yuvaLKL Travraxcdei^ to xRV^''!^^^ (7vvdya>v 
woTrep at /xeAtrrat /cat (fiepcov avTOS iv oeaurcpi^eTa- 
SlSou /cat TTpoahiaXeyov ,^ (fytXovg avTrj ttoiG)V koI 
auvqdeis tojv Xoycov tovs apiuTOVs. 

TTaT7]p jjiev yap eaai avTj] Kat TTorvta 
^p-TjTrjp^ 
■qhe Kaaiyv7]Tos " ' 

^ X^iSixKTLP Stephanus: x^'^'^^'f"""'- 

" Plutarch's wife presumably ; who Aristylla was we do 
not know. 

* Adapted from Homer, II. vi. 429. 

SS6 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 144-145 

in the young. The husband ought to bear this in 
mind, and show no greater respect for anybody than 
for his \sife, seeing that their chamber is bound to 
be for her a school of orderly behaviour or of wanton- 
ness. The man who enjoys the very pleasures from 
which he tries to dissuade his wife is in no ■wise 
different from him who bids her fight to the death 
against the enemies to whom he has himself sur- 
rendered. 

48. In regard to love of finery, I beg, Eun,-dice, 
that you ^^■ill read and trj' to remember what was 
written to Aristylla by Timoxena " ; and as for you, 
Polhanus, you must not think that your -wife ■svill 
refrain from immoderate display and extravagance 
if she sees that you do not despise these things in 
others, but, on the contrary, find delight in gilded 
drinldng-cups, pictured walls, trappings for mules, 
and showy neckbands for horses. For it is impossible 
to expel extravagance from the wife's part of the 
house when it has free range amid the men's rooms. 

Besides, Pollianus, you already possess sufficient 
maturity to study philosophy, and I beg that you 
will beautify your character with the aid of discom-ses 
which are attended by logical demonstration and 
mature deliberation, seeking the company and in- 
struction of teachers who ^vill help you. And for 
your \\ife you must collect from ever}' source what is 
useful, as do the bees, and carrying it \\ithin your own 
self impart it to her, and then discuss it with her, 
and make the best of these doctrines her favourite 
and familiar themes. For to her 

Thou art a father and precious-loved mother. 
Yea, and a brother as well." 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(145) ov)( rjTTov Se aefxvov OLKovaai yaixeTrjs Xeyovarjs 
" av€p, 

drap Gv fjLOL iaat 

Ka9r]yrjr7]s Kal (f)tX6ao(f)os /cat StSacrK-aAo? tcov 
KaWiaTOJV Kal deiordraiv." -^ra Se Toiavra p,ad'q- 
fxara Trpcorov d(f>LGTrjaL ra)v droTTCov rds yvvalKas' 
aia-xyvdrjaeraL yap opxeladai. yvvrj yecuiierpeiv 
/lavOdvovcra, Kal cfiapfiaKcov eTTCpSds ov rrpoa- 
Se^erat rot? YlXdrcovog €7TaSo[xevrj Xoyoig Kal rois 
'E,€vo(j)a>VTOs . ' O.V 8e rt? eirayyeXXrirai Kadaipeiv 
T7]v aeX-^vrjv, yeXdaerai, r^v djxadiav /cat -rr^v 
a^eXrepiav rajv ravra Treidoixevcov yvvauKwv, dcrrpo- 
Xoyias p-rj dvTjKooJS e^ovaa Vat Trepl ^ AyXaoviKrjg^ 
dK7]KOvZa rrjg 'Y{yT]Topos rod QerraXov dvyarpos 

D oTt r(ov eKXeLTTTLKCjv €p,7T€Lpos ovoa TTavaeXrivcjv 
Kai TTpoethvla tov p^pdvoi^, ev (L avp,^aiv€i rrjv 
aeX-qvTjv vtto yrjs^ OKids aXioKeadai, TrapeKpovero 
/cat avv€7Tei,6e rds yvvaiKas cu? avrrj Kadaipovaa 
TTjV aeXi^vrjv. 

IlatStop' fX€V yap ovSep^ia ttotc yvin] Xiyerai 
TTOtrjaai? hi)(a Koivcovias dvhpos, rd S' dp,op(f)a Kvq- 
fxara Kal aapKO€t,8TJ Kal avaraaiv iv iavrols €K 
Bta(f>9opds Xap.^dvovTa p,vXas KaXovai. tovto Srj 
<f)vXaKT€ov iv rat? ifjvxdts yiyveadai rcJov yvvaiKoJv. 
dv yap X6yo}v )(^pr]ar(x)v G7T€pp,ara jxr) he)(covTai 

E /XT^Se KOiva)vd)ai, TratSetay rots' dvSpdaiv, aurat 

^ ' AyXaovlKTjs Reiske : dyavlKrji. 

* 7^s Kronenberg: rf/s. 
' TTOLTJcrai] KvrjaaL Wyttenbach. 

" Adapted from Homer, II. vi. 429. 

^ Cf. Moralia, 416 f. The belief that Thessalian women 
had the power to draw down the moon was wide-spread 

, 338 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 145 

No less ennobling is it for a man to hear his wife say, 
" My dear husband, 

Nay, but thou art to me " 

guide, philosopher, and teacher in all that is most 
lovely and di\ine." Studies of this sort, in the first 
place, divert women from all untoward conduct ; for 
a woman stud}'ing geometrj- will be ashamed to be a 
dancer, and she "will not swallow any behefs in magic 
charms while she is under the charm of Plato's or 
Xenophon's words. And if anybody professes power 
to pull doTSTi the moon from the sky, she -will laugh 
at the ignorance and stupidity of women Avho believe 
these things, inasmuch as she herself is not un- 
schooled in astronomy, and has read in the books 
about Aglaonice,'' the daughter of Hegetor of 
Thessaly, and how she, through being thoroughly 
acquainted with the periods of the full moon when it 
is subject to eclipse, and, knoAving beforehand the 
time when the moon was due to be overtaken by 
the earth's shadow, imposed upon the women, and 
made them all believe that she was drawing down 
the moon. 

It is said that no woman ever produced a child 
without the co-operation of a man, yet there are mis- 
shapen, fleshlike, uterine growths originating in some 
infection, which develop of themselves and acquire 
firmness and solidity, and are commonly called 
" moles."" Great care must be taken that this sort 
of thing does not take place in women's minds. For 
if they do not receive the seed of good doctrines and 
share with their husbands in intellectual advance- 
in antiquity. It may suffice here to refer to Aristophanes, 
Clouds, 749, and for Aglaonice to Plutarch, Moralia 417 a. 

' Cf. Aristotle, De generatiane animalium, iv. 7. 

VOL. II M 339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Kad avras droTra ttoXXol Kal (f)avXa ^ovXevfjiara 
/cat TTadr] Kuovat. 

Tiv 8' (3 EivpvhiKr) fjidXiara ireipu) rols raJv 
cro(f)cov /cat dyadoJv dTTOtjidlyixaaiv ofxiXelv /cat 8ta 
OTo/xaro? aet ras" (f>(x)vdg ej^etv eKcivasljLv /cat nap- 
Oevos ovaa irap r]\xiv dveXdix^avegJ ottcos ev^pai- 
VTjs fxev Tov dvSpa, davud^rj 8' vtto tcov aAAojv 
yvvaiKijjv , ovTCo Koapbovpievr] TreptTTcD? /cat aepivcos 
aTTO fir^Sevos. roiis fxev yap rrjah^ rrjs irXovaias 
fiapyapiras /cat rd rijcrhe rrjs ^ivrjs aiqpLKa Xa^elv 
ovK kariv ovhk TTepideadai, fj,rj ttoXXov TrpLafievr^v, 
ra Se Qeavovs /cocr/xta /cat KXeo^ovXLvrjs /cat Top- 
F yovs rrjs AecovlSov yvvaLKos /cat Tt/xo/cAeta? rrjg 
Qeayevovs aSeA^T^? /cat KAau8tas' rijs TraXaids /cat 
Kopi'TjAtas" Trjs ^KLTTiojvos /cat oaat eyevovro 6av- 
/Ltaarat /cat TTepi^67]TOL, ravra 8' e^ecrrt Trepi,- 
KeLfjL€VT]v TTpotKa Kal KOGjxovpiivrjV avroLS ivSo^cos 
a/i.a ^Lovv /cat /xa/captaj?. 

Et yap tJ SaTT^cu Sta ti^p' ev rots' [xeXeat, /caAAt- 
146 ypa(f)Lav i(f>p6v€i, rrjXiKovrov ware ypdifjat Trpos riva 
TrXovaiav, 

Karddvoiaa^ 8e /cetaeat, ouSe rt? [xvaixoavva aedev 
eaerai' ov yap TreSep^ets* poScov 
Tcov €K Iltepta?, 

^ KaT5d;'oi<ra ^oraZia, 646 F: K'OT^a»'oC<ra. 

" Wife of Pythagoras ; cf. 142 c, supra. 

* Also called Eumetis, daughter of Cleobulus ; c/. 148 c-e, 
150 E, and 154 a-c, infra. 
340 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, U5-146 

raent, they, left to themselves, conceive many un- 
toward ideas and low designs and emotions. 

And as for you, Eurydice, I beg that you aWH try 
to be conversant with the sapngs of the ^vise and 
good, and always have at your tongue's end those 
sentiments which you used to cull in your girlhood's 
days when you were "with us, so that you may give 
joy to your husband, and may be admired by other 
women, adorned, as you will be, without price, ^vith 
rare and precious jewels. For you cannot acquire 
and put upon you this rich woman's pearls or that 
foreign woman's silks without buying them at a high 
price, but the ornaments of Theano," Cleobuhna,* 
Gorgo," the wife of Leonidas, Timocleia,"* the sister 
of Theagenes, Claudia * of old, Comeha,^ daughter 
of Scipio, and of all other women who have been 
admired and renowned, you may wear about you 
without price, and, adorning yourself with these, 
you may live a life of distinction and happiness. 

If Sappho thought that her beautiful compositions 
in verse justified her in writing' to a certain rich 
woman, 

Dead in the tomb shalt thou lie. 

Nor shall there be thought of thee there. 

For in the roses of Pierian fields 

Thou hast no share, 

« Daughter of Cleomenes, king of Sparta ; ef. Herodotus, 
vii. 239. 

* Plutarch tells of Timocleia's intrepid behaviour after the 
battle of Chaeroneia in Moralia, 259 c, and Life of Alexander, 
chap. xii. (p. 671 a). 

• Claudia vindicated her virtue when the goddess Cybele 
was brought to Rome ; Livy, xxlx. 14. 

' Better known as the mother of the Gracchi, who said of 
her sons, " These are my jewels." 

» Bergk, Poft. Lyr. Gr. iii. p. Ill, Sappho. Xo. 68; J. M. 
Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, in the L.C.L. L p. 69. 

841 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(146) 7TWS ov^i aoL [xdXXov i^earat jxeya cfypovetv €(/>' 
eavrfi Kai Xafinpov, dv [xrj rajv poBcuv dAAa /cat 
TcDv KapTTcbv [xeTdxjjS, (ov at Movorai ^Ipovai /cat 
XapiCovrai, toIs iraiSeiav koI <f)iXoaoj)iav dav^id- 
t,ovaiv; 



842 



ADVICE TO BRIDE AND GROOM, 146 

why shall it not be even more allowable for you to 
entertain high and splendid thoughts of yourself, 
if you have a share not only in the roses but also in 
the fruits which the Muses bring and graciously 
bestow upon those who admire education and 
philosophy ? 



84S 



THE DINNER OF THE SEVEN 

WISE MEN 

(SEPTEM SAPIENTIUM CONVIVIUM) 



\ 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch's account of the dinner of the seven wise 
men is a hterary tour de force. Both Plato and 
Xenoplion had composed similar accounts of such 
gatherings in their own time, and Plutarch himself 
has recorded in detail in his Symposiacs (or Table- 
Talks) much of the conversation which was heard at 
such gatherings in his day. This is comparatively 
an easy task, but in the account of the dinner of the 
seven wise men Plutarch, who lived several centuries 
after Plato and Xenophon, dehberately set himself 
to compose an account of a meeting of people who 
lived a couple of centuries before Plato and Xeno- 
phon — at the dawn, almost, of authentic Greek 
history. There was a tradition, recorded by Plato 
in the Protagoras (p. 343 a) and by other WTiters, 
that the seven wise men had met at Delphi in 
connexion with the dedication of the two famous 
inscriptions on the temple of Apollo there, and there 
was an added tradition that they had later been 
entertained by Periander at Corinth. Besides this, 
many sayings of the wise men were traditionally 
current. With this material at hand, Plutarch com- 
posed his imaginative account of the dinner, adding 
other characters such as Neiloxenus and Aesop, and 
giving it a more intimate touch by introducing the 
feminine element in the persons of Melissa and^ 
346 



THE DINNER OF THE SEV^N WISE MEN 

Eumetis ; and at the end, for good measure, he added 
an elaboration of the familiar story of Arion's rescue 
by dolphins, already well known from the account 
of Herodotus (i. 24) and of other writers ; and this is 
capped by a few more dolphins. 

The title (^tyi— oo-iov twi- «— -a (Tocfiwv) stands as No. 
110 in the catalogue of Lamprias, and the essay is 
occasionally quoted or referred to by later Greek 
writers. 

Plutarch names, as the seven wise men, Thales, 
Bias, Pittacus, Solon, Chilon, Cleobulus, and Ana- 
charsis. Plato (Protagoras, oA:S a) puts Myson in 
place of Anacharsis, and in other hsts Periander is 
found in his stead. Pherecydes, Epimenides, and 
Peisistratus are the other candidates for a place in 
the list. 



m2 847 



146) TQN EOTA SOOQN SYMnOSION 

1. H TTOV TTpOLOJV 6 -X^poVOS , (L ^LKapX^, TToXv 

OKOTos €7Ta.^ei rots Trpdyfiaai /cat Trdaav dadcfieiav, 
€t vvv €TTL 7Tpoa(f)aTOLs ovToj Kal vcapols Aoyot ifjcv- 
Sets avvredivres e^ovai ttCcttlv. ovre yap jjiovojv, 

Q cos vfieis aKrjKoare, rcov eTrra yeyove to avfiTToaiov , 
aAAa TrXeLovcDV rj Sis roaovrcov {iv ots koI avTOS 
rjijirjv, (TVV7]dr)s /xev cov HeptdvSpo) Sid ttjv rexvqv, 
^evos Se ©ctAeo)' Trap' e/xot yap KareXvaev 6 dvrjp 
HepidvSpov KeXevaavTos) , ovre tovs Xoyovs opOdJs 
aTTepivqpiovevaev oar is r^v vjjuv 6 Sirjyovfievos' rjv 
8 ws €oiK€v ovSeis rcov Trapayeyovorcov . aAA' 
€7T€t (TXoXij T€ irdpeori ttoXXtj koX ro yfjpas ovk 
a^iOTTicrrov iyyvrjaaadat rrjv dva^oXrjV rov Xoyov, 
TTpoOvfjiovfievois vfjLiv dn* dpx^js dnavra Si'qyqcroixai. 

J) 2. Hap€aK€vdK€L fiev yap ovk iv rfj ttoXcl ttjv 
VTToSox'^v 6 UepiavSpos, aAA' iv rep Trepi ro 
Aexaiov iariaropio) irapd ro rrjs 'A^poSiri^S" Upov, 
•^S rjv /cat T] dvcria. pierd yap rov epcora rrjs firjrpos 



" He was apparently a seer versed in ritual purification ; 
see infra, 149 d. 

S48 



THE DINNER OF THE SEVEN 
WISE MEN 

1. It seems fairly certain, Nicarchus, that the lapse 
of time will bring about much obscurity and complete 
uncertainty regarding actual events, if at the present 
time, in the case of events so fresh and recent, false 
accounts that have been concocted obtain credence. 
For, in the first place, the dinner was not a dinner 
of the Seven alone, as you and your friends have been 
told, but of more than twice that number, including 
myself ; for I was on intimate terms with Periander 
by virtue of my profession," and I was also the host 
of Thales, for he stayed at my house by command 
of Periander. In the second place, your informant, 
whoever he was, did not report the conversation 
correctly ; apparently he was not one of those at 
the dinner. However, since there is nothing that 
demands my attention just now, and old age is too 
untrustworthy to warrant postponing the narration, 
I will begin at the beginning, and tell you, without 
any omissions, the story which you all seem eager 
to hear. 

2. Periander had arranged for the entertainment, 
not in the city but in the dining-hall in the vicinity 
of Lechaeum, close by the shrine of Aphrodite, in 
whose honour the sacrifice was offered that day. For 
Periander, ever since his mother's love-affair which 

349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(146) avTOV 7rpo€fj,€vr]s rov fiiov iKovaiios ov TedvKojg 
rfj A(f)poSiTr] , Tore Trpcorov €K tlvcdv evvTrviiov rrjs 
MeAtCTO-/)? MpfXTjcre rifxav Kal depaTrevetv ttjv deow. 
Ycvv 8e K€KXr]p,€va>v eKaarcp avvcopls tKavcvs 
K€Koap,r]ix€vr] Trpoa-^x^V' '^^'' 7^9 ^P^ dipovs rfv, 
/cat Tr]v ohov OLTTaaav vtto ttXiJOovs dfxa^cov /cat 
avdpcvTTCOv o-xpi daXdrTr]s Kovioprog /cat dopv^os 
Karetxev. 6 fievroi QaXrj^ to l^evyos e77t rats- 
E Ovpais Ihojv Kal /xetStaaa? d(f)'i^Kev. e^aSt^o/xev 
ovp eKxpaTTOfievoL Sta tcov ;)^6uptajv', /ca0' rjcrvx^cLV, 
/cat jxeO' rjiicbv rpiros 6 ^avKpariTTjg NeiXo^evog, 
avrjp imeLKTjs /cat rots' Trepl SoAa>va /cat GoAT^t'' 
yeyovajs iv AlyvTrrco avvrjdr^s- irvyxave Be Trpog 
Btavra TraAtv OLTTeaTaXfxevos' u)V Se X^P^^ °'^^' 
auTos' J}()eL, ttXtjv virevoei, Trpo^Xrjpa Sevrepov avrco 
KopiL^eiv ev ySt^Atoj Karaaearjp.a(jpLevov etprjro ydp, 
et Btas" OLTTayopevaeLev, einhel^ai tols crocfxjordTOis 
'EXXtJvcov to ^l^Xlov. 

" "Kp/jLaLov " 6 NetXo^evos e<f>7) " p,oi yeyovev 
F euTavda Xa^eZv aTcavTas vp-ds, /cat Kopit,oj ro 
^L^Xiov cos opds €7Ti TO BecTTVov." dpa S' TJpLV 
eTTeSecKwe. 

Kat o OaAT^? yeXdcras " ec rt KaKov," elTrev, 
avdis els Ylpirivriv BiaXvaei yap 6 Bta?, d)s 



Ste'A 



» \ 



vaev avTos to TrptoTov. 
ltd i)v, ecp'qv eyco, to irpajTov; 
" 'lepeiov," eiTTev, " errepifjev avTco, KeXevaas to 

^ OaXrjv Hercher: daX-qra. 



Cf. Parthenius, Love-affairs, § 17. 
" The home of Bias. 



850 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 146 

had led to her self-destruction," had offered no 
sacrifice to Aphrodite, but now, for the first time, 
o>\-ing to certain dreams of MeHssa's, he had set 
about honouring and concihating the goddess. 

For each of the in\-ited guests a carriage and pair, 
fashionably caparisoned, was brought to the door ; 
for it was siunmer-time, and the whole length of 
the street even to the water's edge was one mass of 
dust and confusion by reason of the great crowd of 
vehicles and people. Thales, however, when he saw 
the equipage at the door, smiled and dismissed it. 
And so we set out on foot, lea^•ing the road and going 
through the fields in a leisurely fashion, and with us 
two was Neiloxenus of Naucratis, an able man, who 
had been on terms of intimacy with Solon and Thales 
and their group in Egj^t. He, as it happened, had 
been sent a second time on a mission to Bias, the 
reason for which he did not know, save only that he 
suspected that he was bringing for Bias a second 
problem sealed up in a packet. His instructions 
were, that if Bias should give up trying to solve it, he 
should show the packet to the ^\•isest among the 
Greeks. 

" It is a piece of good fortune for me," said 
Neiloxenus, " to have found you all together here, 
and, as you see, I am bringing the packet with me 
to the dinner " ; and at the same time he showed it 
to us. 

Thales began to laugh, and said, " If it is any- 
thing bad, go to Priene * again ! For Bias will have a 
solution for this., just as he had his own solution of the 
first problem." 

" \Miat," said I, " was the first problem ? " 

" The king," said he, " sent to Bias an animal for 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTovrjporarov i^eXovra koI xp'T^'rorarov a7ro7rejw.i/fat 
Kpeas. o 8 -qjxirepos ev koI KaXcos rrjv yXoJTTav 
egeXcbv eTTejjuJjev odev evSoKt/xow 8t]X6s iari /cat 
davp^a^ofievoS'" 
147 " Oj) Sta raur' " ec^rj " [jlovov " 6 NeiXo^evos, 
aXX ov ^evyei to (f>iXos elvai Kal Xeyeadat 
paaLXecov Kaddirep vfieXg, eTret crov ye /cat raXXa 
davjxd^ei, /cat ttjs TTvpap-lSos ttjv pberprjcnv inrep- 
<f)V(Ji)s rjydTTTjaev, on Trdarjs dvev TrpaypLareias /cat 
fxrjSevos opydvov herjdeis dXXd rrjv ^aKTTjplav 
OTTjaas €7Tt TO) Trepan rrjs OKids rjv rj TTvpajJLig 
eTTotei, yevopLevoiv rrj cTra^Ty ttjs aKnvos Svelv 
rpiycovcov, eSei^a? ov 7] OKid rrpos ttjv oKidv Xoyov 
ef^e TTjv TTvpafxlSa npos ttjv ^aKr-qpiav €)(ovaav. 
dAA', OTTcp €(l>'qv, Ste^Xijdyjs p^tao^aaiXevs elvai, 
B /cat nves v^pianKai aov nepl rvpdvvcov dTTO<jida€is 
av6(f)€povTO TTpos avTov, d}s ipcoTTjOels VTTO M0A77- 
ayopov rov"\(ji}vo'5 ri Trapaho^orarov etrjg icopaKiLs, 
aTTOKpivaio ' rvpavvov yepovra,' /cat ttoXiv ev nvt 
TTOTcp, rrepL tcov drjpLcov Xoyov yevofjLevov, (f)air]s 
ndKLOTov etvat tcov fxev dypicov drjpicov rov rvpav- 
vov, Tcvv S' rjixepojv tov /coAa/ca* ravra ydp, et 
/cat Trdvv TrpoaTTOLOvvrai Sta^epetv ol ^aaiXeXg rwv 
TvpavvcDV, ovK evfievcbg aKovovariv." 

'AAAd TOVTO fJi€V," eLTTCV 6 QaXijs, " YliTraKov 
eoTiv, elprjfievov iv TiatSta ttotc Trpos ^IvpaiXov 

" The same story is told in Moralia, 38 b ; in 506 c, and 
in Plutarch's Comment, on Hesiod, 71 {Works and Days, 719), 
the same story is told of Pittacus. 

* Cf. Pliny, Natural History, xxxvi. 17 (82). 

* Specifically ascribed to Thales by Plutarch, Moralia, 
578 D ; cf. also infra, 152 a. 

^ Ascribed to Bias by Plutarch, Moralia, 61c. 

352 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 146-147 

sacrifice, with instructions to take out and send back 
to him the worst and best portion of the meat. And 
our friend's neat and clever solution was, to take out 
the tongue and send it to him," \\ith the result that 
he is now manifestly in high repute and esteem." 

" Not for this alone," said Neiloxenus, " but he 
does not try to avoid, as the rest of you do, being 
a friend of kings and being called such. In your case, 
for instance, the king finds much to admire in vou, and 
in particular he was immensely pleased with your 
method of measuring the p}Tamid, because, without 
making any ado or asking for any instrument, you 
simply set your walking-stick upright at the edge of 
the shadow which the pyramid cast, and, two tri- 
angles being formed by the intercepting of the sun's 
rays, you demonstrated that the height of the p}Tamid 
bore the same relation to the length of the stick as the 
one shadow to the other. ^ But, as I said, you have 
been unjustly accused of ha\ing an animosity against 
kings, and certain offensive pronouncements of yours 
regarding despots have been reported to him. For 
example, he was told that, when you were asked by 
Molpagoras the Ionian what was the most paradox- 
ical thing you had ever seen, you rephed, ' A despot 
that lived to be old.' * And again he was told that 
on a certain con\i\ial occasion there was a discussion 
about animals, and you maintained that of the wild 
animals the worst was the despot, and of the tame 
the flatterer."* Now kings, although they would 
make out that they are altogether different from 
despots, do not take kindly to such remarks." 

" But the fact is," said Thales, " that Pittacus is 
responsible for that statement, which was once made 
in jest with reference to Myrsilus. But, as for myself, 

353 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

C cya> Se davfidcraifji' av," €(f>'r), " ov rvpavvov oAAa 
(147) Kv^epvqrrjv yepovra deaadjjievos . Trpog 8e Tr]v 
fieradeuLV to rod veavioKov Triirovda tov ^aXovros 
fjL€v em T7]v Kvva Trard^avros 8e rrjv [xr]TpvLa.v /cat 
617701^0? ' ouS' ovroj KaKcos.' Slo /cat SdAojva 
(TOcfxjoraTOV rjyr^adpi'qv ov Se^dpLevov rvpavvetv. 
Kai HtTTa/cos' ovros el p.ovap-^ia purj TrpoarjXdev, 
ovK av eiTTev cos ' xaAcTTOt' eadXov eppevat.' 
HepLavSpos S' eoLKev ojcnrep ev vourjpiari TTarpcpcx) 
rfj Tvpavvihi KaTei,Xrjp,p,evos ov (f)avXa)s efai'a- 
(f)epeiv, ;\;paj/>tevos' opuXlais vyieivals d-xpi' ye vvv 
Kac crvvovcnas dvhpoJv vovv exovrcov eTrayopievos , 

D OLS Se Qpaav^ovXos avrco KoXovaeis twv aKpojv 
ovp.os ttoXlttis v(j>riyelraL pirj Trpoaiepievog. yeojp- 
yov yap atpas^ /cat 6v(i)vihas^ dvrl TTvpcbv /cat Kpidihv 
GvyKopit,eLV ediXovTos ovhev Sta^epet rvpavvos 
avopaiTohcov p.dXXov dp-^eiv ■^ dvhpayv ^ovXopevos' 
ev yap dvrl ttoXXiov KaKcov dyadov at Sui^aaretat 
TT]v TLpLrjv exovat /cat Tnv ho^av, dvTrep dyadcov d)s 
KpeiTToves dpxojai /cat pieydXcov pLei^oves elvai 
SoKcocTL' rr]v S' dcr(f)dXeiav dyarrcovTas dvev rod 
KaXov TTpo^drcov eSet TroAAaii' /cat lttttcov /cat ^ocov 
dpxeiv, pLTj dvOpcoTTOJV. dXXd yap els ovSev Trpoa- 

E TjKovras epi^e^XrjKev ■f]p.ds," 'e(f>rj, " 6 ^evos ovroai 

^ aipai Wvttenbach ; dypas or dKpidas. 
^ dvuivcdas Doehner: 6pviBas. 

" The same story is found in Moralia, 467 c, 

^ Cf. Plutarch, Life of Solon, chaps, xiv. and xv. (pp. 85 d- 
86 b). 

« Cf. Plato, Protagoras, 339 a ; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Or. iii. 
p. 384 Simonides, No. 5. 

■* The usual tradition {e.g. Herodotus, v. 92) is that 
Periander grew worse rather than better. 

• The story is familiar in other connexions also ; Roman 
354- 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 147 

I should be amazed to see," he continued, " not a 
despot but a pilot that lived to be old. However, so 
far as concerns transferring this from the one to the 
other, my feeling is exactly that of the young man 
who threw a stone at his dog, but hit his stepmother, 
■whereupon he exclaimed, ' Not so bad after all ! ' * 
This is the reason why I regarded Solon as very -v^ise 
in refusing to accept the position of despot.'' And as 
for your friend Pittacus, if he had never addi-essed 
himself to the task of ruling single-handed, he would 
not have said that ' it is hard to be good.' " But 
Periander, apparently, in spite of his being afflicted 
with despotism as with an inherited disease, is making 
fair progress towards recovery ^ by keeping whole- 
some company — at least up to the present time — 
and by bringing about conferences ^ith men of 
sense, and by refusing to entertain the suggestions 
offered by my fellow-citizen Thrasybulus about 
lopping off the topmost.* Indeed, a despot who 
desires to rule slaves rather than men is not unhke 
a farmer who is ^\•illing to gather in a harvest of 
darnel and rest-harrow rather than of wheat and 
barley. For the exercise of dominion possesses one 
advantage to set against its many disadvantages, and 
this is the honour and g\ory of it, if rulers rule 
over good men by being better than they, and 
are thought to surpass their subjects in greatness. 
But rulers that are content with safety without 
honour ought to rule over a lot of sheep, horses, and 
cattle, and not over men. But enough of this," he 
continued, " for ovu- visitor here has precipitated us 
into a conversation that is quite inappropriate, since 

tradition, for example, makes Tarquinius Super bus give 
this advice to his son (Livy, i. 54), 

355 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xoyovs, dfxeX^aas^ Xiyeiv re Kal ^rjTetv a. apfxoTreL 
inl SeLTTVov ^ahit,ovcnv. rj yap ovk oUl, KadaTrep 
earriaaovTOS eari tls TrapaaKeuij, /cat SenrvqcrovTOs 
elvai; Sf^aptrat /Ltev yap cos eoiKe irpo ivtavrov 
ras KXtjcreis TTOLOVvrai rcbv yvvacKcbv, ottojs e/c- 
yivoLTo Kara axoXrqv TrapaaKcvaaafxevats iadrjri Kal 
Xpvao) (f>OLrdv em ro SeiTTVov iyo) Se TrXelovos 
olpiat XP^^^^ Seladai nqv dXrjdivrjv rov Senrv^aov- 
ros opdws TTapaaKevqv, oaco x^Xeirajrepov icmv 
rjdeL rov irpeTTovra Koafiov tj acjpLari rov Trepirrov 
F i^cvpeiv Kal dxpTr]arrov. ov yap d)s dyyeZov 7jK€1 
Kop,it,aiV eavrov efnrXrjaat Trpos ro Selrrvov 6 vovv 
e^cov, dXXd Kal aTTOvSdaai rt, Kal Tratfat Kal 
aKovaai Kal elrreZv (hs^ 6 Kaipos TrapaKaXel rovs 
crvvovras, et pLeXXovai pier aXXijXojv rjSecos eaeadat. 
Kal yap Kal oif/ov TTOvrjpov eart Trapcoaaadai, Kav 
olvos fj (jyavXos, errl ras vvp,(f)as Kara^vyelv 
avvheiTTVOS 8e Ke^aXaXyrjs Kal ^apvs Kal dvdycxtyos 
TTavros p-^v otvov Kal oifjov Trdcrrjs Se p,ovaovpyov 
xdpi-v aTToXXvac /cat XvpaLverat, /cat oyS' dnepiecraL 
148 7-171^ roiavrrjv drjhiav eroLpLov icmv, aAA' eviois 
els drravra rov ^iov epip-evei ro Trpos aXXi^Xovs 
hvodpearoVy wanep ecuXoKpaaia ris v^pecos rj 
opyrjs iv olvco yevop,evr]s. odev dpiara XtAoiv, 
KaXovf-tevos exBes, ov vporepov cbpLoXoyrjaev iq 

^ &/j.£\ri(rai] dfjLfXricraPTas some mss. 
* ujs Meziriacus : &v Wyttenbach : 6. 



" Cf. Athenaeus, 521 c. 
"" A similar thought is found in Moralia, 660 b. 

356 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 147-148 

he has not been careful to bring up topics and 
questions suitable for persons on their way to dinner. 
Do you not honestly beheve that, as some prepara- 
tion is necessary on the part of the man who is to be 
host, there should also be some preparation on the 
part of him who is to be a guest at dinner ? People 
in Sybaris, as it appears, have their invitations to 
women presented a year in advance so as to afford 
them plenty of time to provide themselves with 
clothes and jewellerv'^ to wear when they come to 
dinner " ; but I am of the opinion that the genuine 
preparation on the part of the man who is to be the 
right kind of guest at dinner requires even a longer 
time, inasmuch as it is more difficult to discover the 
fitting adornment for character than the superfluous 
and useless adornment for the body. In fact, the 
man of sense who comes to dinner does not betake 
himself there just to fill himself up as though he were 
a sort of pot, but to take some part, be it serious 
or humorous, and to listen and to talk regarding 
this or that topic as the occasion suggests it to the 
company, if their association together is to be 
pleasant.* Now an unsavoury dish can be declined, 
and, if the Avine be poor, one may find refuge with 
the water-sprites ; but a guest at dinner who gives 
the others a headache, and is churlish and uncivil, 
ruins and spoils the enjoyment of any vvines and \iands 
or of any girl's music ; nor is there any ready means 
by which one can spew out this sort of unsavouriness, 
but with some persons their mutual dislike lasts for 
their entire lifetime — stale dregs, as it were, of some 
insult or fit of temper which was called into being 
over wine. Wherefore Cliilon showed most excellent 
judgement when he received his invitation yesterday, 

S57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(148) TTvdeaOai rcbv KeKXrjfievcov cKaarov, e(^rj yap otl 
avfJi-nXovv dyvcofiova Set cfiepeiv /cat avoKiqvov ols 
rrXeXv dvdyKrj /cat arpareveadai,' to Se avpurorais 
eavTov u)s ervx^ KarafiLyvveiv ov vovv exovros 
avSpog icTTLV. 6 8' AlyvTrrios OKcXeros, ov imeiKoJs 
€La(f)€povT€s et? rd avpiTTocna Trportdevrai /cat irapa- 

B KaXovai fie/jLvrjcrdai rdxo- St) tolovtovs eaopiivov? , 
KaLTTcp dxapis /cat dcopos ivLKCofios rJKCOV, ojjLCDs 
e;^et riva Kaipov, /cat et /xi) Trpos to ttivgiv /cat 
rjSvTTadetv dXXd Trpos ^tAtar /cat dyaTTiqaiv dXXrjXojv 
TTporpeTTerat, /cat Trapa/caAet Tor ^tor /itT^ to) xP^^V 
^paxvv ovra TrpdypLaai /ca/cot? fiaKpov TTOielv." 

3. Ej' TotouTOi? Aoyot? yevopievoi Kara ttjv 686v 
acfyiKopieda Trpos rrjv oiKLav, /cat Xovaaadai fxev 6 
QaXrjs ovK rjdeXrjcrev, dXrjXipipiivoL yap rjfiev' intcov 
Se rovs re hpojxovs 16 ear o /cat rds TToXaiarpas xal 
ro dXaos ro TTapd rrjv ddXarrav iKavws Sta/ce/co- 
(Jixripievov, vtt ovSevos eKTiXrirroiievos rcbv roiov- 

C ra)v, dXX OTTCos fxrj Kara<f>pov€Lv SoKoirj /at^S' 
VTTepopdv rod Yiepidv^pov rrjs <pt,XorLp.Las. rcvv S 
oAAojv rov dXenpafjuevov ■^ Aouaa/Ltevot" ot depdrrovres 
etarjyov ei? toi' dvSpdJva Sta rfjs arods- 

O S' 'Am;^apCTis' ev rfj aroa Kadrjaro, /cat 

TTatSiCTKrj TTpoeiarrjKeL rrjv KOfxrjv raZs X'^P^'' Sia/cpi- 

vovaa. ravr-qv 6^ QaXrjs iXevdepiwrard ttojs avroj 

TrpocxSpapiovaav e(f)LXrjcre /cat yeAaaas" " ovrcos," 

^ 6 added by Hercher. 

" Plutarch expands this thought in Moralia, 708 d. 
358 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 148 

in not agreeing to come until he had learned the 
name of every person in\'ited. For he said that men 
must put up with an inconsiderate companion on 
shipboard or under the same tent, if necessity 
compels them to travel or to serve in the army, but 
that to trust to luck regarding the people one is to 
be associated \\-ith at table is not the mark of a man 
of sense." Now the skeleton which in Egj'pt they 
are wont, with fair reason, to bring in and expose 
at their parties, urging the guests to remember that 
what it is now, they soon shall be, although it is an 
ungracious and unseasonable companion to be intro- 
duced at a merry-making, yet has a certain timehness, 
even if it does not incline the guests to drinking 
and enjoyment, but rather to a mutual friendliness 
and aflPection, and if it urges upon them that hfe, 
which is short in point of time, should not be made 
long by evil conduct." 

3. Engaging in such discoiurse as this along the 
way, we arrived at the house. Thales did not care 
to bathe, for we had abeady had a rub-down. So 
he visited and inspected the race-tracks, the training- 
quarters of the athletes, and the beautifully kept 
park along the shore ; not that he was ever greatly 
impressed by anything of the sort, but so that he 
should not seem to show disdain or contempt for 
Periander's ambitious designs. As for the other 
guests, each one, after enjoying a rub-down or a 
bath, was conducted by the servants to the dining- 
room through the open colonnade. 

Anacharsis was seated in the colonnade, and in 
front of him stood a girl who was parting his 
hair with her hands. This girl ran to Thales in a 
most open-hearted way, whereupon he kissed her 

3#9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(liS) €(prj, " TToUi KoXov rov ^ivov, ottcos rjjxepwTaros 

cov [X7j (jio^epos fj Tr)v oijjiv rnuv firjS^ dypios." 

tjfMOV S' cpofxevov TTepl ttjs TraiSo? i^rij etrj, 

D rrjv ao(j)r]v," ^<f>T], " koI Txepi^orjTov ayvoet? 

tjVix-qrLv; ovrco yap TavrrjV 6 TTaTrjp auro?, ol Se 

7TOAAOL TTarpodev ovond^ovaL ]^Xeo^ovXi.vrjv." 

Kat o NetAo^et'os' elTrev " rj ttov rrjv Tiepl ra 
aLVLyfMara SeivoT'qra Kal ao<f>iav," €(f)r], " rrjs Koprjs 
eTTaivels' /cat yap els AiyvTrrov evia rcov irpo^aXXo- 
fxevajv vtt' avrrjs Sa/crat." 

KJVK eyojy , enrev o CyaAT^s" tovtoi? yap 

wanep aarpayaXois, orav rvxi), Tral^ovaa XPV'^^'' 

Kat. Sia^aAAerai 77/30? rovs ivTV)(ovrag. dAAa /cat 

(fypovr^pia davjjLaarov Kal vovs eVecrrt ttoXltlkos Kat 

(f)iXdv6pa}Trov rjdos, Kal rov rrarepa rolg voXirais 

E TTpaorepov dpxovra Trapex^i Kal hr^jxorLKajrepov." 

Efev," o ^eiXo^evos €(f)r], " Kal ^aiVerat 

pXeTTOVTi Trpog rr]v XcTor-qra Kal a^e'Aeiar avrrjs' 

Avaxo-poLV he iroOev ovtcjj rrjfieXet ^iXoaropycos ; " 

" "On," ^(j>y], " aw^poiv dvr^p eon Kal ttoXv- 

fxad'qs, Kal ttjv hiairav avrfj Kal rov Kadapfiov, a> 

Xpoovrai HKvOai Tvepl rovs Kafivovras, d<f>06va}s 

Kal TTpoOvjJLCos TTapahehojKe. Kal vvv ot/xat Trept- 

€7T€i,v avrrjv rov dvhpa Kal ^iXocjypoveladai, puavOd- 

vovadv Tt Kal TrpoaStaXeyojjievrjv." 

"HSrj Se TTX-quiov ovaiv rjjjLLV rov dvSpcovos dmjv- 

360 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 148 

and said laughingly, " Go on and make our visitor 
beautiful, so that we may not find him terrifying and 
savage in his looks, when he is, in reality, most 
ci\ilized." 

When I inquired about the girl and asked who 
she was, he replied, " Have you not heard of the wise 
and far-famed Euraetis ? Really, though, that is 
only her father's name for her, and most people call 
her Cleobulina after her father." 

" I am sure," said Neiloxenus, " that when you 
speak so highly of the maiden you must have reference 
to the cleverness and skill that she shows in her 
riddles ; for it is a fact that some of her conundrmns 
have even found their way to Eg\-pt." 

" No indeed," said Thales, " for these she uses 
like dice as a means of occasional amusement, and 
risks an encounter with all comers. But she is also 
possessed of wonderful sense, a statesman's mind, 
and an amiable character, and she has influence with 
her father so that his government of the citizens has 
become milder and more popular." 

" Yes," said Neiloxenus, " that must be apparent 
to anybody who obser\'es her simplicity and lack of 
affectation. But what is the reason for her lo\ing 
attentions to Anacharsis ? " 

" Because," replied Thales, " he is a man of sound 
sense and great learning, and he has generously and 
readily imparted to her the system of diet and purging 
which the Scythians employ in treating their sick. 
And I venture to think that at this very moment, 
while she is bestoAving this affectionate attention on 
the man, she is gaining some knowledge through 
further conversation with him." 

We were already near the dining-room when 

361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTjoev 'AXe^iSrjiJios 6 MiAt^ctio? {-^v Se Qpacrv- 
^ovXov rod Tvpdvvov v66os) Kal €^rjei rcrapay' 
F fievos Kal (jvv opyfj tlvl Trpos avrov ovhev rjfuv ye 
aa(f)€s StaXeyofxevos . co? 8e rov QaXfjv etSe, 
fiiKpov dveveyKCJV /cat KaracrTas " otav v^piv," 
€L7T€V, €LS rjfids HepiavSpos v^piKcv, cKTrXevcrai 
fjiev ovK edcrag cbpfi-qfievov dXXd irpoapielvai Berjdels 
TO SeiTTVov, iXOovTi Se vepnov KXiaiav dripiov, 
AtoAets- Se Kal vrjaicoTas {Kal riva? yap ov^l;) 
Qpaav^ovXov Trporipicov Qpaav^ovXov yap iv ifxol 
Tov TTeinpavra TTpoTrrjXaKiaaL ^ovXofievos Kal Kara- 
^aXelv (1)5 Srj Trepiopwv hrjXos ecrriv." 
149 " Etr'," e<f)rj, " av SeSta? fxr] Kaddirep AlyvTTTioi, 
Tovs acrrepas vipcofJiaTa Kal raTTeivcopLara Aa/x- 
pavovras iv Totg tottols ovs Sie^iaaL yiyveadai 
peXriovas rj -^eipovag iavrojv Xeyovaiv, ovtojs tj 
TTcpi ae hid tov tottov dfxavpaxns iq TaTretvioais 
yevrjTai; Kal tov AdKcovos ear) (f>avX6Tepos, o? 
€V X^PV '^'■^'' KaTaaTadels els ttjv icrxdr-qv x^P'^^ 
VTTO TOV dpxovTos ' ev y\' eliTev, ' e^evpeg, (hs Kal 
avTa^ evTLpios yevrjTai.' ov KaraXa^ovras ," ecfir], 
' TOTTOV jxerd rivas KaraKetpieOa 8et l,r]T€LV, puaXXov 
o OTTCos evdp/jLoaroi tols (TvyKaraKeipievois cLpiev, 
'^PXW '^'^^ Xa^TjV (fyiXias evOvs ev avTols txiTOVvres ,^ 
B fidXXov 8' exovTes to [xtj SvaKoXatveiv dAA' eTraivelv 
oTt ToiovTois (TvyKaTeKXidrjfxev ws o ye totto) 

^ aCra Wilamowitz-Moellendorff and F.C.B. independ- 
ently: avrd. 

- ^-/jTovvTes Reiske : fT/XoOvrey or dTjXovvTes. 

" A remark to like effect is assigned to Agesilaus in 
Moralia, 208 d, and to Damonidas in Moralia, 219 e. The 
idea is also credited to Aristippus by Diogenes Laertius, 
ii. 73. 

362 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 148-149 

Alexidemus of Miletus met us. He was a son of the 

despot Thrasybulus, but bom out of wedlock. He 
was coming out in a state of great agitation, angrily 
talking to himself, but saying nothing that was 
intelligible to us. When he saw Thales he recovered 
himself a little, stopped, and exclaimed, " What an 
insult ! To think that Periander should behave so 
toward us ! Why, he simply would not hear of my 
going away when I was bent on going, but begged 
me to stay over for the dinner ; and then when I came 
he assigned to me an ignominious place, setting 
Aeolians, and men from the islands, and what not, 
above Thrasybulus. For it is plain that in my person 
he ^^^shes to offer insult to Thrasybulus, who delegated 
me to come, and to put him low down to show that 
he purposely ignores him." 

" So then," said Thales, " as the Eg\^tians say of 
the stars, when they gain or lose altitude in their 
courses, that they are growing better or worse than 
they were before, do you fear that the obscuration 
and degradation affecting you because of your place 
at table -s^-ill be brought about in a similar way ? 
And you will be contemptible when compared with 
the Spartan * who in a chorus was put by the director 
in the very last place, whereupon he exclaimed, 
' Good ! You have found out how this may be made 
a place of honour.' When we have taken our places," 
continued Thales, " we ought not to try to discover 
who has been placed above us, but rather how we 
may be thoroughly agreeable to those placed with us, 
by trying at once to discover in them something that 
may serve to initiate and keep up friendship, and, 
better yet, by harbouring no discontent but an open 
satisfaction in being placed next to such persons as 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(149) KALaias Svaxepalvcov Svcrxepaivei to) ovyKXirrj 
fidAAov 7] Tip KCKXrjKOTi, /cat irpos d[Ji(f)or€povg 
aTT€)^da.verai." 

A.oyos," ^4*rj, " ravT* aXXcos iariv " 6 'AAe^t- 
or]fios, " epycp Be /cat tows' ao^ovg vpa.'s opo) to 
TLp,da6ai SicoKovras," /cat a/xa TTapajJLeupdfMevos 
r}p,ds aLTTrjXde. 

Kat o QaXijs TTpos rjiids rr)v droTTLav rov dvdpco- 
TTOV d av pbdtjOvr as, " efnrXiqKros," e(f)rj, " /cat aAAo- 
KOTOs (f>vaei, eirel /cat p^eipaKiov wv en, pLvpov 
OTTOvhaiov Qpaav^ovXcp KopnaOevros, els ifjVKrrjpa 
C Karepdaas p,eyav /cat Trpoaey^eas aKparov e^- 
einev, e)(6pav dvrl <j)iXias Qpaav^ovXcp SiaTTCTrpay- 
fjLevos." 

E/c TovTov irepieXdibv vjrrjperrjs " KeXevei ae 
YlepiavSpos," ^4*1 > " '^^^ QaXrjv TrapaXa^ovra 
TOVTOV eTnaKei/jacrdat, to KeKOfxia/xevov dpTitos 
avTCp TTOTepov dXXcos yiyovev t] ti arjpeZov Iotl 
/cat Tepas' avTos fiev yap eoiKe TCTapaxOai, (7(f)6Spa, 
fitaajjia Kat, /CT^AtSa ttjs Ovatas rjyovfievos." a/xa 
8' drrriyev rjpids ets Tt otK:7]/.ta tcov Trepl tov ktjttov. 
evTavda veaviaKos d)S e^atVeTo vop,evTLK6s, ovttco 
yeveicov aAAcD? t€ to elSos ovk dyevvrjs, dvaTTTV^as 
Tivd 8(,(f)6epav ehei^ev rjfuv jSpe^o? d)s e(f>r] yeyovos 
e^ iTTTTov, TO. fiev dvco p.expi' tov Tpax^jXav /cat twv 
D x^i'P^^ dv6pcx)Tr6p,opcj)ov, Ta AotTrd S' exov lttttov, 
Tjj Se 4a>vf\ Kaddnep Ta veoyvd vratSapta KXavd- 
p,vpil,6pevov. 6 p,ev ovv NetAd^evo?, " 'AAe^t/ca/ce " 

S64 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 149 

these. For, in every case, a man that objects to his 
place at table is obj ecting to his neighbour rather than 
to his host, and he makes himself hateful to both." 

" All this," said Alexidemus, " is merely talk that 
means nothing. As a matter of fact, I observe that 
all you wise men too make it your aim in life to have 
honour shown you " ; and ^\ith that he passed by us / 
and departed. 

Thales, in answer to our look of astonishment 
at the man's extraordinary conduct, said, " A crazy 
fellow, and uncouth by nature ; as an instance, when 
he was still a boy, some especially fine perfume was 
brought to Thrasybulus, and this the youngster 
emptied into a big wine-cooler, and on top of it 
poured strong wine, and drank it off, thus creating 
enmity instead of friendship for Thrasybulus." 

Just then a servant made his way to us and said, 
" Periander bids you, and Thales too, to take your 
friend here with you and inspect something which 
has just now been brought to him, to determine 
whether its birth is of no import whatever, or whether 
it is a sign and portent ; at any rate, he himself 
seemed to be greatly agitated, feeling that it was a 
pollution and blot upon his solemn festival." With 
these words he conducted us to one of the rooms off 
the garden. Here a youth, a herdsman apparently, 
beardless as yet, and not bad-looking withal, unfolded 
a piece of leather, and showed us a newly-born 
creature which he asserted was the offspring of a 
mare. Its upper parts as far as the neck and arms 
were of hirnian form, and the sound of its crying was 
just like that of newly-born infants, but the rest of 
its body was that of a horse. Neiloxenus merely 
exclaimed, " God save us," and turned his face away ; 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(149) emiuv, air ear pdcfuq rrjv oif/tv, 6 8e QaXrjs Trpoa- 
e)8Ac77e TO) veaviaKO) ttoXvv xpovov, etra /^eiStaaa? 
(etco^et S' act Trat^etv TTpos e/xe 77e/3t ttjs rexvrjs) 
Tj TTOV Tov Kadapjjiov, CO Ato/cAci?," e^^' " kI'^^^^ 
Stavofj Kal Trapi)(eiv Trpdyp-ara roXs OLTTorpoTraLois, 
a)s Tivos heivov Kal jxeyaXov avpL^dvros ; " 

ltd, eiTTov, ov ixeAAa) ; araaecos yap, (a 
QaXr], Kal Sta^opa? to crqjxeiov eari, Kal SeSta 
lir] fiexpi ydpbov Kal yeveds i^tK-qrai, irplv rj to 
irpcbrov e^iXdaaadai fi-qvLfia, rrjs deov Sevrepov <x)s 
opas vpoc/iaivovcrrjs." 

E Upos rouTo p.r]8ev dTTOKpivdfxevos 6 QaXijs dXXd 
yeXdJv aTTTjXXdTTeTO . Kal rod HepcdvSpov irpos 
TttS" dvpag dTTavT-qaavros rjfuv Kal hia'nvdop.evov 
irept Sv etSo/xev, dcf)elg 6 QaXrjs fi€ Kal Xa^opievos 
TTJs CKeLvov x^^P^S '^j>'r], " d p,ev AiokXt]^ KeXevei 
Zpdaeis Kad^ rjavxiav eyd) 8e crot Trapaivu) veois 
ovTCO pLTj ;\;p-^CT^at vofxevaiv lttttcov, r) SiSovai 
yvvaiKas avrols-" 

"ESo^e piev oSv pLoi rcov Xoycov aKovaas 6 Uepiav- 
8pos Tjddrjvat a<f)6hpa' Kal yap i^eyeXaae Kal tov 
QaXrjv TTepL^aXchv Karr^cnrdaaTO. KdKelvos "of/xat 
S'," elirev, " co AioKXeis, Kal Tripas €(j;(e^ to 

F arjpLelov opas yap tjXlkov KaKov yeyovev rjpuv, 
'AXe^tS-qpiov avvSeLTTvelv pur] deX-qaavros." 

4. 'E77et S' €LcnjX9opL€v, rjSr] p,eZl,ov 6 QaXrjs 
^dey^dpevos " rrov S' " etTrev " o dvrjp /caTa/cAtm- 
pL€VOS eSvax^pavev; " diroheixBeiaris Se Trjs ;^a)/3as 
•nepieXddiv CKeZ KaTeKXtvev iavTov /cat rjpids " dXXd 

^ e<Txe F.C.B. : ^xetj/ Reiske and Hatzidakis: elxe or ?x«t. 

" Cf. Phaedrus, Fabulae, iii. 3. 
366 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, U9 

but Thales fixed his gaze upon the youth for a long 
time, and then, with a smile (for he was in the habit 
of joking with me about my profession), said, " No 
doubt, Diodes, you are minded to set in operation 
your ritual of atonement, and to trouble the gods who 
dehver us from evil, since you must feel that some- 
thing terrible and momentous has befallen ? " 

" Why not ? " said I, " since this thing is a sign of 
strife and discord, Thales, and I fear that it may go so 
far as to affect even marriage and offspring, because, 
even before we have made full atonement for the first 
fault that moved the goddess to wTath, she plainly 
shows us, as you see, that there is a second." 

To this Thales made no answer, but withdrew, 
laughing all the while. Periander met us at the door, 
and inquired about what we had seen ; whereupon 
Thales left me and took his hand, saying, " Whatever 
Diocles bids you do you will carry out at your own 
convenience, but my recommendation to you is that 
you should not employ such young men as keepers 
of horses, or else that you should provide wives for 
them." " 

It seemed to me that Periander, on hearing his 
words, was mightily pleased, for he burst out laughing 
and embraced Thales most affectionately. " I think, 
Diocles," said Thales. " that the sign has already 
had its fulfilment, for you see what a bad thing 
has happened to us in that Alexidemus would not 
dine with us ! " 

4, WTien we had entered the dining-room, Thales, 
in a louder voice than usual, said, "Where is the place 
at table to which the man objected? " And when 
its position was pointed out to him he made his way 
to it, and placed himself and us there, at the same 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Koiv eTTpLdiJirjV " elirajv " 'AphdXco Kotvcovetv fJLids 
rpaTTe^rjs." rjv 8e T poil^rjvtos 6 "ApSaAo?, avXcpdos 
150 Kal lepevs tcov ApSaXeiivv ^lovcrcov, as 6 TraXatog 
Ap8aXos iSpvaaro 6 Tpoil,T^vLos. 

*0 S' AiacoTTos {irvyxave yap vrro Vipotaov 
vetoarl Trpos re HepiavSpov dp.a /cat Trpo? rov deov 
et? AeA<^ous' d.7TeaTaXp,4vos , Kal Traprjv inl hi^pov 
TLVos ;^a/xat^T]Aou irapd rov HoXcova KaOi^fievos 
dvo) KaTaK€tp,€vov) " rjp.Lovos S'," ^(f>''^> " Avhos 
iv TTorapLW rrjs oipecos eavrov KariScbv et/cova /cat 
davfjidaas to /caAAos" Kat to /xeyedos tov croj/xaTos" 
a)pp,rjcr€ delv coanep lttttos dvaxo-iriaas. elra 
fxevToi avpi(f)pov'r]aas ojs dvov vios eirj, KareTravae 
B ra^v TOV Spojxov /cat a^'^/ce to (f>pvayp,a /cat rov 

OvfJLOV." 

*0 Se Xt'Acov Aa/ccoviaa? Trj cf)covfj, " /cat rvviq," 
e(f)r], " PpaSvs /cat Tpe^^tS tov r][XLOvov." 

'E/c TOVTOV TTaprjXde p,ev rj MeAtacra /cat /car- 
CKXidy] Ttapd tov Hepiavhpov, rj 8' Eu/XTjTt? cKdOiae 
TTapd TO heiTTVov. Kat 6 QaXrjs e/xe TrpoaayopevGas 
CTrdvco TovBlavTos KaTaK€Lp€vov " tL ovk €(f}paoras," 
elnev, " cS Ato/cAet?, Biaj/rt tov NavKpaTLT-qv ^evov 
7]KovTa fxcTa TrpopXr]iJidT(x)v ^aaiXiKcLv au0t? err 
avTOV, dmxis v^cfxxjv /cat Trpoaexiov iavTW tov Xoyov 
8e)('f]TaL; " 

Kai d Bias " oAA' ovtos /xeV," ecfj-q, " TraAai 

C SeStTTerat Taxrra TrapaKeXevofievos , iyco Se tov 

Alovvctov otSa ra t' aAAa Setvot' ovTa Kat Avaiov 

drro^ crocfilas Trpocrayopevofxevov, oxjt ov Se'Sia tov 

^ diro Hercher : vvb. 

' Cf. Pausanias, ii. 31. 3. 
868 



DINNER OF THE SE\T:N WISE MEN, 149-150 

time remarking, " WTiy, I would have given money 
to share the same table with Ardalus." This Ardalus 
was from Troezene, a flute-player and a priest of 
the Ardahan Muses, whose worship his forefather, 
Ardalus of Troezene, had established." 

Aesop too, as it happened, ha\ing been sent by 
Croesus only a short time before on a mission both to 
Periander and to the god at Delphi, was present at 
the dinner, seated on a low chair next to Solon, who 
occupied the place just above. Aesop said ^ : "A 
Lydian mule caught sight of his own image reflected 
in a river, and, suddenly struck with admiration at 
the beauty and great size of his body, tossed his 
mane and started to run hke a horse, but then, 
recalHng that his sire was an ass, he soon stopped his 
running, and gave up his pride and animation." 

\V hereupon Chilon, dropping into Laconian dialect, 
remarked, " It's slow ye are, and ye're running on 
like the mule." 

Just then Melissa came in and took her place on 
the couch next to Periander, but Exunetis sat during 
the dinner. Then Thales, addressing himself to me 
(my place was just above that of Bias), said, " Diodes, 
why do you not tell Bias at once that our guest from 
Naucratis has again come to him with a king's 
problems, so that he may hear them stated while 
he is sober and circumspect ? " 

" Hear that ! " said Bias ; " this man has been 
trying for a long time to terrify me with such 
adjurations ; but I know that Dionysus, besides 
being clever in other ways, is called the ' solver ' by 
\'irtue of wisdom, so I have no fears that if I become 

* C/. No. 140 in the collection of fables that passes under 
the name of Aesop. 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(150) Oeov fiecTTOs yevoficvog jxr) ddapadarepov ayuivi- 
acofxai." 

Foiavra jxev CKelvoi npog dXX-qXovs dfjia 8et- 
TTVovvres enai^ov' ifxol 8e to SeiTrvov evreXecrrepov 
opdJvTi Tov avv-qOovs ivvoelv CTTT^et Trpos efxavrov 
ix)s ao(f)cbv Kayadajv dvSpoJv VTToBoxrj Kal kXtjols 
ovoe/jLtav Trpoaridrjoi 8a7Tdvr]v aAAd avareXAet fidX- 
Xov, d<f)aLpovcja Treptepyias oipcov Kal [jLvpa ^evtKa 
/cat TTefxfxara Kal TroXureXcbv oLva)v SiaxvaeLS, ols 
D Kad' rjjxepav xpdifJ-^vos eTnetKcDs" o YlepiavSpos iv 
TvpavviSi Kal TrXovrcp Kal Trpdyfxaai, rore Ttpog 
Tovs avopas iKaXXa>7TL^€To Aitott^ti Kal aa)(f)poavvri 
oaTTavrjs. ov yap piovov rcjv dXXcov dXXd Kal ttjs 
yvvaiKos d^eXojv Kal dTTOKprjifjas tov avvT^dr] 
Koapu)v CTTeSeLKwe avv evTeXeia Kal fieTpioTr^Ti 
K€Koap,r]p€mjv . 

5. Evret 8' eTTripdrjaav at Tpdrrel^at, Kal CTC^dvajv 
rrapa Trjs MeAiCTCTTys" hiahodevrcov rjpels fxev iaTreiaa- 
pi,€v 7] 8' avXrjTpls i7n(f)9ey^ap€V7] puKpd Tats ottov- 
oaXs €K peaov pLCTeaTT], Trpoaayopevaas rov 
AvaxapaLv 6 "ApSaAo? rjpcoTiqaev el napd HKvdats 
avXrjTpiSes elaiv. 

E O 8 e/C TOV TTpOCTTVxdvTOS " OvS^ dpTTcXoi " 

etTTe. 

Tov 8' 'ApSaAoy TrdXiv elrrovTOs " dXXd deoL ye 
JjKvOacs elai," " -ndw pcev ovv," €(f)7], " yXoiaaiqs 
avdpoiTTLvqs avvUvTCs, ovx oiairep 8' ot "EAAT^i'es' 
oio/xevot YiKvQGiv SiaXeyearOac ^cXtiov op,cos Toiis 
deovs 6aT€a>v Kal ^vXa)v 7)8 tov dKpodadai vopi^ov- 
aiv." 

U o j\LGa)7Tos, €i y , eLTTCv, eioeirjs, oj 

" Dionysus was the god of wine. 
370 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 150 

filled with his spirit <» I shall compete with less 
courage." 

In such repartee as this did those men indulge 
while dining ; but to me, as I was noticing that the 
dinner was plainer than usual, there came the thought 
that the entertainment and invitation of wise and 
good men involves no expense, but rather curtails 
expense, since it does away with over-elaborate 
viands and imported perfumes and sweetmeats and 
the serving of costly wines, all of which were in 
fairly free use every day with Periander in his royal 
position and wealth and circumstance. But on this 
occasion he tried to make an impression on the men 
by simplicity and restraint in expenditure. Nor 
was this limited to these other matters, but he also 
made his wife put aside and out of sight her usual 
elaborate attire, and present herself inexpensively 
and modestly attired. 

5. After the tables had been cleared away, and 
garlands distributed by Melissa, and we had poured 
libations, and the flute-girl, after playing a brief 
accompaniment for our Ubations, had -withdrawn, 
then Ardalus, addressing Anacharsis, inquired if 
there were flute-girls among the Scythians. 

He answered on the spur of the moment, " No, nor 
grape-vines either." 

When Ardalus again said, " But the Scythians must 
have gods," he replied, " Certainly, they have gods 
who understand the language of men ; they are not 
like the Greeks, who, although they think they 
converse better than the Scythians, yet believe that 
the gods have more pleasure in listening to the sounds 
produced by bits of bone and wood." 

Thereupon Aesop said, " I would have you know, 

VOL. II N 271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ieve, roils vvv avXoTroLovs (os Trpoeyievoi ra ve^pela, 
Xpco/JievoL TOLS ovcLoig, ^eXrtov rjX^^^ Xiyovaiv. 
oio Koi YiXeofiovXivrf irpos rov ^pvyiov avXov 
TjVLgaTO. 

^ Kvripirj veKpos ovog fie^ K€paa(f)6pcp ovas €Kpova€V* 

ware davfxd^eiv tov ovov el Trax^rarog Kal djjLov- 
aoraros a>v rdXXa XeTrrorarov koX pLovaLKcoTarov 
oareov Trapex^raL." 

Kat o NeiXo^evos " d/ze'Aet Tavr ," €(f>r], " kol 
rjpuv rots' NavKpaTLTais iyKaXovai Bouatptrai* 
XpiJ^p-^do. yap rjSrj toXs ov€lols els tov avXov. 
eKeivoLS 8e Kal adXTTiyyos aKovetv ddepLtrov, dis 
ovcp (f)6eyyopL€inrjs ofioLOV. ovov S' utt' AlyvTrricov 
lOTe SrjTTov Sid Tv(f)d)va TrpoTrrjXaK 1,1,6 p.€Vov." 

6. TevopLevrjs Se aLCOTrrjs 6 YleplavSpos opwv 
^ovXopevov p,kv OKVovvTa S' dp^aadai rod Xoyov 
^^^ rov NeiAdfevoP', " eycu roi," eliTev, " J) dvSpes 
CTTaivd) Kal TToXeis Kal dpxovras, daoi pivots 
TTpdJrov eira noXirais ;^pT]jLtaTt^ouaf /cat vvv 
BoKcX p,o(. rovs piev rjperipovs Xoyovs olov eTTi- 
X(Jnptovs Kal avvTjdeis ^paxvv XP^^^^ emax'^Xv, 
irpoaohov S dooTrep iv eKKX-qaio. Sovvai roXs 
/ lyvTTrioLS CKeivoLs Kal ^aaiXiKoXs, ovs 6 ^iXriaros 

^ KXeo^ovXlvrj Wyttenbach : k\€6^ov\ov t). 
* jVi^aro Wyttenbach : -ft^aro or rjp^aTO. 
' v€Kpbs ovoi fif Bernardakis : veKpoyovoffai/j^. 
* ^Kpovaev Hermann : iKTiKpovae. 

" Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii. p. 440, Cleobulina, No. 3. 
The restoration of Bernardakis here adopted is found in the 
editio minor. 

^ The Egyptian god Set presumably, a malignant deity, 
who was sometimes represented with features of an ass. 

872 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 150-151 

my friend, that the modem flute-makers have given 
up the use of bones from fawns, and use bones from 
asses, asserting that the latter have a better sound. 
This fact underlies the riddle " which Cleobuhna 
made in regard to the Phr\'gian flute : 

Full on my ear with a horn-bearing shin did a dead 
donkey smite me. 

So we may well be astonished that the ass, which 
otherwise is most gross and unmelodious, yet provides 
us with a bone which is most fine and melodious." 

" That, without question," said Neiloxenus, " is 
the reason for the complaint which the people of 
Busiris make against us of Naucratis ; for we are 
already using asses' bones for our flutes. But for 
them even to hear a trumpet is a sin, because they 
think it sounds like the bray of an ass ; and you 
know, of course, that an ass is treated with con- 
tumely by the Egyptians on account of Typhon.* " 

6. There was a pause in the conversation, and 
Periander, noticing that Neiloxenus wanted to begin 
his remarks, but was hesitating, said, " I am inclined 
to commend both states and rulers that take up the 
business of strangers first and of their o^vn citizens 
afterwards ; and now it seems to me that we should 
for a few minutes put a check on our own words, 
which are, as it were, in their own land where they 
are well known, and grant audience, as in a legis- 
lative sitting, to the royal communication from 
Egypt, which our excellent friend Neiloxenus has 

C/., for example, O. Gruppe, Griechische Mythologie und 
Beligionsgeschichte, pp. 102 and 409. Cf. also Plutarch, 
Mm alia, 363 f, where the present statements are slightly 
expanded. 

S73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(151) yJKei KO[x,it,a)v NetAo^evos" Biavri, Bta? Se jSouAerai 
Koivfj aKei/jaadat, ixed^ rjfxcov." 

K.al 6 Bta?, " 7TOV yap ^ fxera tlvcov," ecfi-q, 

" TTpodvfjLOTepov dv TLS dTroKivSvv€va€i€v, el Sei, 

TTpos TOLavras OLTTOKpLaeis, dXXcos re rov ^aaiXeojs 

B KeXevaavTos dp^aadai [xev avr' ipuov, TrepieXdelv 8' 

et? dTTavras vp.dg rov Xoyov; " 

OvTO) Srj TTapeSlSov fjuev aura) to ypafifiaretov 6 
NeiXo^evos, 6 8' avTov CKeXevae Xvaavra Travrd- 
TTaaiv is jxecrov avayvdjvai. hiavoiav Se roiavTrjv 
elx^ Ta yeypa/Lt/xeW. 

" BacriAeii? Alyvnricov "A^acriS" Xeyei Bi'avTt 
ao(f)COTdTcp 'EAAi^i'cov. 

" BacriAeus' AidLOTraJV e^^t Trpog e/xe ao(f>Las 
dfiiXXav. rjTTcofxevos 8e rots dXXois exrt Trdai 
avvredeiKev otottov imraypia Kal Seivov, eKirietv 
fi€ KeXevojv TTjv OdXarrav. eari 8e Xvcravri yukv 
ex^LV Kw/xas re rroXXas Kai ttoXcis tcov eKeivov, 
C piT] Xvaavri 8' daTCwv tcjv irepi, KXecfiavrivrjv 
aTToaTrjvaL. aKe>pdp,€vos ovv evOvg dTToirepiTTe. 
NeiAd^erov. a 8e Set (j>iXois aoZs r) TToXirais 
yeviadai Trap* rjixtov ov rapid KcoXvaet." 

TovTCOv dvayvcoadevTOiv ov ttoXvv xP'^^^v cttl- 
axd)V 6 Bta?, aAAo. puKpd piev avros Trpos avrw 
yevopuevos puKpd he. rep Y^Xeo^ovXco Trpoaopn- 
Xriaag eyyvs KaraKeipLevo) " ri Xeyeis," elirev, 
" w NavKparira; ^aaiXeviov dv6pd)7TO)V roaovrcov 
"Apiaats, KeKrrjpievos be x<^P^^ dpLarT]v roaavrrjv 
edeX-qaei cttI Kcopiais dbo^ois Kal Xvirpals eKmeiv 
OdXarrav ; " 
S74 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 151 

come to bring to Bias, and which Bias ^vishes to 
consider with all of us together." 

" Indeed," said Bias, " in what place or company 
would a man more readily take the risk, if he must, 
of answering such questions, especially since the 
king has given instructions to begin with me, and 
after that the matter is to come round to all the 
rest of you ? " 

As he said this Neiloxenus offered him the packet, 
but Bias bade him by all means to open it and read it 
aloud. The contents of the letter were to this effect : 

" AMASis,king of the Egyptians, to Bias, ■wisest of 
the Greeks. 

" The king of the Ethiopians is engaged in a con- 
test in wisdom against me. Repeatedly vanquished 
in all else, he has crowned his efforts by framing an 
extraordinary and awful demand, bidding me to 
drink up the ocean. My reward, if I find a solution, 
is to have many villages and cities of his, and if I 
do not, I am to withdraw from the towns lying about 
Elephantine. I beg therefore that you will consider 
the question, and send back Neiloxenus without 
delay. And whatever is right for your friends or 
citizens to receive from us shall meet with no let or 
hindrance on my part." 

After this had been read Bias did not wait long, but, 
after a few minutes of abstraction and a few words 
with Cleobulus, whose place was near his, he said, 
" What is this, ray friend from Naucratis ? Do you 
mean to say that Amasis, who is king of so many 
people and possessed of such an excellent great 
country, will be willing, for the consideration of 
some insignificant and miserable \illages, to drink 
up the ocean ? " 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(151) Kat o NetAofevo? yeXdaas " (Ls BeX-qaavros," 
€L7T€v, oj Bta, OKOTTei TO hvvarov ." 

D " (^ patera) roivvv," €(f)rj, " rco AWlottl rovs 
e/xPaXXovTas els ra TreXdyr] TTorafxovs cTnax^iv, 
€Cjos avTos eKTTLvei ttjv vvv ovaav ddXarrav Trepl 
ravTTjs yap to inirayfjLa yeyovev, ov ttjs varepov 
iaofxdvqs." 

'Q.S Se Tttur' efTTCv o Bias, 6 p,kv ^eiXo^evos 
V(/)^ rjSovfjs a)pp.r]a€ Trepi^aXelv^ rov BiavTa /cat 
<f>iXrjaaf rcov S' d?^cov iiratveadvTCov /cat diro- 
Bi^afxevcov yeXdaas 6 XtAcoi/, " oJ Nau/cpaTtra," 
€(f>r), " ^ev€, TTplv dvoXeadai, ttjv ddXarrav e'/c- 
TTodeicrav aTrdyyeXXe TrAeucras" 'AjuacrtSt jxrj ^7]r€Lv 
OTTOis dXixrjV dvaXcoaei rouavrrjv, dXXd fjidXXov 
OTTOis TTorLfxov /Cat yXvKetav rols vtttjkools rrjv 

E ^aaiXeiav -nape^ei' rrepl ravra yap Seivoraros 

Bias /cat StSacr/caAo? rovra>v dpiaros, a piadcov 

Afiaais ovSev en rov -x^pvaov herjaerai rroha- 

vLTTrrjpos eVi rovs AlyvTrrCovs, dXXd OepaTrevaovai 

rravres avrov /cat dyarr-^aovcn, ^prjarov ovra, 

KOLV fxvpidKLs "^ vvv dva(j)av7J hvayevearepos .^ " 

" Kat fn]V," e(ji7] 6 Ylepiavhpos, " d^iov ye 

Tocavras a7Tap)(as rep ^aaiXel avveiaeveyKelv 

avavras ' dvhpaKds,' Oiarrep e(f)r]oev "OfJLT]pos' 

eKeivtp re yap dv yevoiro TrXeiovos d^ia rrjs 

epLTTopias y] Trapevd-^Krj, /cat rjixlv dvrl irdvriov 

ox^eAt/xo?." 

7. Et77orTos ovv rov ^lXcovos cus lloXcov Kar- 

* TrepL^aXeiv Hercher : -rrept^dWeiv. 
* SvayevicTfpos Reiske : bvayeveararos or Svafj-eviartpos. 

" The story of Amasis's low birth and his rise to power is 
told by Herodotus, ii. 172. *" Odyssey, xiii. 14. 

876 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 151 

Neiloxenus answered with a laugh, " Assume that 
he is willing, and consider what is possible for him 
to do." 

"Well, then," said Bias, "let him tell the Ethiopian 
to stop the rivers which are now emptying into the 
ocean depths, while he himself is engaged in drink- 
ing up the ocean that now is ; for this is the ocean 
with which the demand is concerned, and not the 
one which is to be." 

As soon as Bias had said these words, Neiloxenus, 
for very joy, hastened to embrace and kiss him. The 
rest of the companv also commended the answer, and 
expressed their satisfaction with it, and then Chilon 
said A^ith a laugh, " My friend, before the ocean dis- 
appears entirely in consequence of being drunk up, 
I beg that you sail back to your home in Naucratis 
and take word to Amasis not to be trying to find out 
how to make way ^^-ith so much bitter brine, but 
rather how to render his government potable and 
sweet to his subjects ; for in these matters Bias is 
most adept and a most competent instructor, and if 
Amasis will only learn them from him, he will have 
no further need of his golden foot-tub to impress the 
EgA'ptians," but they will all show regard and affec- 
tion for him if he is good, even though he be sho^vn 
to be in his birth ten thousand times more lowly than 
at present." 

" Yes, indeed," said Periander, " it surely is right 
and proper that we all contribute an offering of this 
sort to the king, ' each man in his turn,' as Homer ^ 
has said. For to him these extra items would be 
more valuable than the burden of his mission, and 
as profitable for ourselves as anything could be." 

7. Chilon thereupon said that it was only right that 

877 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F apx^adai rov Xoyov SiKatos earcv, ov fxovov on 
TTavTcov 7Tpo'qK€L Kad rjXiKLav Kal Tvyxdvei' Kara- 
KeLfxevos TTpcoTos, aAA' on rrjv iieyiarriv Kal 
reXeiordrrjv o.pxr)v ^PX^'' vo/jlovs 'Adrjvaiois 
dipLevos, 6 ovv NetAo^ei^os" '^cruxfj Trpos ep,e " ttoXXo. 
y ," elirev, " w Atd/cAets', Tnareverat i/j€v8aJs, 
/cat X'^ipovaiv ol 77oAAot Xoyovs dveTnrrjBeLovs 
TTepi ao(f)a)V avSpaJv avroL re TrXdrrovTes Kal 
Sexop-evoi Trap' erdpcov iroLficos,^ ola Kal npos 
rjpids els AtyvTrrov aTrrjyyeXr] irepl XtAa>j/os', dis 
dpa hiaXvaaLTO ttjv npos Jj6Xa>va (f)iXiav Kal 
152 ^evlav, on tovs vopiovs 6 ^oXcov €(f>rj peraKiinqTovs^ 
elvai." 

Kat iyd) " yeXotog," ecji-qv, " 6 Xoyos' ovrco 
yap Set* Trpwrov dTTOTTOLelaOai tov AvKovpyov 
avroZs vopois oXtjv pLeraKivqcravra Trjv Aa/ceSat- 
fjLOVLWv TToXireiav." 

LKpov OVV e7na)(0)V o l4oAa>v e/xot pev, 
e^Tj, " So/cet pdXiar' dv evSo^og yeveadai Kal 
PaaiXevs Kal rvpavvos, et 8r]p.oKparLav e/c p,ov- 
apx^o-s KaraaKevdaeie rots TroAtrats." 

AevTcpos S' o Bta? etTrev, " et TrpcoTOS* XP^'''^ 
ToXs vopoLS rrjs Trarpihos." 

'Etti tovtoj S' o QaXrjs €(^r]oev, evhaipoviav 
dpxovTos vopLt,€iv, et TeAeyxTycrete yqpdaas Kara 
<f>vaw. 

^ iroi/j-wi Wyttenbach : iroi/noi. 

* 1X7) fj.eraKtvTjTovs Wyttenbach. 
' 5f(] ^5et Duebner. 

* wpSiTos] TTp^Tos Tpoirois Stobacus, Florileqhim, xlviii. 47 : 
hence drpdirof: Meineke. 

» The earlier Athenian laws, which Solon changed, as 
Lycurgus changed the laws of Sparta. Those who would 

378 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 151-152 

Solon should take the lead in speaking on this subject, 
not merely because he was most advanced in years 
and was occupying the place of honour, but because 
he held the greatest and most perfect position as a 
ruler by getting the Athenians to accept his laws. 
Thereupon Neiloxenus quietly remarked to me, " It 
is certain, Diodes, that a good many things come to 
be believed quite contrary to fact, and most people 
take delight in fabricating out of their own minds 
unwarranted tales about ^\ise men, and in readily 
accepting such tales from others. Such, for instance, 
was the report, which was brought to us in Egypt, 
in regard to Chilon, to the effect that he had broken 
off his friendship and his hospitable relations ^vith 
Solon because Solon asserted that laws are subject 
to revision." <» 

" The story is ridiculous," said I ; " for in such 
case Chilon ought first to renounce Lycurgus and 
all his laws, for Lycurgus re\ised completely the 
Spartan constitution." 

Solon then, after a moment's delay, said, " In my 
opinion either a king, or a despot, would best gain 
repute if out of a monarchy he should organize a 
democracy for his people." 

Next Bias said, " If he should be the very first to 
conform to his country's laws." 

Following him Thales said that he accounted it 
happiness for a ruler to reach old age and die a 
natural death. 

emend the passage would make it refer to Solon's own laws, 
but it should be remembered that Solon only desired that 
the Athenians should try out his laws for a certain length of 
time, and it is inconceivable that Solon with his great 
practical wisdom should not realize that his own laws might 
later need revision. 

VOL. II N 2 379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(152) TerapTos * Kvaxo-pais , " et /xovov^ eit] j>p6vipLOs'' 
YiipLTTTos S' d" KAedjSouAos', " ei fxrjSevl TTiarevoL 

TCOV aVVOVTOJV." 
B E/CTO? 8' d ITtTTaKOS', " €t TOy? VTTTjKOOVS O 

dpxojv TTapauKevdcreie ^o^etcr^at /L117 aurdv oAA' 
VTTep avTov." 

Mera toOtov d Xt'Awv e^Ty tov dp^ovra ji^p'^vai 
fir^Sev (f>poveLV dvrjrov, aAAd Travr' a^avara." 

'PrjdevTOjv 8e toutoji' rj^tovixev rjixels Kau 
avTov ecTTelv n tov IlepiavBpov. 6 S' ov p.aAa 
(f)ai8pos dAAo. (jyCTTT^aas' to irpoawTTOv eycD 
TOLVVv,' e^^, " TTpoaa7TO(f)aLvojjLai ras eiprjfxevas 
yvcoiJias dTTaaas crp^eSdv dj)iardvai^ tov dpx^i'V 

TOV VOVV €)(OVTa." 

at o AtacoTro? oiov cAey/CTi/ccDS' eoet toivuv, 
e^T^, " TOUTo Kad^ iavTovs rrepaiveiv /cat /xtj, 
C crvfi^ovXovs (fxxaKovTas etvau /cat ^lAou?, KaTTjyopovs 
yiyveadai, twv dpxovTOJV." 

' Aifjdfxevos ovv avTov ttjs K€<f)aXrjs 6 HoXcov 
/cat StajLtetStdCTa? enrev, ' ovk av SoKet aot pbeTpicj- 
Tepov dpxpvTa ttol€iv /cat Tvpavvov iiTLeLKeaTepov 
6 ireiOiov cos d.yL€ivov etr] to p,r) dp^^iv r] to 
apX€Lv; 

" Tt? 8* av," ecfiT], " aoL tovto TTeiadeiri fxaXXov 
iq TO) deo) (f)pdaavTi, /card tov irpos ae XPV^H'^^' 

^ fjibvov F.C.B. : txbvoi : /tTj f/.6vos Stobaeus, Florilegium, 
xlviii. 47 : ^nnovws Tucker. 

' 5' 6 Bernardakis : 5^. 

' vararoi 5' 6 XelXwv etTre KaWiffrov elvai. /3a<riX^a riy /utJ /idvov 
TOV (t>o^€pbv elfoi (ppovrl^ovra Stobaeus, Florilegium, xlviii. 47. 
This version and the omission of the article with many of 

380 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 152 

Fourth, Anacharsis said, " If only he have soiind 
sense." 

Fifth, Cleobulus, " If he trust none of his associ- 
ates." 

Sixth, Pittacus, " If the ruler should manage to 
make his subjects fear, not him, but for him." <» 

Chilon followed by sapng that a ruler's thoughts 
should never be the thoughts of a mortal, but of an 
immortal always. 

WTien these sentiments had been expressed, we 
insisted that Periander himself should also say 
something. And he, not very cheerful, but viiih 
a hard set face, said, " Well, I may add my view. 
that the opinions expressed, taken as a whole, practi- 
cally divorce any man possessed of sense from being 
a ruler." 

Whereupon Aesop, as though taking us to task, 
said, " You ought, then, to have carried out this 
discussion by yourselves, and not, while professing 
to be counsellors and friends, to have made your- 
selves complainants against rulers." 

Solon then, laying his hand on Aesop's head and 
smihng the while, said, " Don't you think that any- 
one could make a ruler more moderate and a despot 
more reasonable if he could persuade them that it 
is better not to rule than to rule ? " 

" Who," he replied, " would beheve you in this 
matter in preference to the god who said, according 
to the oracle referring to you, 

• Plutarch cites a concrete case in his Li/4 of Aratua, 
chap, XXV. (p. 1039 a). 

the proper names suggests that editors may have relied too 
much on Stobaeus in altering this passage. 

* d^trrd^'at] anp^aravdi most MSS. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(152) evSaifiov TXToXUdpov ivos KijpvKos olkovov^ ; " 

Kat o SdAajv " dAAa fJ-T^v," €(f)r], " /cat vvv ivos 
D AdrjvaloL KrjpvKOS aKpocovrai, /cat dpxovTOS rod 
vofiov, SrjfxoKpaTLav exovreg. crv 8e Seivos et 
KopaKcov CTraietv /cat koXolcov, rrjg 8' taov^ cjicovfjs 
ovK aKpi^cos i^aKoveis, aAAa ttoXlv fxev o'Ul Kara 
Tov deov dpicrra TTpdrreiv rriv ivos aKovovcrav, 
(TvpLTToaiov 8' dperrjv vofil^cis to Trdvras 8ta- 
Xiyeadai /cat Trepl TrdvTcov." 

2u ydp," €(f)r] 6 AtcrcoTTOs, " ovttco yiypa(j)as 
o Ti ofxoLov rjv^, oiKeras pirj fiedveiv, cu? eypaipas 
Ad'qvrjaLV ot/ceraj fir) ipdv /xrjSe ^r^paXott^eZv." 

TeXdcravTOs ovv rod l^oXcovos KAedSa)po? d 
tarpos " dAA' opiOLOv," i<j>rj, " ro ^rjpaXoLcfyelv rw 
AaAetv cp' otVa> ^pexdp^evov rjSt,aT0V ydp iarc." 
E Kat d Xt'Aoji' vTToXa^cbv €(f)rj " Std rovro rot 
fidXXov d<jieKriov avrov." 

ndAtv 8' d AiCTCOTTO?, " /cat pi^'qv," e<^'>7, " ©aAi^? 
eSo^ev eiTTeZv on rdxtcrra yrjpdaaL.*" 

8. reAdcra? ouv d neptar8pos', " exofiev," emev, 

AtacoTTe, rqv Slktjv TrpocrrjKovrcos dre,^ irplv r] rovs 

ApidatSos oyj* TrpoeiXopeda Trdvras elaayayeiv 

Xoyovs, els iripovs ipLTreaovres . opa S-^, NeiAdf eve, 

^ dKovov Xylander : dKoveiv. 

* 5' Icrov F.C.B., cf. Life of Eumenes, chap. xiv. ad init. : 
5k deov Reiske: 5' AZSoCs Tucker: 5^ aoD. 

' 5 Ti 8ij.oi.ov ?jv F.C.B. : 6 tl Sfioiov. 

* yripaaai F.C.B. : y-qpaaei. 

^ dre F.C.B. : 8ti. « oOs in one ms, only. 

" Aesop, now received as an equal among people of the 
highest standing, had been a slave in his earlier years, and 
does not hesitate to joke about the fact. 

382 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 152 

Blessed the city that hears the command of one herald 
only ? " 

" Yet it is a fact," said Solon, " that even now the 
Athenians hearken to one herald and ruler only, and 
that one, the law, under their democratic constitution. 
You are clever in understanding ravens and jackdaws, 
but you have no true ear for the voice of equality, 
but think that, according to the god, the city which 
hearkens to one man fares the best, whereas in a 
social gathering you regard it as a virtue to have 
everybody talk and on every sort of subject." 

" Yes," said Aesop, " that is because you have 
not yet wTitten a law that slaves " shall not get 
drunk, which would be a similar law to fit this case, 
as at Athens you >vrote a law that slaves shall not 
have any love-affair and shall not rub down like 
athletes."* 

Solon laughed at this and Cleodorus the physician 
said, " Nevertheless rubbing down dry is similar to 
talking when soaked with wine in that it is most 
agreeable." 

And Chilon, interrupting, said, " The more reason 
then for refraining from it." 

" I could swear," said Aesop, speaking again, 
" that Thales appeared to bid a man to grow old as 
fast as possible." " 

8. Periander at this burst out laughing, and said, 
" We are fittingly punished, Aesop, for becoming 
involved in other subjects before introducing all of 
those from Amasis, to which we gave precedence. 
I beg, Neiloxenus, that you will look at the rest of 

* A reason for the prohibition is given in Plutarch's Life 
of Solon, chap. i. (p. 79 a). 

« So as to obtain happiness ; Aesop twists Thales' remark 
made a few moments before {svpra, 152 a). 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ra XoiTTo. TTJs eTTtaToXrjs, /cat XP^ rrapovaiv iv 
ravTU)^ Tolg dvSpda-LV." 

" 'AAAa P''r}v" 6 NetAo^evo? e^^, " Tr]v yikv 
Tov AlOlottos iiTLTa^LV ovSev dv tls dX\o irXrjv 
' dxvvfjLevrjv crKvrdXrjv ' Trpoo-etVot war' 'Apx^- 
F Xoxov, 6 Se COS idvos "Ajxaais rjfxepcoTepos iv rols 
roiovTois TTpo^Xriixaai koL fiovaLKcorepos yeyovev 
iKcXevae yap avrov clTrelv to irpea^vTarov /cat to 
KaXXtarov /cat to jjueyiarov /cat to ao(f)iOTaTov 
/cat TO /coti/oTttTov, /cat vat fid Ata npos tovtols 
TO co(f)eXtp.a)TaTov, /cat t6^ ^Xa^epcoraTOV /cat to 
LaxvpoTaTov /cat to paarov elTretv." 

" ^Ap* ovv direKplvaTO /cat SteAucre tovtcov 
CKaa-Tov; " 

" OvTOis," 6 NetAo^evoj e<j)y)' " /cptVeTC 8 
u/iet? d/couoavTes'. Trepl ttoXXov yap 6 ^aatXevs 
153 TTotetTat /xTyTC avKO(f)avTa>v dXdJvai to.? dTTOKpiaeis, 
et Te Tt CT^aAAerat /caTO, Tayra? o' dTTOKpLvdfievos, 
TOVTO p,7] hia(j)vy€iv dve^eXeyKTOv. avayvcocroixai, 
S* u/xtt- (ZoTTcp direKpivaTO' 



'T 
'T 
'T 
*T 
'T 
'T 
'T 



Trpeo^vTaTov; ' ' xpovos-' 
fxeyiOTOv; ' ' Koafios.' 
<JO(f)ci)TaTov ; ' ' dXijdeia. 
koXXlotov ; ' ' <f>djs.' 
KoivoTaTov ; ' ' OdvaTog.' 
<l)<f>eXip.(x}TaTov ; ' ' deog.' 
pXa^epcoTaTov ; SaLjxojv. 



^ ravTi^ Reiske : rouTt^. 
2 t6 added by Hercher. * 6 added by Wyttenbach. 

» Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraec. ii. p. 708, Archilochus, No. 
384 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 152-153 

the letter and take advantage of the fact that the 
men are all here together." 

" Well, in truth," said Neiloxenus, " the demand 
of the Ethiopian can hardly be called anything 
but a ' depressing cryptic dispatch,' " to borrow a 
phrase from ArchilochuSjbutyour friend Amasisis more 
civihzed and cultivated in proposing such questions ; 
for he bade the king name the oldest thing, the most 
beautiful, the greatest, the wisest, the most common, 
and besides these, as I can attest, to name also the 
most helpful thing and the most harmful, and the 
strongest and the easiest." 

" Did the Ethiopian king give an answer and a 
solution for each of these questions ? " 

" Yes, in his way," said Neiloxenus, " but you 
must judge for yourselves when you hear his answers. 
For my king holds it to be a very important matter 
not to be caught impugning the answers falsely ; 
and likewise, if the respondent is making any slip in 
these, he would not have this pass unquestioned, I 
will read the answers of the Ethiopian as he gave 
them : 

(a) ' What is the oldest thing ? ' ' Time.' 

(6) ' What is the greatest ? ' ' The universe.' 

(c) * What is the wisest ? ' ' Truth.' 

(d) ' What is the most beautiful ? ' * Light.' 

(e) ' What is most common ? ' * Death.' 
(/) • What is most helpful ? ' ' God.' 

(g) * What is most harmful ? ' ' An evil spirit.' 

89. The reference is to a well-known form of cipher message 
in use among the Spartans. A narrow leather thong was 
wrapped around a cylinder, and on the surface thus formed 
the message was written. When the thong was received 
it was applied to a duplicate cylinder kept by the recipient, 
and so the message was read. 

385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(153) Tt pwixaXecorarov ; ' ' rvxt]-' 

1 1 paarov; rjov. 

9. TovTcov TToiXiv avayvioadevTOiv , c5 Ni/<rap;^e, 

y€voii4vris aicoTTTJs QaX-qs rjpu)T7](7€ rov NctAd^evoi/ 

et TTpoarjKaro ras Xvaeis 6 "AjxacrLS. eKCivov 8' 

eiTTovTOS ore rag ixkv aTreSe^aro Tat? 8' ehvoKoXaive, 

B " Kai firjv ovhiv," elnev 6 QaXrjs, " aveTriXriTnov 
eariv, aXX e^et Travra hiajiaprias fxeydXas koL 
ayvoias. olov evdvs 6 xpovos ttcos av etTj Trpea^v- 
rarov, et to p-ev avrov yeyovog ro S' iveaTcos 
eart ro Se pbiXXov; 6 yap jtie^' 'fip.d.s €a6p,€Vog 
Xpovos /cat TTpaypLOLTiov rojv vvv koL avdpcoTTcov 
veojrepos av <j>av€ir]. to Se t')7v aXrideiav rjyelo-dat 
aoi^Lav ouSet' e/xot So/cet Stac^e'petv rov ro (f>cos 
o(f)daXp,6v a7TO(j>aLveiv . et Se to (f>(jjs KaXov, 
ojairep earlv,^ evopnt^e, ttcos rov rjXiov avrov 
TrapetSe; rcov S' dXXcov rj p,€v rrepl dewv /cat 
8atp,6v(jov drroKpicTLs dpdaos ^X^^ '^^'' k^vSvvov, 

C aXoyiav Se /cat ttoXXt^v tj irepl rrjs rvx^]?' ov yap 
av p,€r€7TnTr€ pahLcos ovrcos, laxvporarov ovaa 
rcov ovrcov /cat pcop-aXecorarov. ov prjv ovS* a 
Bavarog Koivorarov eariv ov yap ion irpos rovs 
Ccbvras. dAA' iva p,r] So/caijLtev evdvveiv rds rcov 
iripcov d7TO(f)da€is, tSt'a?* Tat? eKeivov napa- 
^dXcopev epiavrov Se Trapexco npcorov, et ^ovXerai 
NeiAd^evo?, ipcordv /ca^' eKaarov. cog ovv iye- 

■^ KaKbv ibcnrep ecrrlv Reiske : iccnrep koKSv iariv. 
* dTTo^djets, t'St'as F.C. B. : iS'ias diroipdcreii : Paton would 
merely read ra for ras. 

386 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 153 

(A) ' What is strongest ? ' ' Fortune.' 
(t) ' What is easiest ? ' ' Pleasure.' " 
9. After this second reading, there was silence for 
a time, and then Thales asked Neiloxenus if Amasis 
had approved the answers. When Neiloxenus 
replied that Amasis had accepted some, but was 
much dissatisfied with others, Thales said, " As a 
matter of fact there is not a thing in them that cannot 
be impugned, but they all contain gross errors and 
evidences of ignorance. For instance, in the very 
first one, how can time be the oldest thing if a part of 
it is past, a part present, and a part future ? " For 
the time which is to come would clearly be younger 
than events and persons that now are. And to hold 
that truth is wisdom seems to me no different from 
declaring that light is the eye. If he thought the 
light beautiful, as it really is, how did he come to 
overlook the sun itself? Among the others the 
answer about gods and evil spirits e\inces boldness 
and daring, but the one about Fortune contains 
much bad logic ; for Fortune would not be so fickle 
about abiding with one if it were the mightiest and 
strongest thing in existence. Nor is death, in fact, 
the most common thing ; for it does not affect the 
living.'' But, to avoid giving the impression of merely 
passing judgement upon the statements of others, 
let us compare answers of our own with his. And I 
offer myself as the first, if Neiloxenus so desires, to 
be questioned on each topic ; and taking the questions 

" Plutarch, Moralia, 1081 c-1082 d, argues at some length 
about the Stoic conception of time. 

" Probably an adaptation of one of Epicurus's " leading 
principles," 6 6dvaTo% ovMv irp6$ 7]ixa%, " death is nothing to 
us," who are slive. Cf. Diogenes Laertius, x. 139, and 
Plutarch, Moralia, 37 a. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(153) vovTO Tore, Kayoj vvv StT^yrycro/Liat ras epcuTT^crets 
Kal ras aTTOKpiaeis' 

' Tt TTpea^vrarov ; ' ' deos,' " €(f>7] QaXrjs' " * dyev- 
vrjTov yap eari.' 

' Tt fxeyiarov; ' ' tottos' rdXXa fiev yap 6 
D Koofios, rov 8e Koafiov ovros TrepLex^i.' 

' Ti KoXKiaTov ; ' ' Koa/xos' ttov yap to Kara 
TOL^iv TOVTOV fJiepos iari.' 

' Tt cro(f)d)rarov ; ' )(povos' ra fiev yap evprj- 

K€V OVTOS yj^Tj, TO. 8' eVpTjUei.' 

' Ti Koivorarov; ' ' iXiris' /cat yap ots aAAo 
fxrjhlv, avTT] ndpeari.' 

' Tt oK^eAtjLtdjTaTor; ' aper-q' /cat yap raAAa 
Tco )(^prja6ai KaXoJg oi^e'AtjLia Trotet. 

* Tt ^Xa^epcorarov ; ' ' KaKia' /cat yap rd 
TrAetCTxa^ ^XdiTTei Trapayevofievr] .' 

' Tt laxvporarov ; ' ' dvdyKrf p.6vov yap d- 

VLK7JTOV.' 

' Tt paarov; ' ' to Kara (f)vaLv, CTrel irpos 
rjBovds ye TToXXaKis dTrayopevovaiv .' " 
E 10. 'ATTobe^afxevcov 8e navTcov rov QaXrjv, 6 
KXeoScopos eiTTe, " roiavr^ epojrdv Kal aTTOKpiveadai 
^aaiXevaiv, <L NetAo^ei^e, TrpoarJKov eajiv 6 8e Trpo- 
7TLva>v rrjV ddXarrav 'A/xctcrtSt fiap^apos eSeiro rrjs 
TlirraKov ^paxvXoylas, fj Trpos ^AXvdrrrjv ^xprj- 
aaro rrpoardrrovrd ri Kal ypd<f>ovra Aea^iois 

^ TrXetora] xPV<'"''o-> Stobaeus, ii. 21. 
* TOiavTa] Tocravra most MSS. 

" Either Thales or a copyist has transposed (c) and (d). 

* Most of these sentiments are attributed to Thales in works 
of other authors, as well as in other places in the Moralia, 

388 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 153 

in the order given,« I will repeat them, together with 
my answers ^ : 

(a) ' What is the oldest thing ? * ' God,' " said 
Thales, " ' for God is something that has no beginning.' 

(b) ' What is greatest ? ' ' Space ; for while the 
universe contains within it all else, this contains the 
universe.' 

(c) ' What is most beautiful ? ' ' The Universe ; 
for everything that is ordered as it should be is a 
part of it.' 

(d) ' What is wisest ? ' ' Time ; for it has dis- 
covered some things already, and shall discover all 
the rest.' 

(e) ' What is most common ? ' ' Hope ; for those 
who have nothing else have that ever with them.' 

(/) ' What is most helpful ? ' ' Virtue ; for it 
makes everything else helpful by putting it to a 
good use.' 

(g) ' What is most harmful ? ' * Vice ; for it harms 
the greatest number of things by its presence.' 

(h) ' What is strongest ? ' ' Necessity ; for that 
alone is insuperable.' 

(t) ' What is easiest ? ' 'To follow Nature's 
course ; because people often weary of pleasures.' " 

10. When all had expressed their satisfaction with 
Thales, Cleodorus said, " Asking and answering such 
questions is all right for kings. But the barbarian 
who would have Amasis drink up the ocean to do him 
honour needed the terse retort which Pittacus used 
to Alyattes, when the latter wrote and sent an over- 
bearing command to the Lesbians. The only answer 

It may suffice here to refer, for example, to Diogenes Laertius, 
i. 35. The two numbered (/) and {ff) are rather suggestive 
of the Stoic school of philosophy. 

389 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

VTTepri^avov , oLTTOKpLvdfxevos ovBev dAA' rj fxovov 

KeXevaas Kpofifiva /cat depfxov aprov iadUiv." 

'YTToXa^ojv ovv 6 liepiavSpos " dXXa fjiT]v," ^<f>'r], 

Kai Tols TToXaioZs "EAArjcrtv' edo? rjv, cL KAeoScope, 

F TOtayras' dXXrqXoLS drropLas Trpo^dXXeiv. dKovop,€V 

yap OTL Kal irpos rd? 'A/x^tSa^avro? ra(f)ds els 

XaA/ctSa TOJv Tore ao^cbv ol hoKipbdiraroi TTOLrjTal 

avvrjXOov '^v S' o 'A/X(^t8a/xas' dvrjp iroXepLiKos , koL 

TToXXd TTpdyfiara irapaaxdjv 'E/aerptetiCTiv ev rats 

wept A.r]XdvTov^ fjLd)(aig erreaev. eTrel 8e to. Trap- 

eaKevaajJieva rots TTOi-qTols CTTrj )(aXe7Trjv /cat hva- 

KoXov irroLei rrjv Kpicriv Sta ro e<f)dpnXXov, T] re So^a 

rcjv ay<x)vt,(jTcov , 'Oji-qpov /cat 'HatoSof, voXXrju 

154 dnoptav pier alSovs tols Kpivovai TrapeZx^v, erpd- 

rrovTO TTpos roLavras epojrijcreis, Kal Trpoe^aX* 6 

fiev, CO? cf>r]aL^ Aeax'r]?, 

MouCTa jjLOL evveTTe Kelva, rd p^riT' eyevovro Trdpoide 
fiT]T* earai fxeroTTLadev, 

drreKpivaTO 8' 'HatoSo? e/c rov TraparvxdvTOS 

dXX orav dp,(f)l Atoj TVjjL^a) KavaxT]Tro8es lttttoo 
appiara avvrpi^toaiv eTreiyopievoi Trepl viktjs- 

Kal Sta TOVTo Aeyerat pidXtaTa davp.aadels rov 
rpiTToSos rvxelv." 

" Ti Se ravd\" 6 KXeohcopos eiTre, " hia^epei 
B tcDp' EujLtTjTtSo? alvLypLaroiV ; d ravrrjv /xev tcro*? 

^ Ar]\di>Tov Wyttenbach : XaXdvrov or \i\dvTov. 
* 057(Tt] 0o(rt in some mss. 

" "Iffov T(? KXaleiv was the old explanation ; that is, " weep," 
or " go hang." 

^ Some MSS. make Lesches propound the question, and 
other tradition makes Hesiod the questioner, to whom Homer 
replies. Cf. note c below. 

390 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 153-154, 

he made was to tell Alyattes to eat onions and hot 
bread."" 

Periander now entered into the conversation, and 
said, " Nevertheless it is a fact, Cleodorus, that the 
ancient Greeks also had a habit of propounding such 
perplexing questions to one another. For we have 
the story that the most famous poets among the wise 
men of that time gathered at Chalcis to attend the 
funeral of Amphidamas. Now Amphidamas was a 
warrior who had given much trouble to the Eretrians, 
and had fallen in one of the battles for the possession 
of the Lelantine plain. But since the verses com- 
posed by the poets made the decision a difficult and 
troublesome matter because they were so evenly 
matched, and since the repute of the contestants, 
Homer and Hesiod, caused the judges much per- 
plexity as well as embarrassment, the poets resorted 
to questionings of this sort, and Homer, as Lesches 
asserts, *" propounded this : 

Tell me, O Muse, of events which never have happened 

aforetime. 
Nor in the future shall ever betide, 

and Hesiod answered quite off-hand : 

When round Zeus in his tomb rush the steeds with gallop- 
ing hoof -beats, 
Crashing car against car, as they eagerly run for a trophy. 

And for this it is said that he gained the greatest 
admiration and won the tripod." " 

" But what difference is there," said Cleodorus, 
" between things like this and Eumetis's riddles ? 

' It is of interest to compare the long and variant account 
given in the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, a work of the 
second century a.d. which is usually included at the end of 
editions of Hesiod, also in the 5th vol. of the edition of Homer 
in the Oxford Classical Texts. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(154) ovK aTTpeTTes iari irait^ovaav kol SiaTrXcKovaav 
axTTTep erepai t^covia /cat K€Kpv(f)dXovs Trpo^aXXeiv 
Tois yvvai^iv, avSpas 8e vovv exovras ev tlvi 
OTTOvSj] rideadai yeXolov." 

*H jxkv ovv EtVjXTjTLS 17860)$' av eLTTovad ri vpos 
avTov, CVS i(j>aivero, Kareax^v iavrrjv vtt* aiSovs, 
/cat dveTrXrjadri to TrpoacoTTOv ipvO-qfiaTOS' 6 S 
AtacoTTos OLov dp.vv6p.evos VTrep avTrjs " ov yeXoio- 
Tepov ovv," etTre, " to p.rj Svvaadai ravra SiaXveiv, 
OLOV iariv o p,LKp6v epurpoadev rjpuv rov SetWov 
TTpoe^aXev, 

dvSp* etSov TTvpl ;^aA/c6p' eTr' dvepi KoXX'qaavTa; 

TL TOUT ear IV exois dv elirelv; " 
C " 'AAA' ovhe piadeiv Seojaat," €.(j>r] 6 KAcoSoj/aos'. 

" Kat p.T)v ovheis," €(f)ri, " aov^ rovro p,dXXov 
olSev ouSe 770tet ^eXriov et S' dpinj, p.dpTvpas €X(0 
aiKvas}" 

*0 /xev ovv KAedScopos" lyiXaae' /cat yap ixp'^TO 
/LtaAtcrra rats' crt/cuats'^ tcov Kad' avrov larpcov, /cat 
So^av ovx rJKiara to PoT^6r)p,a tovto 8t' eKelvov 
eax'TjKe. 

11. MvT^crt^tAo? S' o ^AOrjvalos, eTotpos wv Kat. 

^rjXcoTTjs SoAo^vo?, " iyo) rot," cittcv, " (L Ilept- 

avBpe, Tov Xoyov d^tcD Kaddvep tov olvov p,r] ttXov- 

D Tivhrfv p.7]h^ dpLGTivSrjv dAA' e^ lgov irdaiv woTrep 

iv h'qp.oKpaTLa vipieadai kol kolvov elvai' toDv S 

^ i(t>-r) (xov Meziriacus : ^(p-q^e. 
* Most MSs. have aiKvuvla^ and aiKvoiviMi. 

" Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii. p. 440, Cleobulina, No. 1. 

* Mnesiphilus, according to Plutarch, Life of Themistocles, 
chap. ii. (p. 112 d), handed down the political wisdom of 
392 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 154 

Perhaps it is not unbecoming for her to amuse herself 
and to weave these as other girls weave girdles and 
hair-nets, and to propound them to women, but the 
idea that men of sense should take them at all 
seriously is ridiculous." 

Eumetis, to judge by her appearance, would have 
liked to give him an answer, but restrained herself 
with all modesty, and her face was covered with 
blushes. But Aesop, as though he would take her 
part, said, " Is it not then even more ridiculous not 
to be able to solve these ? Take, for instance, the 
one wliich she propounded to us a few minutes before 
dinner : 

Sooth I have seen a man with fire fasten bronze on another." 

Could you tell me what this is ? " 

" No," said Cleodorus, " and I don't want to be 
told, either." 

" Yet it is a fact," said Aesop, " that nobody knows 
this more perfectly than you, or does it better, either ; 
and if you deny this, I have cupping-glasses to testify 
to it." 

At this Cleodorus laughed ; for of all the physicians 
of his time he was most given to the use of cupping- 
glasses, and it was largely owing to him that this 
form of treatment has come to have such repute. 

11. Mnesiphilus the Athenian,^ a warm friend and 
admirer of Solon's, said, " I think it is no more than 
fair, Periander, that the conversation, like the wine, 
should not be apportioned on the basis of wealth or 
rank, but equally to all, as in a democracy, and that 

Solon to Themistocles. At any rate Herodotus, viii. 57, 
represents Mnesiphilus as advising Themistocles against 
withdrawing the Greek fleet from Salamis. C/. also 
Plutarch, Moralia, 869 d-e. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(154) apri nepl o.px'rjs Kal jSacriAeia? elprjfxevojv ovSev 
r)ijuv TOLS SrjfioTiKols ixereariv. odev olofxeOa Selv 
ttolXlv cKaarov vficov Trepl TToXireias laovopLOV yvoj- 
pbrjv riva avfi^aXeaOac, dp^afxevovs avdis o-tto 
HoXojvos." 

ESoKrei 87^ Tttura TToieZv. /cat Trpcoros 6 SoAwv 
' aAA' d/CTy/coas" p.iv," elirev, " c5 Mn^ai^iAe, pL^ra 
TTavTOJV Adr^vatcov tJv e)(0) yvcoprjv vepl TToXireias' 
el Se ^ovXei /cat vvv aKoveiv, hoKeZ not ttoXis 
apiara TrpdrreLv /cat jxdXiara cra)t,€LV SrjjjiOKpaTiav, 
Fi ip fj Tov dSiKT^aavTa tov dSiKrjdevTOS ovSev tjttov 
OL p,r] ahiKr]dlvT€s Trpo^dXXovraL /cat /coAd^oucrt. 

Aevrepos S' o Bta? €(f)r]a€^ KpaTiarrjv elvai 
hrjixoKpariav iv fj Trdvres co? rvpavvov ^o^ovvTai 

TOV VOfMOV. 

'Etti TovTcp QaXrjs r-qv pi-qre irXovalovs dyav 
IXT]T€ Triviqras exovaav noXiras. 

Merd Se rovrov 6 * Avdxo.pai's^ iv fj rcov aXXoiv 
Laojv vop,L^oijL€vcov dp€T7J TO ^cXtlov 6pit,eTai, /cat 
/ca/cta* TO ;;^etpot'. 

YiepTTTos 8' d KAed^ovAo? e(/)T7 pdXiara aco^po- 
veZv hrjpov ottov tov ipoyov pdXXov oi TToXtTevo- 
pevoL SeSoiKaaLV -q tov vopov. 

"E/CTO? 8' d* TLlTTaKOS, OTTOV TOt? TTOVrjpOtS OVK 

c^eaTiv dpx^iv /cat Tot? dya^ot? ovk e^eoTi prj 
dpx^^v. 
F McTao-Tpa^ets' 8' d Xt'Acoi' dTre^T^vaTO ttjv 

^ ^(p7j Stobaeus, Florilegium, xliii. 131. 

* 'AvdxoLpais] Ufpiavdpoi Stobaeus, xliii. 131. 
' Kada [KaKlg. Pflugk) 5^ Stobaeus, xliii. 131. 

* S' 6 Bernardakis : 5^. 

* /u.eTaffTpa<f>els Hartman and F.C.B. independently : fiera- 
TpaTTch, omitted by Stobaeus, I.e. 

S.94 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 154 

it should be general. Now in what has just been said 
dealing >\ith dominion and kingdom, we who Uve under 
a popular government have no part. Therefore I 
think that at this time each of you ought to contribute 
an opinion on the subj ect of republican government, 
beginning again ■with Solon." 

It was accordingly agreed to do this, and Solon 
began by saying, " But you, Mnesiphilus, as well as 
all the rest of the Athenians, have heard the opinion 
which I hold regarding government. However, if 
you wish to hear it again now, I think that a State 
succeeds best, and most effectively perpetuates 
democracy, in which persons uninjured by a crime, 
no less than the injured person, prosecute the criminal 
and get him punished." 

Second was Bias, who said that the most excellent 
democracy was that in which the people stood in as 
much fear of the law as of a despot. 

Follo>\ing him Thales said that it was the one 
having citizens neither too rich nor too poor. 

After him Anacharsis said that it was the one in 
which, all else being held in equal esteem, what is 
better is determined by virtue and what is worse 
by vice. 

Fifth, Cleobulus said that a people was most 
righteous whose public men dreaded censure more 
than they dreaded the law. 

Sixth, Pittacus said that it was where bad men are 
not allowed to hold office, and good men are not 
allowed to refuse it. 

Chilon, turning to the other side," declared that the 

" Chilon, a rather strict Spartan (c/. 152 d supra), is 
impatient of opinions which suggest that the attitude of the 
people is more important than the law. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

/LtaAiora vofioiv riKiara Se prjropcov oLKovovaav 
TToXneiav dpLcrrrjv cTvai. 

leXevraXos 8e ttolXlv 6 IlepLavSpos eTTLKpLvcov 
e(f)r] SoKelv avru) Trdvras eTraivetv Srjp^oKpaTiav rriv 
op^oiOTarrjv dpLGTOKparia. 

12. "TeXos 8e Kal rovrov rod Xoyov Xa^ovTOS 
7]qiovv iyw Kal Trepl olkov f) ^prjareov €ltt€lv 
rovs dvSpas rjp-lv " ^aaiXecas [xev yap /cat TToXeig 
oAiyot KV^epviocrLV, earias 8e Trdaiv rjpZv /cat oIkov 
fiereart." 

FeAciCTas" oSv 6 AtacoTTOs, " ovk, etye Ta)v rrdv- 
155 TcoVj e(f>r], " /cat 'Avd^apaiv dpidfiils' tovto) yap 
OLKos OVK eartv, oAAci /cat aefxvvverai rep doiKos 
CLvat, ;^/37^cr^at 8' dpid^r), Kaddirep rov tJXlov iv 
appbari Xeyovcn nepiTToXeiv, dXXoT aXX-qv eTTt- 
V€p,6p.€Vov rod ovpavov ;)^6L>/3av." 

at o Avaxapcri's , oia tovto rot, eiTre^, i] 
fiovos T] pidXiOTa Twv decJov iXevdepos ioTi Kal 
avTovofios, Kal Kparel TrdvTCOv, /c/aaretrat S' vtt* 
ovSevos, dXXd ^aaiXevei Kal rjviox^l. ttXtjv are ye 
TO dpp,a XeXrjdev avTOV, d)S virepcfjves /caAAet /cat 
B jxeyedei davpudaiov cgtiv ov yap dv Trait^cov enl 
yeXoiTL Trape^aXes eKelvo tols rjpieTepois- oIkov Se 
fioi So/cetj, cS AtCTcuTre, raurt to. TT-qXiva Kal ^vXiva 
Kal Kepafied aTeydap.aTa vop^it^eLv, watrep el ko- 
xXlav rjyoLO to KeXv^os, dXXd prj to t,(pov. cIkotcos 
ovv aoL yeXiOTa Trapecrx^v 6 HoXcdv, otl tov 
K^polaov TTjv oiKiav K€Koa]ji,'qp,€vr)v TToXvreXcos 6ea- 
S96 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 154-155 

best government is that which gives greatest heed 
to laws and least heed to those who talk about them. 

Finally, Periander once more concluded the dis- 
cussion with the decisive remark, that they all 
seemed to him to approve a democracy which was 
most like an aristocracy. 

12. When this discussion had come to an end, I 
said that it seemed to me to be only fair that these 
men should tell us how a house should be managed. 
" For," said I, " but few persons are in control of 
kingdoms and states, whereas we all have to do with 
a hearth and home." 

Aesop laughed and said, " Not all, if you include 
also Anacharsis in our number ; for not only has he 
no home, but he takes an immense pride in being 
homeless and in using a wagon, after the manner in 
which they say the sun makes his rounds in a chariot, 
occupying now one place and now another in the 
heavens." 

" And that, I would have you know," said 
Anacharsis, " is precisely the reason why he solely 
or pre-eminently of all the gods is free and inde- 
pendent, and rules over all and is ruled by none, but 
is king, and holds the reins. Only you seem to have 
no conception of his chariot, how surpassing it is in 
beauty, and wondrous in size ; else you would not, 
even in jest, have humorously compared it to ours. 
It seems to me, Aesop, that your idea of a home is 
limited to these protective coverings made of mortar, 
wood, and tiles, just as if you were to regard a 
snail's shell, and not the creature itself, as a snail. 
Quite naturally, then, Solon gave you occasion to 
laugh, because, when he had looked over Croesus's 
house with its costly furnishings, he did not instantly 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(155) aafjLevos ovk evdvs dTr€<f>'qvaTO tov K€KT7)fxevov 
evBacjjLOvcos OLKeZv Kal fxaKapicog, are 8rj rcov ev 
avTO) jaaAAov dyadaJv ^ rcov Trap' avro) ^ovXo- 
fxevos yeveadai dear')]?' av S' eoiKas ovBe ttjs 
aeavTov fxin^fioveveiv dXwTreKos. CKeiiTj jxev yap 
€Ls aywva TTOiKiXias Karacrrdaa irpos ttjv rrdpSaXiv 
rj^LOV rd ivros avrijs KaTafxadeXv rov SLKacrTrjv, 
C TTOiKiXojTcpa yap CKeXdev (f)aveladai- av 8e to, 
reKTOvojv /cat Xido^ocov epya TrepivoarreXs, oIkov 
rjyovfievos, ov ra ivros eKaarov Kal oLKela, TratSaj 
KaL ydjjiov /cat ^tAouj /cat depajrovras, ols Koiv iv 
IxvpfjLTjKLa Tts t) veoTTid vovv exovai /cat awcfipo- 
vovari. Koivojinj tcov VTTap)(6vTO)v, ^^/jr^crTov oIkov 
oiKet /cat jjuaKapiov. iydj fxev odv," ecjjrj, " ravra 
/cat 77pos" AtcrwTTov aTTOKplvojjiai /cat Ato/cAet avfi- 
^dXXojjLai,' Tcbv 8' ctAAtop' €KaoTos d7TO(f>alv€adai 
St/catos" icTTL T7]v iavTov yva)p,r]v." 

TovTov ovv dpiarov 6 HoXcov elrrev avrco So/cetv 
OLKOV,^ OTTOV Tct )(p'qfiaTa^ iirjTe KTCoiJievoLS dSt/cta 
D fjLijre (jivXarTovaiv dTncTTca fjLrjre Sanavcbai, fierd- 
voia TTpoaearLV. 

'0 Se Bta? ev <5 toiovtos ecrrtv o SecrTrorTjs" St' 
avTOV olos efo) 8ta tov vopiov. 

'0 Se GaA^s ei/ & TrXeCdTT^v dyeiv tu> heaTTOTQ 
a-)(oXrjv e^ecTTLV. 

^ TovTov . . . olKOf Stobaeus, FlorUegium, Ixxxv. 14, and 
one MS. : oi^rws 6 'ZbXiav dpicrroi' avrw doKeiv oIkov eiTrev most MSS. 
* XpviJ-oi-Ta] KTTjfiaTa Stobaeus, ibid., and one MS. 

" Herodotus, i. 30. Plutarch, Life of Solon, chap, xxviii. 
(p. 94 c), represents Aesop as being present on this occasion. 

*• No. 159 in the collection of fables that passes under the 
name of Aesop ; repeated also by Plutarch, Moralia, 500 c. 

398 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 155 

declare that the owner led a happy and blessed 
existence therein, for the good reason that he Avished 
to have a look at the good -within Croesus rather 
than at his good surroundings." But you, apparently, 
do not remember your own fox.* For the fox, 
ha\'ing entered into a contest with the leopard to 
determine which was the more ingeniously coloured, 
insisted it was but fair that the judge should note 
carefully what was within her, for there she said she 
should show herself more ingenious. But you go 
about, inspecting the works of carpenters and stone- 
masons, and regarding them as a home, and not the 
inward and personal possessions of each man, his 
children, his partner in marriage, his friends, and 
servants ; and though it be in an ant-hill or a bird's 
nest, yet if these are possessed of sense and discretion, 
and the head of the family shares with them all his 
worldly goods, he dwells in a goodly and a happy 
home. This then," said he, " is my answer to Aesop's 
insinuation, and my contribution to Diodes. And 
now it is but right that each of the others should 
disclose his own opinion." 

Thereupon Solon said that the best home seemed 
to him to be where no injustice is attached to the 
acquisition of property, no distrust to keeping it, 
and no repentance to spending it. 

Bias said, " It is the home in which the head of the 
household, because of his own self, maintains the 
same character that he maintains outside of it because, 
of the law." 

Thales said, " The home in which it is possible for 
the head of the household to have the greatest 
leisure." 



399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(155) §€ KAed^ouAoj ei TrXelovas exoL rajv (fjo^ov- 
fxevcov avrov rovs (f>iXovvTag 6 SeaTTorr]?. 

oe HirraKos CLTrev cos" dptaros oIkos iartv 6 
ru)v TTepnra>v firjSevos Seofxevos^ kol rcov avay- 
Katoiv [XTjSevog ivSeofxevos. 

8e XiAfor e^Ty Selv fxaXtaTa PaatXevofievrj 

TToAet 7Tpoa€OlK€Vat, TOV OLKOV. €lTa TTpoa€7T€l7T€V 

OTL /cat AvKovpyos Trpos tov KeXevovra Srjfio- 

E Kpariav ev rfj TroAet Karaarrjaai, " Trpcoros,"^ ^i^l* 

TTOiTjcrov iv rfj olKia aov hrjpLOKpariav ." 

13. Ettci 8e Kal ovros ecrx^v 6 Xoyos reXos, 17 

[xev "EvjxrjTts i^rjXde fxera ttjs MeAto-orTj?, tov Se 

UepidvSpov TO) Xt'Acui't TTpoTTiovros evfieyedrj 

KvXiKa, TO) 8e BtavTi tou Xt'Acovos", "ApSaXos ctt- 

avaaras /cat irpoaayopevaas tov Alctcottov, " av 8' 

oi5/c av," €(f>r], " SiaTTefju/jaLo hevpo to TTOTqptov 

-npos rjiJiOiSy opcbv tovtovs warrep rrjv BadvKXeovs 

KvXiKa hiaTTeinTop.evovs dAATyAot?, irepo) Se ixt) 

HeraStSovTas ; " 

F Kat o AtacoTTOS, " dAA' ovSe tovt ," et^rj, " to 

TTOT'qpLov SrjixoTLKov eoTi^' YioXoivi yap e/CTraAai 

Trapd/cetrat fxovco." 

Tov ovv Mvrjai(f)LXov Trpocrayopevcras 6 ITtTra/cos' 
rip(x)T7]ae ri ov Trivet, HoXcov dAAd KaTajxapTvpel tcov 
TTOLrjfiaTCOv iv ots yiypa<j>€v, 

* firjdevbi Sedfievos Stobaeus, ibid., not in mss. 

* Trpwros] TTpwTov Stobaeus. 

' eo-Ti F.C.B. : elvai (probably due to ^^ij). 

400 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 155 

Cleobulus said, " If the head of the household have 
more who love him than fear him." 

Pittacus said that the best home is that which 
needs nothing superfluoxis, and lacks nothing 
necessary. 

Chilon said that the home ought to be most like to 
a State ruled by a king ; and then he added that 
Lycurgus said to the man who urged him to establish 
a democracy in the State, " Do you first create a 
democracy in your own house." " 

13. When this discussion had come to its end, 
EumetLs \\-ithdrew, accompanied by Melissa. Then 
Periander drank to Chilon in a big beaker, and 
Chilon did the same to Bias, whereupon Ardalus 
arose, and addressing himself to Aesop, said, " Won't 
you send the cup over here to us, seeing that these 
people are sending it to and fro to one another as 
though it were the beaker of Bathycles,* and are not 
giving anybody else a chance at it ? " 

And Aesop said, " But this cup is not democratic 
either, since it has been resting all the time by Solon 
only." 

Thereupon Pittacus, addressing Mnesiphilus, asked 
why Solon did not drink, but by his testimony was 
discrediting the verses in which he had written " 

" Repeated in Moralia, 189 e, 228 d, and Li/g of Lycurgus, 
chap. xix. (p. 52 a). 

* Bathycles in his will left his beaker to the most helpful 
of the wise men. It was given to Thales, and he passed it 
on to another of the wise men, who in turn gave it to another 
until finally it came back to Thales again, and he dedicated 
it to Apollo. Cf. Diogenes Laertius, i. 28, and Plutarch, 
Life of Solon, chap. iv. (p. 80 e). 

* Plutarch quotes these lines also in Moralia, 751 e, and 
Life of Solan, chap. xxxi. (p. 96 e) ; cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 
Gr. ii. p. 430, Solon, No. 26. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

€pya Se K^VTrpoyevovs vvv fjioi ^t'Aa /cat Aiovvaov 
/cat Movaeojv, d ridrja* dvSpdcrtv €v<f>poavvas . 

Y7TO(f)6daas 8' ^Avdxo-pcri'S " ok ydp, c5 ntrra/ce, 
Kat Tov GOV eKelvov top -^(aXeTTOV ^o^etrat vojjlov, 
iv o) y€ypa(f)as 'Eav ris otiovv fxedvcov dp,dpTQ, 
hnrXaaiav rj ro) v'q(f)OVTL rrjv ^rjfxtav elvai." 

at o lltrra/cos', cry oe y , enrev, ovrcog 
e^v^picras elg rov vofxov, coare Ttipvai irap 
'AA/catoy^ aSeA^o) fxedvadels^ ddXov alrelv /cat 
aT€<f)avov." 
156 " Tt 8' ovK efxeXXov," e^rj 6 'Amp^a/jat?, " t<3 
TrXelaTOv ttlovtl TrpoKetfievcov ddXcov Trpcoros p-G- 
dvadels dTTaiTelv ro viK-qrrjpLOV ; r^ hthd^are p,* 
vp,€Ls, Tt reXos iarl rov ttoXvv TneZv aKparov tj 
TO peduadrjvaL." 

Tov Se ITtTTaKoy yeXdaavros 6 AtacoTTos Xoyov 
€?77e TOiovTOV " XvKos IScbv TTOipivas iadiovras iv 
aKrjvfj TTpo^arov eyyvs rrpocjeXdcov, ' tjXlkos av r^v, 
€(1)7), ' dopv^os vplv, et eyd> rovr* eTToiovv.' " 

Kat o XtAcov " opOaJs," €(j)7], " Algcottos 
rjpvvaro, p,iKp6v epirpoadev eTnaropLadels vc/) 
rjpciJv, etra vvv opwv irepovs rov MvrjaL(j)iXov 
Xoyov v^rj prraKor as' Mv7]Gi(f>LXos ydp fjr'qdrj rrjV 
virep HoXcuvos dnoKpiatv." 
B " Kat Aeyco/ " o Mvr]aL(f)iXos ciTrev, " €lSd>s ort 

^ Trap' 'AXkuIov E. Capps ; irapa. Ai^ovrdSri Ae\4>(2 Madvig : 
Trapa Ad^vi tQ AeXcpt^ the last guess of Wilamowitz-Moellen- 
dorff: the mss. have Trapa, AL^vt' or irapb. Ai^vi t' or irapd, 
Al^vL Tif} or yap Kal vvvl om. dSeX^cp. Athenaeus, 437 f, 
unhickily does not help. 

^ TTpuTos fiedvadels is strongly suggested by Athenaeus, 
437 F. 

' Xdyu Wyttenbach : Xiyuv. 

402 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 155-156 

Give me the tasks of the Cyprus-born goddess and 

Lord Dionjsus, 
Yea, and the Muses besides ; tasks which bring cheer 

among men. 

Before the other could reply Anacharsis hastened 
to say, " He is afraid of you, Pittacus, and that harsh 
law of yours in which you have decreed, ' If any man 
commit any offence when drunk, his penalty shall be 
double that prescribed for the sober.' " " 

And Pittacus said, " But you at any rate showed 
such insolent disregard for the law, that last year, at 
the house of Alcaeus's brother, you were the first 
to get drunk and you demanded as a prize a wreath 
of \ictory." ^ 

" And why not ? " said Anacharsis. " Prizes were 
offered for the man who drank the most, and I was 
the first to get drunk ; why should I not have de- 
manded the reward of my \ictory ? Else do you 
instruct me as to what is the aim in drinking much 
strong ynne other than to get drunk." 

When Pittacus laughed at this, Aesop told the 
following story : "A wolf seeing some shepherds in 
a shelter eating a sheep, came near to them and said, 
' What an uproar you would make if I were doing 
that ! ' " 

" Aesop," said Chilon, " has very properly de- 
fended himself, for a few moments ago " he had his 
mouth stopped by us, and now, later, he sees that 
others have taken the words out of Mnesiphilus's 
mouth ; for it was Mnesiphilus who was asked for a 
rejoinder in defence of Solon." 

" And I speak," said Mnesiphilus, " with full 

" Pittacus's law is often referred to ; for example, Aristotle, 
Politics, ii. 12, 13 ; Nicomachean Ethics, iii. 5, 8. 
» C/. Athenaeus, 437 f. « Supra, 150 b. 

VOL. II o ^^OS 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

156) SoAcon BoKel Trdcrrjs T€xvr]S Kal bvvd^ecos dvOpco- 
7TLV7JS T€ Kal Oeias epyov elvat, to yiyvofjuevov 
jxd^ov 7] 8i' oS yiyverai, Kol to tcAos" tj rd repos 
TO reXos. v(j)dvT7]s re yap dv olfxac jj^Aa/xuSa 
TTOtTjCTatTO^ jxdXXov epyov avrov /cat IfidrLov rj 
Kavovcov hiadeaiv Kac dvdpTrjaiv'' dyvvdcov, ;^aA/<:eus' 
T€ KoXXrjaiv aihrjpov kol OToixwaiv TreAe'/cewj 
fidXXov rj rt, tcov eveKa rovrov yiyvofievcov dvay- 
Kaicov, otov dvdpdKCDV eK^coTTvprjaiv ^ XarvvTjs 
TTapaaKevrjv. en 8e ^dXXov dpxi'TeKrcov fxeixifjatT* 
dv rjixds epyov avrov fjLrj vaov^ H'V^^ OLKiav (ztto- 
C (f)aivovTas , dAAa rpvnrjaai ^vXa Kal (f)vpdaai 
7T7]X6v at 8e Mouoai /cat 7ravTa77ao-tv', el vopcL^oifjiev 
avrd)v epyov etvai, Kiddpav Kal avXovs, dXXd pirj 
TO TTaiSeveiv rd rjdrj kol 7Tapr)yopelv rd Trddr] 
rGiv ;!^/)a>/xevajv fieXeai Kal dpjxoviais. ovkovv ovSe 
rrjs 'A(^poSirr)s epyov earl avvovaia Kal fiel^is, 
ovSe rod Atovvaov fied-q Kal olvos, aAA' rjv ep,- 
TTOLovai, Sid rovrcov (f>i,Xo(f)poavvrjv Kal ttoOov Kal 
op^iXtav Tjijuv Kal (7vvT]9eiav Trpos aAATjAous" TaiJTa 
yap epya Beta KoXel 2oAa>i', Kat ravrd <j)ricnv 
dyairdv Kal BicoKeiv p,dXiara TTpea^vrn]^ yev6p,evos . 
earn 8e rrjg fiev irpds yvvaiKas dvSpcbv 6f.io^poavvr]s 
T) Kal ^tAta? SrjixLovpyos rj 'A^poStVi^, Tot? CTcu/xaatv 
v(f>' 'qSovrjs dfxa avp^pnyvvovaa /cat fffP'TT^/couo'a 
Tas" tjjvxds' roLS 8e TroAAots' /cat firj ttovv avvqdeai. 
fjirjS dyav yvixipipiois 6 Atovvaos coarrep ev rrvpl 
ra> oivcp fiaXdrrcov rd rjdr] Kal dvvypaivcov dp- 

^ iroi-^ffai.To Wyttenbach : iroirjcrai. 

* dvapTijcnv Bernardakis : aveyepinv. 

' pabi> Hatzidakis : I'aOi'. 

" Cf. Moralia, 769 a. 
404 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 156 

knowledge that it is Solon's opinion that the task of 
every art and faculty, both human and divine, is the 
thing that is produced rather than the means em- 
ployed in its production, and the end itself rather 
than the means that contribute to that end. For a 
weaver, I imagine, would hold that his task was a 
cloak or a mantle rather than the arrangement of 
shuttle-rods or the hanging of loom weights ; and so 
a smith would regard the welding of iron or the 
tempering of an axe rather than any one of the 
things that have to be done for this purpose, such as 
blowing up the fire or getting ready a flux. Even 
more would an architect find fault >\ith us, if we 
should declare that his task is not a temple or a 
house, but to bore timbers and mix mortar. And 
the Muses would most assuredly feel aggrieved, if we 
should regard as their task a lyre or flutes, and not 
the development of the characters and the soothing 
of the emotions of those who make use of songs and 
melodies. And so again the task of Aphrodite is not 
carnal intercourse, nor is that of Dionysus strong 
drink and wine, but rather the friendly feeling, the 
longing, the association, and the intimacy, one -v^ith 
another, which they create in us through these 
agencies. These are what Solon calls ' tasks divine,' 
and these he says he loves and pursues above all else, 
now that he has become an old man. And Aphrodite 
is the artisan who creates concord and friendship 
between men and women, for through their bodies, 
under the influence of pleasure, she at the same time 
unites and welds together their souls." And in the 
case of the majority of people, who are not altogether 
intimate or too well knowTi to one another, Dionysus 
softens and relaxes their characters with wine, as in 

405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(156) XW '^''^^ avyKpdaeojs Trpos olXX-qXovs koI (fyiXiag 
ivSiSojaiv. orav Se roiovroi avveXOcoaiv avhpes, 
olovs 6 IlepLavSpos Vfjids TrapaKeKXrjKCv, ovSev 
€pyov icrrlv oijjiai kvXlkos ouS' olvoxorjS, aAA' ai 
MouCTtti KadoLTTep Kparrjpa vrftjioXLOv iv /xeaoj 
TTpodipievai rov Xoyov, <S TrXetarov rjSovi^s ap,a 
/cat TraiStas' Kal aTTovSrjs 'iveariv, eyeipovai rovrco 
Koi KardpSovai Kal hiax^ovai ttjv ^iXo^poavvqv , 

E icoaai rd ttoXXo, ttjv ' olvox6r)v ' drpefxa KelaOai 
KprjTTJpos^ virepdev,' orrep dTTiqyopevaev 'HaioSos" 
ev TOLS TTCveLV fxdXXov iq BiaXeyeadai Bwafieuois.^ 
iiTel rds ye' TrpoTTocrets avrds," €<f)rj, " TTwddvofjiat 
XeiTTCtv* Tot? TToXaLOLS, €V ' hairpov,'^ ws "OpLrjpos 
€<f)r], Kal jxerprjTov eKdarov ttlvovtos, eW^ axjTrep 
Ata? fMepiSos jLieraStSovTOS' to) TrXrjalov." 

EtTTOi'Tos" Be ravra rov MvTycrt^tAou Xepcrta? o 

F TTOirjTrjs {dcf)eiTO yap tJSt) rrjs alrias Kal BirjXXaKTO 
rep YlepidvSpo) vecoari, XtAcoros' BerjOevros) " dp* 
o^v," €(f>r], " Kal rots deois 6 "Levs, axnrep rots 
dpiarevaiv 6 ^Ayafxeixvcov, fxeTprjTov ivex^i rd 
TTOTOV, ore'' TrpoenLvov dXXi^Xocs earicLpLevoi Trap 
avrw ; 

Kat o KAeoSojpo?, " ai) 8', a> Xepata," elTrev, 
" €L rrjv api^poaiav rep Au TreXeidBes rtves ko/jli- 
l^ovaiv, d)s vfiets Xeyere, rds IlAay/CTa? inrep- 

^ KprjTTjpos Hesiod : Kparijpos. 

* After dvva/jiivois some mss. have a quotation from Homer, 
//. iv. 261-3, ending with e<XTT)Kev (263). 

^ ye Reiske: re. * XetTretv F.C.B. : \^yeiv. 

* iv F.C.B., SaiTpSv Meziriacus, suggested perhaps by 
Amyot's version : ivbeivov. * 6're Meziriacus : bn. 

« Works and Days, 744. * Homer, II. iv. 262. 

* Plutarch seems to have made a natural slip in referring 

40^ 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 156 

a fire, and so provides some means for begin n i n g a 
union and friendship with one another. However, 
when such men as you, whom Periander has invited 
here, come together, I think there is nothing for the 
wine-cup or ladle to accomphsh, but the Muses set 
discourse in the midst before all, a non-intoxicating 
bowl as it were, containing a maximimi of pleasure 
in jest and seriousness combined ; and with this they 
awaken and foster and dispense friendhness, allowing 
the ' ladle,' for the most part, to lie untouched ' atop 
of the bowl ' — a thing which Hesiod " would prohibit 
in a company of men better able to drink than to 
converse. As a matter of fact," he continued, " as 
nearly as I can make out, among the men of olden 
time the practice of drinking healths was not in 
vogue, since each man drank one ' goblet,' as Homer ^ 
has said, that is a measured quantity, and later, like 
Ajax," shared a portion with his neighbour." 

When Mnesiphilus had said this, Chersias the poet ^ 
(having been already absolved from the charge 
against him, and recently reconciled with Periander 
at Chilon's solicitation) said, "Is it to be inferred, 
then, that Zeus used to pour out the drink for the 
gods also in measured quantity, as Agamemnon did 
for his nobles, when the gods, dining with Zeus, 
drank to one another ? " 

AndCleodorus said," But, Chersias, if certain doves « 
bring to Zeus his ambrosia, as you poets say, and ^ith 

this to Ajax, when, in fact. Homer records this of Odysseus 
(Od. viii. 475); Ajax, of course, was the great eater, as 
witness II. vii. 321, where Agamemnon favours Ajax with 
the sirloin and tenderloin entire. C/. also Athenaeus, 14 a. 
<* From Orchomenos in Boeotia ; he is known only from 
this essay and Pausanias, ix. 38, 9-10, where two lines of 
his (?) are quoted. * Homer, Od. xii. 62. 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

7T€TOfX€vaL p^aAeTTci)? Kal [xoXig, ov vofii^eis Kal to 
vcKTap avTco SvarToptarov elvat Kal airdvioVf 
157 coare ^etSea^at /cat 7Tap€)(€Lv e/caaro) Terafxiev- 
fidvov; " 

14. " "laws," elnev 6 Xepaias" " dAA' eVet 
TToiXiv OLKovofitas Xoyos yiyov^y ris civ vfjLcov 
<j>pda€Lev rjfiiv to dTToXenropievov ; aTToXeiTTerai, 
8' ol/xat KTT]CT€c6s Ti Xa^elv fjLerpov avrapKovs 
Kal lKavt]s iaojjievrjs." 

Kat o KXeo^ovXos, " dXXa rots fiev ao^dls," 
€(f)r}, " [xerpov 6 vojxos Se'ScD/ce, Trpog Be rovg 
(jiavXovs epo) Xoyov rr]g ip,rjs dvyarpos ov Ttpog 
Tov dS€X(f>6v elirev. e(f>r] yap ttjv TieX-^vrjv Setadai 

TTJS €aVTrj<^ fJLrjTpOS OTTCOS aVTTJ X^TOJVLOV V(f)1]V7j 

B avp,p.€Tpov' TTjv 8' eiTTeiv ' Kal ttws avjjLfierpov 
v(f>rjva); vvv fxev yap opoj ae TravadXiqvov, avdis 
8e p.r]vo€iSrj, rore 8' dfX(f)LKvprov.' ovrco 87^, c5 
^tAe Xe/)(Tta, Kat vpog dvOpcoTTOv dv6r]rov Kal 
(/)avXov ovSev eari {xerpov ovaias' aAAore yap 
dXXos iarl rats xp^'^ats' Sta Tas iTndvjjLias Kal rds 
Tvxo-S, ojairep 6 Alcfcottov kvojv, ov ovtogl cfjiqaiv 
iv rip ;^ei/Aaii/i avarp€(f)6ix€vov Kai avaTreipcopLevov 
hid rd piyovv oLKiav TToielv Siavoeladai,, depovs 
8' aS irdXiv eKrerapLevov KadevSovra <f>aivea6at 
fieyav iavrco Kal purir dvayKaZov rjyetadaL pLTjre 
fiLKpov epyov otKiav TTepi^aXiodai roaavryjv. ■^ 
yap ovx dpas," etirev, " cS Xepata, /cat rovs 

C fxiapovs^ vvv fiev els p-iKpa KopuSfj avareXXovras 

^ fiiapovs F.C.3.: /MiKpoOs. 
408 



DINNER OF THE SE\"EN WISE MEN, 156-157 

great difficulty hardly manage to fly over the ' clash- 
ing rocks,' do you not beUeve that his nectar is hard 
for him to get and scarce, so that he is sparing of it, 
and doles it out charily to each god ? " 

14. " Possibly," said Chersias, " but since talk of 
household management has come up again, who 
among you ^vill tell us about what was omitted ? 
The topic omitted was, I think, the acquisition of 
some measure of property which shall be sufficient in 
itself and adequate." 

" But," said Cleobulus, " for the wise the law has 
given the measure, but with reference to those of the 
baser sort I will tell a story of my daughter's which 
she told her brother. She said that the moon wanted 
her mother to weave for her a garment to fit her 
measure ; and the mother said, ' How can I weave it 
to fit your measure ? For now I see you full and 
round, and at another time crescent-shaped, and at 
still another but little more than half your full size.' 
And in the same way you see, my dear Chersias, 
there is no measure of possessions that can be applied 
to a foolish and worthless man. Sometimes he is 
one man and sometimes another in his needs, which 
vary according to his desires and fortunes ; he is 
like Aesop's dog, who, as our friend here says, in the 
winter-time curled up as closely as possible because 
he was so cold, and was minded to build himself a 
house, but when summer returned again, and he had 
stretched himself out to sleep, he appeared to him- 
self so big that he thought it was neither a necessary 
nor a small task to construct a house large enough 
to contain him. Have you not often noticed also, 
Chersias," he continued, " those detestable people 
who at one time restrict themselves to utterly small 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(157) iavTOVs cos arpoyyvXcos Kal AaKOJViKws /Stcocro- 
fjL€Vovs, vvv 8e, el ixrj to. ttolvtcov exovoLV ISlcdtcjv 
d[xa Kal ^aatXeojv, VTt* ivSeias aTToXeladai, vofxi- 
t,ovras; " 

'Q.g ovv 6 XepCTta? OLTreatcoTrrjaev, vnoXa^wv 6 
KXeoSiopos, " dAAa Kal rous (TO(j>ovs," eiTrev, 
" Vfxds opwyuev aviaois [xerpoLS tols KT'qaeis 
V€vep.T]p€vas TTpos dAArjAous" exovras. ' 

Kat o KAto^ouAo?, " o yap roc vofiog," etTrev, 
" J) ^IXriaTe avhpcov, ws V(f)dvTrjs e/cdara) to 
TrpeTTOV rj/jicov Kal ro fierpiov Kal to apfioTTOV 
J) (XTroStScoCTi. Kal ail Kaddirep rep vofio) rep Xoycp 
rpe(f)cjv Kal Siacrcov Kal (f)app.aKeva>v rovs Kap,- 
vovras ovK taov eKaarcp, ro Se TTpoarJKov airo- 
vepL€is airaaiv. 

'YiToXa^ajv S' o "ApSaXos, " ap' ovv," eS-q, 
" Kal rov iraXpov vficov HoXcovos 8e ^evov E771- 
iievihrjv vopbos ris aTrex^crOai rcov dXXojv airicov 
KeXevei, rijs 8' dXlp-ov SuvdpL€a)s t]v avros avvriOiqai 
fjLiKpov els TO aropLa Xap-^dvovra Bir]p,€pev€i,v 
dvdpiarov Kat dhenrvov; 

^^TTiarrjaavros 8e tou Aoyou to avp,7r6aiov 
fiev QaXrjs eTnaKcoirrcov ev ^poveZv e^r] rov 
'FiTTLpLevL^Tjv orL pLT] ^ouAeTttt 7Tpdyp.ara ^x^iv 
dXci)v rd airia Kal Trerrcov iavra>, KaOdrrep 
E UtrraKos. "iyd> ydp," eiTre, " rrjs ievrjs tJkovov 
aSovonrjs irpos rrjv pLvXrjv, ev 'E/aeoa) yevopievos, 

dXei, pLvXa, dXet' 

Kal ydp IltTTaKO? ctAei 

pieydXas ISlvnXdvas ^aoiXevcov. 

" A recipe (probably forged) for making this compound 
410 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 157 

limits as though they purposed to hve the simple 
Spartan hfe, and at another time they think that, 
unless they have ever^'tliing possessed by all private 
persons and kings as well, they shall die of want ? " 

As Chersias lapsed into silence, Cleodorus took up 
the conversation and said, " But we see that the 
possessions which even you wise men have are dis- 
tributed by unequal measure, if you be compared one 
with another." 

And Cleobulus said, " Yes, for the law, my good 
sir, like a weaver, assigns to each one of us so much 
as is fitting, reasonable, and suitable. And you, 
using reason as your law in prescribing diet, regimen, 
and drugs for the sick, do not apportion an equal 
amount to each one, but the proper amount in all 
cases." 

Ardalus then joined in and said, " Well, then, is 
there some law which commands that comrade of all 
of you, Solon's foreign friend, Epimenides, to abstain 
from all other kinds of food, and by taking into his 
mouth a bit of the potent ' no-hunger,' " which he 
himself compounds, to go all day without luncheon 
and dinner ? " 

This remark arrested the attention of the whole 
company, and Thales said jestingly that Epimenides 
showed good sense in not wishing to have the trouble 
of grinding his grain and cooking for himself like 
Pittacus. " For," said he, " when I was at Eresus, 
I heard the woman at whose house I stayed singing 
at the mill : 

Grind, mill, grind ; 

Yes, for Pittacus used to grind 

King of great Mytilene." * 

may be found in Tzetzes' scholium on Hesiod, Warks and 
Days, 41. ' Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 673. 

vol.. II o 2 411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

*0 8e HoXojv €(j>7] davixdt,€iv rov "ApBaXov el 
Tov vojxov ovK aviyvojKe ttjs Siairrjs rov dvSpos 
iv TOLs cTTecri rots 'HaioBov yeypafifxevov eKelvos 
yap eariv 6 irpcoros 'ETri/xei'tSTy aTrepfxara rijs 
rpo(/)rjs ravTTjs Trapacrxiov Kai ^r^TeXv 6 StSa^a? 

F oaov iv ixaXdxX} Te koL da^oheXcp jxey* oveiap. 

Ut€i yap, o ilepLavopos eive, tov Hcrtooov 
ivvorjaai ti tolovtov; ovk inaiveTrjv ovra <j)et,hovs 
dei, Kal Trpos rd XiroTara twv oiJjwv cLs TJSiara 
TTapaKaXeZv rifxas; dyadrj p,ev yap ^ fjLaXdxTj 
^pa)9rjvai,, yXvKvs S' o dvdipiKos' rd 8' dXtfia 
ravra Kal aSti/ra (f>dpp.aKa fidXXov t] atria TTVvddvo- 
fiai Kal /xe'Ai Kal rvpov riva ^ap^aptKov h€)(eaOai 
Kal airepfxara TrdpiTToXXa rwv ovk evTTopiarcov. 
TTCos ovv idJpLev^ 'Haio8a» ro 

7Tr)SdXcov /xej/" vrrep Kairvov 

Keijxevov 

epya ^ocuv 8' dTToXoiro /cat rjpnovoiv raXaepycov, 

et roaavrrjs Serjaei TrapaoKevrjs ; Oavfidl^o) Se 
158 crov rov ^evov, a) TioXcov, el AtjAiois' evayxos 
TTOLTjadfjievos rov [xeyav KadappLov ovx laroprjae 
Trap' avrols els ro lepov KopLil,6p.eva rrjs Trpcorrjs 
VTTOfxvTJpLara rpo(f>rjs Kal Sely/Jiara jxer dXXiov 

^ iConev F.C. B. of many possible emendations; Pohlenz 
suggests ov Kevhv, and </cai t6> after Ksl/xevoy : oiiK iv. 
^ nev Hesiod: not in mss. 

" Hesiod, Works and Days, 41. 

* Hesiod, Works and Days, 45, 46 ; quoted also in 
Moralia, 527 b. C/. also Hesiod, Works and Days, 629. 

412 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 157-158 

Solon said that he was surprised at Ardalus if he 
had not read the regulations governing the manner 
of living of the man in question, which are given in 
A^Titing in Hesiod's verses. For Hesiod is the one 
who first sowed in the mind of Epimenides the seeds 
of this form of nourishment, inasmuch as it was he 
who taught that one should seek to find 

How in mallow and asphodel lies an immense advantage.* 

" Do you really think," said Periander, " that 
Hesiod ever had any such idea in mind ? Do you 
not rather think that, since he was always sounding 
the praises of frugality, he was also summoning us to 
the simplest of dishes as being the most pleasant ? 
For the mallow is good eating, and the stalk of the 
asphodel is luscious ; but these no-hunger and no- 
thirst drugs (for they are drugs rather than foods), I 
understand, include in their composition a sweet 
giun and a cheese found among barbarian peoples, 
and a great many seeds of a sort hard to procure. 
How, then, can we concede to Hesiod his 

Rudder on high in the smoke* 

suspended, and 

All the labours of oxen and stout-toiling mules be abolished,' 

if there is to be need of all this preparation ? I am 
surprised at your friend from abroad, Solon, if, when 
he was recently carrj^ing out his great purification for 
the people of Delos,'^ he did not note the memorials 
and examples of the earhest forms of food being 
brought into the temple there, including, among other 

* Does Plutarch connect Epimenides with the purification 
of Delos by Peisistratus (Herodotus, i. 67; Thucydides 
iii. 107)? 

413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(158) evreXcov Kal avrocfivcov fxaXaxT^v Kal avOepiKov, 
ojv eiKog ecrrt Kal rov 'HaioSov Trpo^eveZv rj[xtv 
T'f)v XnoTrjra koL rrjv dcfieXetav." 

Uu ravr , ^97^, fxovov, o Avaxctpaig, 
' dXXa /cat TTpos vyieiav iv rots [xdXicrTa raJv 
Xaxdvojv cKarepov eTraiveirat." 

Kat o KAeoSojpo? " opOcbg," €(f)r], " Xeyeis. 
larpiKos yap 'HcrtoSo?, cos^ SrjXos iariv ovK 
B dfieXcos ouS' dTTclpcos Trepi Scainqs Kal Kpdaecos 
olvov /cat dperrjg vSarog Kal Xovrpov Kal yvvaLKcov 
SLaXeyofxevos Kal avvovaias Kaipov Kal ^pe(^cov 
Kadiaecog. dXX* 'HcrtoSou fiev ifiol 80/cet 8t- 
Kaiorepov Algcottos avrov d7TO(f>aiveiv jJLadrjrrjv rq 
'ETTt/ieviSrjs" TOVTCp yap dpx^v rrjs KaXijs ravr-qs 
/cat ttoiklXtjs Kal jroXvyXcoaaov ao(f)Las o vpos 
rrjv drjhova Xoyos tov lipaKos rrapeax'^Kev. iyd) 
8 dv TjBecos dKovaaLfiL HoXcovos' €lkos yap avrov 
TteTTvadai, ttoXvv xP°^^^ ^AdT^vrjauv ^KTTLjjLeviSrj 
avyyev6p,€vov, 6 rt 81^ TraOcbv 7) ao(f)t^6iJ,evos ctti 
TOiavrrjv rjXde Statrar.' 

15. Kat o HoXcov e(f)r) " ri he tout' cKetvov 

C ipcordv eSet; SijXov yap 'qv on rov ixeyiarov rdjv 

dyadcov Kal Kpariarov Sevrepov iari, ro Seladat 

rpo<j)rj'5 Ppaxvrdrrjs. ^ ro fxeyiarov ov So/cei ro 

/u.?y8' oXcos rpo(f)rjs Seladai; " 

" OvSajxdjs," 6 KAedScopo?, " epLOty ," etTrev, 
" el Set TO <f>ai,v6pi€vov etTretv, /cat jjidXtcrra trapa- 

^ d)j] Siv Reiske : 6j some mss, 

" Hesiod, Works and Days, 405-821. 
" Ibid. 368-9 ; 744-5 may be referred to. 

• Ibid. 595, 737-741. " Ibid. 736-741, 753. 

• Ibid. 373-5, 699-705. ' Ibid. 735-6, 812. 

41 4< 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 158 

inexpensive and self-propagated foods, mallow and 
asphodel, whose plainness and simplicity it is most 
likely that Hesiod recommends to us." 

" Not merely that," said Anacharsis, " but both 
are commended as herbs that contribute to health 
also in greatest measure." 

"You are quite right," said Cleodorus ; "for it is 
clear that Hesiod has knowledge of medicine, since 
there is no lack of attention or experience shown in 
what hehastosayabout the daily courseoflifcj^mixing 
wine,* the great value of water,*' bathing,** women,* 
the proper time for intercourse,^ and the way in which 
infants should sit." But it seems to me that Aesop 
with better right than Epimenides can declare himself 
the pupil of Hesiod. For the words of the hawk to 
the nightingale * first suggested to Aesop the idea 
of this beautiful and ingenious wisdom uttered by 
many different tongues. But I should be glad to 
listen to Solon ; for it is likely that he, having been 
associated with Epimenides for along time at Athens,* 
has learned what experience of his or what sophistical 
argument induced him to resort to such a course of 
living." 

15. Solon said, " What need was there to ask him 
this ? For it is plain that the next best thing to the 
greatest and highest of all good is to reqiiire the 
minimum amount of food ; or is it not the general 
opinion that the greatest good is to require no food 
at all? "i 

" Not mine by any means," said Cleodorus, " if I 
must tell what lies in my mind, especially as a table 

Ibid. 750-2. * Ibid. 203. 

* Cf. Plutarch's Life of Solon, chap. xii. (p. 84 c). 

^ Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, i. 6. 10. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(158) KetixevTjs rpaTTC^rjs, "tjv dvaipovacv alpofxevrjs rpo- 
<pfjs (f)tXiajv decbv ^cofiov ovcrav /cat ^evlcov. a»s 8e 
©aA^S" Aeyet rrjs yfjs dvaLpedeLarjs avyxvcnv rov 
oXov €^€iv Koafxov, ovTOJS OLKov SidXvais^ eOTf 
avvavaipelrai yap avrfj irvp eaTiovxov iaria 
Kparrjpes U77oSo;^at ^eviapioi, ^iXavd pcxJTtoTara /cat 
TTpaJra Koivojvqiiara Trpog aXX-qXovs, fxaXXov Se 

D crvfinas 6 ^los, et ye' Siayojyq ris iariv dvOpcoirov 
TTpd^ecov exovcra SU^oSov, (Lv rj rrjs Tpo(f)rjs XP^^ 
/cat TTapaoKevT] rds nXelcnas TrapaKaXel. Seivov 
fiev ovv, CO iraipe, /cat ro yecopyias avrfjs^' St- 
oXXvjxevrj yap avdis aTToAetVet yrjv rjpXv djxop^ov 
/cat aKddaprov, vXrjs dKdprrov /cat pevp-drcov ttAt^/x- 
fieXco? <j>€poix€VO)v vtt' dpyias dvdTrXeoiv. avvairoX- 
Xvai 8e /cat rexvo-s rrdaas /cat epyacrias, Sv e^apxds 
ecrrt /cat Trapix^i' ^dcriv irdaai^ /cat vXrjv, /cat to 

E /ATjSer etCTt, TavT'qs e/CTToScbr yevofxevqs. /cara- 
Auovrat Se* /cat rtfxal decov, 'HAt'oj pikv^ puKpdv, 
€Tt 8' iXdrro) TieXrjvr) xaptt" avyrjs fiovov /cat dAea? 
avdp(x)TTOiv ep^otTcov. ofji^ptcp Se Att /cat Trpo-qpoaia 
A-qiJirjTpi /cat (f>UTaXfJiiu) IloaetSaivt ttou ^oipios 
eari, ttov 8e Ovaia; ttcos 8e p^a/atSdrTj? o Ato^'uo'os', 
et Serjaofxeda fjLrjSevog Sv StScDCTt; rt 8e dvaop.ev 
ri aTTeiaofiev ; tlvos 8' dTtap^ofieda ; Trdvra yap 

^ Reiske would insert ii Tpocpiji afalpeais after SidXnats. 

* e? 7e Xylander : d re, 

' ai)T^j P. Petavius, Tucker, Hartman, and F.C.B., all 
independently ! : aiTrj. 

* 8i added by Meziriacus. ' M"^" idem : 5^, 

" A Stoic definition ; c/. Porphvry quoted by Stobaeus, 
Eclogue ethicae, ii. p. 201 (272), vol. ii. p. 140 of Meineke's 
edition. 
416 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 158 

stands here now, which they do away with when 
food is done away with, and it is an altar of the gods of 
friendship and hospitality. And as Thales says that, 
if the earth be done away -with, confusion will possess 
the universe, so tliis is the dissolution of the house- 
hold. For when the table is done away with, there 
go ^vith it all these other things : the altar fire on 
the hearth, the hearth itself, wine-bowls, all enter- 
tainment and hospitality, — the most humane and the 
first acts of communion between man and man ; 
rather is all real living abolished, if so be that hving 
is a spending of time by man which involves carry- 
ing on a series of acti\ities,'' most of which are 
called for by the need of food and its procurement. 
And a dreadful situation ensues, my friend, regarding 
agriculture itself. For let agriculture be destroyed, 
and it leaves us our earth again unsightly and un- 
clean, filled with unfruitful forests and with streams 
sweeping on unchecked, all owing to man's inaction. 
And ^vith the destruction of agriculture goes also 
the destruction of all arts and crafts which she 
initiates, and for which she supplies the basis and 
the material ; and these all come to naught if she 
vanishes from the earth. Abolished too are the 
honours paid to the gods, since men will have but 
little gratitude to the Sun, and still less to the Moon, 
for merely light and warmth. Where will there be an 
altar or where a sacrifice offered to Zeus who sends 
the rain, or to Demeter who initiates the ploughing, 
or to Poseidon who watches over the tender crops ? 
How shall Dionysus be the giver of delights, if we 
shall require none of the gifts which he gives ? What 
shall we offer as a sacrifice or libation, and what shall 
we dedicate as first-fruits ? All this means the over- 

417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ravra tojv fjceylaTCOv dvarpoTrrjv Kal avyxvcriv ex^i 
TTpayixGLTOiV. rjhovrj? 8e Trdcrrjg fxev Tvepiex^crdo-i' 
Kal TrdvTOJS dXoyiarov Ion, irdaav Se cf)€vy€t,v Kal 
TrdvTcos dvaiad'qrov. ttjv fiev ovv ifjvx'^v ire pais 
f rialv TjSovais XPV^^^^ KpeirToaiv virapx^TO} , toj 
Se CTco/xart Xa^elv rjBovrjv rrjs dTTO rov rpe^eadai 
SiKacorepav ovk eariv evpelv, oirep ovheva Xehqdev 
avdpojTTOJV TavTTjv^ yap iv pbdao) dejxevoL kolvco- 
vovaiv dXXijXois SeLTTVcov Kal rpaTr€[,r]s, d<f)po- 
StCTtcDV Se vvKra'' Kal ttoXv Trpo^dXXovTai gkotos, 
rjyovjJievoL ravrrjs to Koivcovelv dvaioxvvrov etvai 
/cat OrjpiojSes, chs to pirj Koiva>ve.lv e/ceti^Tj?. 

'YTToXa^wv ovv iyd) rov KAeoSc^pou hiaXnrovros , 
" €K€lvo S' ov Xcyeis," elnov, " ore Kal top vttvov 
a/xa Tfi Tpo(f)fj ovveK^aXXo/JLev vttvov Se fxrj ovros 
159 ouS' oveipos ianv, dAA' ot;)(eTat to Trpea^vTaTOv 
rjfuv p,avT€LOV. ecrrat Se piovoeLdrjs 6 ^los Kai 
TpoTTOV Tivd fJidTrjv TO aoj/xa irepiKeioeTai Tjj tfjvxfj' 
TO. TrAetcrra yap avTov Kal KvpicoTaTa tcvv jxepajv 
inl TTjv Tpo<j)rjV opyava irapeaKevaaTaL, yXcoTTa 
Kal 6S6vT€s Kal OTOfJiaxos Kal rjirap. dpyov yap 
ovhiv ioTLV ouSe it/DOS' d?{XrjV ovvTeTayixevov ;\;/3eiav 
wcr^' o /xr) Seofxevos Tpocfirjs o?5Se gcvixotos Setrat. 
TOVTO S' rjv av t6^ avTov jxtj Selodaf ovv cra>/xaTt 
yap rjfjidjv eKaoTos. rjyLeis fxev ovv," €(l>r]v eyu), 
" TavTas Tjj yaoTpl avpi^oXds €lo(f>ipoixev' et Se 
HoXoiv 7] Tis aAAo? Tt KaTTjyopel, dKovaojJLcda. 

* TavTTjv Turnebus and Viilcobius : i/v. 

* 5e I'l/'fcTtt Xylander : oeKra. 
' 7ii> ad TO F.C.B. : Tiv avro or avrov f/c. 

<• Cf. Moralia, 651 d and 1089 a. 
418 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 158-159 

turning and confusion of our highest concerns. To 
cling to every form of pleasure is utterly irrational, 
but to avoid every form of pleasure is utterly in- 
sensate. Let it be granted that there exist some 
other superior pleasures for the soul to enjoy, yet 
it is not possible to discover a way for the body to 
attain a pleasure more justifiable than that which 
comes from eating and drinking, and this is a fact 
which no man can have failed to observe ; for this 
pleasure men put forward openly before all, and 
share together banquets and table, whereas their 
carnal delights they veil behind the screen of night 
and deep darkness, feeUng that to share this pleasure 
openly is shameless and bestial, as it is also not to 
share the other."" 

I took up the conversation as Cleodorus left off, 
and said, " But there is another point you do not 
mention, that we banish sleep along with food ; and 
with no sleep there can be no dream, and our most 
ancient and respected form of divination is gone 
for ever. Life will have a monotonous sameness, 
and we might say that the encasement of the soul 
in the body will lack all purpose and effect. The 
most, and the most important, of the bodily organs, 
tongue, teeth, stomach, and liver, are provided as 
instruments of nutrition, no one of them is inactive, 
nor is it framed for any other form of usefulness. So 
he who has no need of food has no need of a body 
either ; and that again would mean having no need 
of himself ! For it is with a body that each one of 
us exists. This then," said I, " makes up the con- 
tributions which we offer to the belly ; and if Solon 
or anybody else desires to impeach them in any way, 
we will Usten." 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

B 16. " Hdvu jLtev oSv^" €(f>7] 6 SoAtov, " fMr] /cat 
(159) "^^^ AlyvTTTLCDV oLKpiTcoTepoi <f)avco [ji€V , ot rov 
vcKpov dvarefjivovTes eSei^av ru) rjXLO), etr* av ra} 
fi€v et? Tov TTorafxov Kare^aXov, rov 8' ctAAou 
aojjjiaTos d)S rjSr] Kadapov yeyovoros iTTLjxeXovrai,. 
Tcp yap ovTL tout' iarl ro fxlacrfxa rijs aapKos 
rip,6iv Kol 6 rdprapos (Ls iv "AlBov, Setv'cop rivcov 
pevfjiaTCDV Kol TTvevfxaTos ofiov Koi TTvpos avjji- 
TTe(j>vpix4vov Kol vcKpcov TrepiTrXecos. ^cov yap 
ovSels^ OLTT* ovSevos rpe^erai, ^cDrTO?, aAAd dava- 
Tovvres rd e^xi/juxct, /cat Tct (f)v6fX€va, to) Tpij>eadai 
/cat av^ecrdat p,€r€)(ovTa tov i^rjv, dTToXXvvres dSt- 

C Kovjxev. aTToXXvrai yap i^ ov 7re^u/ce to /LtCTa- 
jSctAAov els dXXo, /cat irdaav <j>deiperaL (f>6opdv, 
OTTCOs dv darepov Tpo(f)7] yivono. to 8 aTrep^e- 
a^at aapKcov iScohrjs, woTrep *Op<f)€a rov naXatov 
laropovat, ad^ta/xa fxdXXov ■>} (^vyrj rcov Trepi rrjv 
rpo^riv dhLKTjiidrwv iuTL. (f)vyrj 8e ju,ta /cat Kadap- 
fios etV SiKatoavvrjv reXetos^ avrdpKr] /cat dTrpoaSed 
yeveadai. S 8' dvev KaKcoaecos irepov rrjv avrov 
acoTYjpiav dixrjxo-vov 6 deos 7T€7ToirjK€, tovto) rqv 
<l)vcrLv dpxrjv dSt/cias" npoaTedeiKev. dp* ovv ovk 
d^iov, CO (fyiXe, avveKTe/JLelv dSt/cio. KoiXiav /cat oto- 
jxaxov /cat rjnap, d KaXov [lev ovSevos aladriaiv 

D rjpuv ouS' ope^iv ei/8tSa»crt, a/cedeat Se fxayetpiKols , 

^ aD TO. F.C. B. : aiirk. 
* ovSih added by Reiske, perhaps unnecessarily. 
* reXeios Reiske : reXeioZ 

' This somewhat exaggerated description of the digestive 
tract is probably influenced by Homer, Od. x. 513 and ix. 
157, and II. i. 52 and viii. 13. 

* Cf. Lucretius, De rerum naiura, iii. 701 ff. 
420 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 159 

16. " Certainly," said Solon, " let us not show our- 
selves to be less discriminating than the Egyptians, 
who cut open the dead body and expose it to the sun, 
and then cast certain parts of it into the river, and 
perform their offices on the rest of the body, feeling 
that this part has now at last been made clean. For 
this, in truth, it is which constitutes the pollution of 
ovu* flesh and its bowels of Hell, as it were, teeming 
with frightful streams and wind, intermingled with 
burning fire and corpses." For no li\ing man feeds 
upon another living creature ; nay, we put to death 
the animate creatures and destroy these things that 
grow in the ground, which also are partakers in life, 
in that they absorb food, and increase in size ; and 
herein we do WTong. For anything that is changed 
from what it was by nature into something else is 
destroyed, and it undergoes utter corruption that 
it may become the food of another.* But to refrain 
entirely from eating meat, as they record of Orpheus * 
of old, is rather a quibble than a way of avoiding 
■WTong in regard to food. The one M-ay of avoidance 
and of keeping oneself pure, from the point of view 
of righteousness, is to become sufficient unto one- 
self and to need nothing from any other source. 
But in the case of man or beast for whom God has 
made his own secure existence impossible without 
his doing injxiry to another, it may be said that in 
the natiu-e which God has inflicted upon him lies 
the source of wTong. Would it not, then, be right and 
fair, my friend, in order to cut out injustice, to cut 
out also bowels and stomach and Hver, which afford us 
no perception or craving for anything noble, but are 

* Orpheus is said to have abstained from animal food 
(Euripides, Hippolytus, 992 ; Plato, Laws, p. 782 c). 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(159) ota KOTTiSes /cat Xe^rjTe^, to. 8e fjuvXcoOpiKols Kal 
KafiLvois Kal (()vpaiJLOvxoLs^ Kal fiaKrr] plots eot,K€v; 
arexvojs Be rcbv ttoXXcov I'Sot tls av cocnrep iv /xu- 
Xa)VL Tcp acofxari, rrjv ijjvx'rjv iyK€KaXvfji[j,€vriv* det 
TTepL T7]v TTjs rpo(f)rjs^ p^petat' KVKXovcrav, ojctTTep 
afJLeXei Kal rjjxels dpri puev ovd^ icopcbixev aXX-^Xovs 
OVT rjKovofiev, dAA' cKacrros iyK€KV(f)d>s ihovXeve 
rfj TTepL Trjv rpocftrjv ;)^peta. vvvl S' errapOeLacov rcbv 
TpaTret,(x)v eXevdepoi yeyovores <hs opas, earej)avti}- 
fjLevoi TTepL Xoyovs SLarpL^ofiev Kal (xXXt^Xols avv- 
E eafiev Kal axoXrjv ayo/juev, els ro pur] SeZadaL Tpo(j)'rjs 
eXrjXvdores- ^p* ovv, dvTTep rj vvv ovaa TTepl ly/xa? 
e^Ls aTTavaros SLapievr) TTapd TTovra rov ^lov, ovk 
ael a)(oXr)v e^ofiev dXX'qXoLs avvelvat, p^rj SeStdrej 
TTCvLav p^rjS* elSores ttXovtov; 6 yap rwv TTepLTTWV 
t,rjXos evdvs aKoXovdet Kal avvoLKl^erai rfj XP^*-*? 
Tcijv dvayKalojv. 

" 'AAA' oteraL Selv Tpo(f>rjV elvat YiXeohcopos, ottcos 
Tpdne^aL Kal Kparrjpes Jjctl Kal A'iqp,r]TpL* /cai 
KopT^ dvalaL.^ erepos he tls d^LovTCo pidxo.s elvat 
Kal TToXepbov, Lva Kal relxrj Kal vecuaolKovs xac 
F OTrAo^TjAcas" exiopuev Kal 6vajp,ev €KaTop,(f)6vLa, Kad- 
dnep <j)aal vopuov elvat Meacrrjvlots. dXXov 8e vpos 

^ (pvpa/uLouxoi.^ F.C.B. : (ppewpovxois. 

' eyK€Ka\viiL/.iiv7]v] iyKeK\TifJLfi>rjv (better -KXeicr-) Tucker, but 
ef. 159 a. ' rpocj&^s Amyot: i^vxn^- 

* SicTi Kal Ari/xTirpL Hercher : SKTif at S-qiitjrpi. 
" Ovfflai Larsen : dvovrai {dverai) ^ti, or Bvui' in. 

" The explanation may be found in Pausanias, iv. 19; 
422 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 159 

like cooking utensils, such as choppers and kettles, 
and, in another respect, like a baker's outfit, ovens 
and dough-containers and kneading-bowls ? Indeed, 
in the case of most people, one can see that their 
soul is absolutely confined in the darkness of the 
body as in a mill, making its endless rounds in its 
concern over its need of food ; just as we ourselves, 
only a few minutes ago, as a matter of course, neither 
saw nor listened to one another, but each one was 
bending down, enslaved to his need of food. But 
now that the tables have been removed, we have, 
as you see, been made free, and, with garlands on, 
we are spending our time in conversation and in 
the enjoyment of one another's society, and we have 
the leisure to do this now that we have come to 
require no more food for a time. Assuming, then, 
that the state in which we find ourselves at the present 
moment will persist without interruption through- 
out our whole life, shall we not always have leisure 
to enjoy one another's society, having no fear of 
poverty and no knowledge of what wealth is ? For 
craving for the superfluous follows close upon the 
use of necessities, and soon becomes a settled habit. 
"But Cleodorus imagines that there ought to be 
food, so that there may be tables and Avine-bowls 
and sacrifices to Demeter and the Daughter. Then 
let the next man argue that it is but right and proper 
that there be battles and war, so that we mav have 
fortifications and dockyards and arsenals, and may 
offer sacrifice to celebrate the slaying of an hundred 
foemen," as they say is the custom among the Mes- 
senians. Still another man, I imagine, may enter- 

cf. also Plutarch, Moralia, 660 f, and Life of Romulus, chap. 
XXV. (p. 33 d). 

423 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

T^v vyUiav otfjLat ■)(aX€TTaiv€W' heivov yap el fxrjBe- 
v6s voarovvTOS ov arpcofjivrjs eVi naXaKTJs o^eAo? ov 
KXlvrjs, ovK 'A(TKXr]7TLa) dvaofxev ovk aTTorpoTraLOis, 
larpLKfj Se jjcer' opydvoiv koL (jjapfiaKcov aTTOKeiae- 
Tai ToaovTCOv aKXerjs /cat OLTTodearos.^ '^ tl ravr 
CKeLvcov 8La(J)€p€L; Kal yap rj rpocf)-?! Xipov cfxipixaKOV 
Trpoaayerai, /cat depaneveiv eavrovs Xeyovrai 
IGO rravres ol Tp€(f)6[i€vot, Stairar,* ovx to? ''781; tl 
/cat K€xo.pia^p.€vov aXX* cos dvayKalov tovto rij 
(f>va€i TTpdrrovres. eTret Xvrras ye^ irXeiovas ecrrtv 
OLTTo rrjs Tpo(f)'f]g Tcov 'qSovcbv yiyvopLeva? Kar- 
apidpLrjaat, fxdXXov 8' rj p,kv rjSovr] Kal tottov e^et 
Ppaxvv €v Tip (Tcu/xart /cat p^pot'ov' ov ttoXvv rj Se 
rrepl Trjv BtoiKrjcrLV avrfjs daxoXia Kal 8uo^epeta 
ri Set Xiyeiv 6acx)v alaxpdov Kal ohvvrjpcov rjpds 
ifnTLTTXrjGLv ; otfxai yap els ToaavTa ^XeipavTa top 
"OpLiqpov aTToSetfet Kexprjodai irepl Oecov tov [xt] 
aiToOvriaKeiv tco p,r] Tpi^eadai 

ov yap OLTOv eSovar*, ov Trivova atdorra olvov 
TovveK dvaifxoves glctl Kal dddvaTOt KaXeovrat, 

B CO? ixrj jjiovov TOV t,rjv dXXd Kal tov dTTodvrjGKeLV 
TT^v Tpo^r]v i(f)68iov ovaav. e/c TavTTjs yap at voaot,, 
avvTpe(ji6 pevai* toIs crcofxaaiv ovk eXaTTOV ivSeias 
KaKov cxovai ttjv TrXripajaiv iroXXdKis 8e /cat 
[xet^ov ecrrtv epyov tov TTopiaai Tpocfyrjv /cat crvv- 

^ dir69€(7Tos Wyttenbach : iirdderos. 

* Slairav] Kal Siairav Duebner. * ye Wj'ttenbach : re, 

* ffvvTpe<p!)fievai] crvvTpicpovTai Larsen, but it would be better 
to supply (if necessary) some verb like yiyvovrat after voaoi. 

" 7Lv. 341. 

•" Of. Moralia, 731 d, where the same idea is put in different 
words. 
424 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 15^160 

tain a violent hatred against health ; for it will be 
a terrible thing if nobody is ill, and there is no longer 
any use for a soft bed or couch, and we shall not offer 
sacrifice to Asclepius or the averting deities, and the 
profession of medicine together with its numerous 
instruments and remedies shall be consigned to in- 
glorious desuetude and contempt. Yet, what differ- 
ence is there betAveen this sort of reasoning and the 
other ? The fact is that food is taken as a remedy for 
hunger, and all who use food in a prescribed way are 
said to be giAing themselves treatment, not with 
the thought they are doing something pleasant and 
grateful, but that this is necessarj' to comply viith. 
Nature's imperative demand. Indeed, it is possible 
to enumerate more pains than pleasures derived 
from food ; or rather may it be said that the pleasure 
affects but a very hmited area in the body, and lasts 
for no long time ; but as for the ugly and painful 
experiences crowded upon us by the bother and 
discomfort which wait upon digestion, what need to 
tell their number ? I think that Homer " had their 
very number in view when, in the case of the gods, 
he finds an argument to prove that they do not die in 
the fact that they do not live by food : 

Since they eat no bread and drink no wine brightly spark- 
ling, 

Therefore their bodies are bloodless, and they are called 
the Immortals. 

He intimates by this that food is not only an element 
conducive to life, but that it is also conducive to 
death. For it is from this source that diseases come, 
thri\ing on the very same food as men's bodies,* 
which find no less ill in fulness than in fasting. For 
oftentimes it is harder work to use up and again to 

425 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(160) ayayeiv to KaravaXcoaai Kai Sta(f)oprjaraL vdXtv ei? 
TO acoixa TTapayevojxivrjv. aXX waTrep av^ hi- 
arropolev at AafaiSe? Tiva ^iov ^Lcoaovrat, Kal ri 
TTpa^ovcriv (XTraAAayetcrat rrjs vepl rov ttlOov 
Aarpeiag Kal TrXrjpojaeojg, ovtco SiaTTOpovfJiev rjfjiets, 
C et yevoiTo iravaaadai, (f)opovvTag els ttjv adpKa 
rrjv arpvTov e/c yqs dfia /cat daXdrrrjs roaavra, rC 
Trpa^ofiev aTreipia tcDv kuXcov tov cttI rots dvay- 
KaioLs arepyovres ^iov. coairep ovv ol hovXev- 
aavTes, orav iXeuOepcoOcoaLv, d TrdXai roXs Seairo- 
rais €7TpaTTOv VTrripeTOVures, ravra Trpdrrovaiv 
avTOtg /cat ot avrovs, ovtcos 17 t^X^ ^^^ H-^^ 
T/ae^et to aojfxa ttoXXols ttovols /cat aa;^oAtats", el 
o aTTaXXayelr] ttjs Aarpeta?, avTrjv Si^TTOvdev 
eXevdepav yevofxevrjv Opeifjei /cat ^twaerai, els 
avTTjv opwcra /cat t^v dXijdeiav, ouSews" Trepi- 
aiTOJvTos ovh andyovTos." 

To. jjiev ovv prjdevTa Trepl Tpo^rjs, c5 ISiKapx^, 
TavT* rjv. 

17. Ert he TOV HoXojvos XeyovTos elarjXde 
Vopyos UepidvSpov d8eX(f)6s' €Tvy)(ave yap els 
D Tacvapov direaTaXp^evos e/c Tivoiv XPV^I^^^> "^V 
YloaeiScvvL Ovctiav /cat decopiav aTrdycov. doTraaa- 
fxeva)v 8' avTov rjixcov /cat tov HeptdvSpov Trpouaya- 
yo/xevov /cat (fyiXrjcravTOs KaOlcras Trap' avTOV CTrt 
TTjs kXlv7]s aTTTJyyeLXev arra 8rj npos [xovov eKelvov, 
o o 'qKpoaTO, TToXXd TrdaxovTL Trpos tov Xoyov 
o/xoto? ojv. TO. fJLev yap axdofjuevos ra S' dyavaK- 
rdjv e(f)aiveTo, TToXXdKts S' dmaTCov, eira davfjid^cov 
^ Slv Larsen : el. 

' Cf. Porphyry, De ahstinentia, iii. 27. 
426 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 160 

distribute food, after it has been taken into the body, 
than it was to procure it and get it together in the 
first place. But just as the Danaids would be at a 
loss to know what kind of life and occupation they 
should follow if they should be relieved of their 
drudgery in trying to fill the great jar, so we are at 
a loss to know, if perchance we should have the oppor- 
tunity to cease from heaping into this relentless flesh 
of ours all the multitudinous products of land and 
sea, what we shall do, since, oAving to lack of ac- 
quaintance with noble things, we now content our- 
selves with the life conditioned on necessities. Just 
as men who have been slaves, when they are set free, 
do for themselves on their own account those very 
things which they used to do in service to their 
masters," so the soul now supports the body with 
much toil and trouble, but if it be relieved of its 
drudgery, it will quite naturally maintain itself in 
its new freedom and live with an eye to itself and the 
truth, since there will be nothing to distract or 
divert it." 

This then, Nicarchus, is what was said on the 
subject of food. 

17. While Solon was still speaking, Gorgus, 
Periander's brother, came in ; for it happened that, 
in consequence of certain oracles, he had been sent 
to Taenarum, in charge of a sacred mission to offer 
due sacrifice to Poseidon. After we had greeted 
him, and Periander had embraced and kissed him, 
Gorgus sat down beside his brother on the couch, 
and gave him a report intended apparently for him 
alone, and he, as he listened, seemed much affected 
at the storj^ ; for he appeared in some ways troubled, 
in some ways indignant, and oftentimes incredulous, 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(160) reXos Be yeXdaas npos rjfids " ^ovXo^ai jxiv," 
ecfyr], " rrpos to Tvapov ^pacrat to TrpoarjyyeXjxevov 
E oKvu) S' d/coucras' OoAeo) ttot cIttovtos otl Set 
ra [xev eiKOTa Xeyeiv, ra S' dpi^)(°'-va aicoTrdv." 
*Y7ToXa^(jL)v ovv 6 Bias' " aAAa Kal tovt ," e(f>rj, 
SaXeio TO ao<f)6v eoTiv, otl Set rot? pikv e^dpols 
/cat Trept tojv Triarcbv dinaTeLV, rot? Se <f)iXo(,s Kai 
ra aTTtorra TTtCTxeuett', ixOpovs [xev, eyoiy rjyovfxai, 
Tovs TTovTjpovs Kal dvoi]Tovs, (jiiXovs Se tou? 
XpyjOTOvs /cat (f)povtpLovs ainov KaXovvTos . ovkovv," 
e(f)rj, " XeKTcov et? dnavTas, c5 Topye, ixdXXov S 
aKTCOV CTTt TOVS V€OVS TOUTOVS Sidvpajji^ovs VTTep- 
(fydeyyofievov ov i^/cei? Xoyov rjuZv Koixit,oiv." 

18. "Eit^rj roivvv Vopyos otl, ttjs dvaias e(f> 
Tjfiepas rpet? avvTeXeadeLar]^ vtt' avTov /cat ttj 
F TcXevTaia Travw^LSos ovarjs /cat xppeias tlvos /cat 
TratSta? Trapd tov alyLaXov, 'q p,ev GeXijvrj /care'Aa/x- 
TTev elg ttjv OdXaTTav, ovk ovtos Se TTvev/xaTos dXXa 
VTjvefJLias /cat yaX-^vrjs, TToppcoOev ac^ecuparo <f)pLKrj 
KaTLovaa Trapd ttjv aKpav, d(f}p6v TLva /cat ip6(f)Ov 
dyovaa tco pod up irepl avTrjv ttoXvv, axjTe TrdvTas 
€771 TOV TOTTov OL TTpoocoKeXXe^ KaTadpafxeXv dav- 
fjLaaavTas. nplv S' ei/caaat to TTpoa(^ep6pL€vov vtto 
Ta^ovs, SeXcfiLveg a)<f)drjaav, ol pt.kv dOpooL rrepLq 
kvkXovvt€s, ol S' V(f>r]yovfi€VOL tov alyLaXov tt/jo? 
TO AetoTaTOV, dXXoL S' i^onLaOev, otov TTepLerrovTes- 

^ Trpoo-ci/ceWe F.C. B. : irpoaeKeWe Tucker : Trpoffe/xeXXe or 
irpocre'^aXXe. 

428 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 160 

and then again amazed. Finally with a laugh he 
said to us, " In the circumstances I should hke to 
tell the news which I have just heard, but I hesitate, 
since I heard Thales say once that what is probable 
one should tell, but what is impossible one should 
shroud in silence." 

Thereupon Bias, interrupting, said, " But Thales is 
responsible also for this sage remark, that one should 
not believe enemies even about things behevable, 
and should believe friends even about things un- 
behevable ; the name ' enemies ' he assigned, I 
think, to the wicked and foohsh, and ' friends ' to the 
good and sensible. And so, Gorgus," he continued, 
" it should be told to all, or rather, to compete with 
those newly invented dithjTambs," there should be 
heard the stronger notes of the story which your 
arrival has brought to us." 

18. Gorgus then told us that his offering of the 
sacrifice had taken three days, and on the last day 
there was a dance and merry-making, lasting the 
whole night long, down by the shore. The moon 
was shining bright upon the sea ; there was no 
wind, but a perfect calm and stillness, when, afar off, 
was seen a ripple coming towards land close by the 
promontory, attended by some foam and much noise 
from its rapid movement, so that they all ran down in 
amazement to the place where it was coming to shore. 
Before they could guess what was bearing down upon 
them so rapidly, dolphins were seen, some forming a 
dense encirchng line, others leading the way to the 
smoothest part of the shore, and still others behind, 
forming, as it were, a rear-guard. In their midst, 

" Probably a covert reference to Arion as the inventor of 
the dith3?Tamb (Herodotus, i. 23). 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

IQl ev /xecrw §' dvelx^v vrrep rijs daXdrrr^s oyKos d- 
aa^rjs Koi darjfios oxovjjlIvov crcu/xaros", I^^XP'' ^^ 
crvvayayovres^ et? ravro Kal avveTTOKeiXavres i^- 
ddrjKav 6771 yrjv dvdpcoTTOv efjbTTvovv Kal KLVovfievov, 
avTOL Se TTaXiv irpos Tr]v d-Kpav dva(f)€p6fX€vot, fxaX- 
Xov 7) TTpoTepov €^i]XXovTo, 7Tai^ovT€s V(f)^ TjSovr^s 

TIVOS d)S €OlK€ Kal (TKlpTWVTeS. " TjfJiCOV 8'," 6 

T6pyo£ €(l)rj, " TToXXol p.€v SiarapaxdevTes e<j)vyov 
aTTo TTJs OaXaTTTjs, oXiyoL Se /Lter' e'/xoy dapprjaavTCS 
irpoaeXdeZv iyvcopiaav 'Apcova rov Kidapcohov, 

B avTOv Towojxa ^deyyop^evov eavrov, /cat rfj aroXfj 
KaTa(f>avfj yevofievov rov yap evaycoviov irvyxoivev 
dfiTTexoiJievos KoapLov, (S KidapcpScov exprjoaro. 

" K.opiiaavT€s ovv iirl CK-qvrjV avrov, d)s ovSev et;^e 
KaKov dAA' •^ Std rdxos Kal pol^ov e<j)aivero Trjs 
(f)opds e/cAeAu/xeVoj Kac /ce/c/xTy/cceJS", 7)Kovaap,ev 
Xoyov aTTiaTov aTraai. irXrjv Tjpucbv rcbv deaaapL€vcov 
TO rdXos. eXeye yap ^Apicov co? rrdXat pev iyvcoKOJS 
€K rijs 'IraAta? diraipeiv, Hepidv^pov Se ypdifiavros 
avTW TrpodvpLorepos y€v6p,€vos oA/cdSos" Kopivdias 
7Tapa(f)aveLarjs evOvs eTTi^ds avaxdetrj, p,erpLcp Se 
TTVCvpiaTi ;^pa>jU.eVa)V' 'qpepas rpelg a'iodoiro rovs 

C vavras iin^ovXevovras dveXelv avrov, elra Kal 
rrapd rov Kv^epvrJTOv ttvOolto Kpv<j)a prjvvaavros 
(OS Tjj vvktI tovto hpdv avrols etTj 8e8oyp.evov. 
eprjpog ovv cov ^orjdecas Kal dTTopdJv 6pp.fi rivi 
XpricfaiTO SaipLOVLO) to p,€v aiopia KoapLrjaai Kal 

* ffwayaydvTei] avvayovre^ nearly all mss., perhaps rightly. 
4.30 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 161 

uplifted above the sea, was a mass like a man's body 
being borne along, but indistinct and ill-defined, 
until the dolphins drew near together, and with one 
accord came close to the shore, and deposited on land 
a human being, in whom was still the breath of life 
and power to move ; then they themselves put forth 
again towards the promontory leaping even higher 
than before, and sporting and frolicking apparently 
for joy. " Many of us," continued Gorgus, " were 
panic-stricken, and fled from the sea-shore, but a 
few, including myself, grew bold enough to draw near, 
and they recognized Arion the harper, who pro- 
nounced his own name himself, and was easily 
recognizable by his dress ; for he happened to be clad 
in the ceremonial robes which he had worn when he 
played and sang. 

" We accordingly conducted him to a tent, since 
there was really nothing the matter with him, save that 
he seemed somewhat unstrung and wearied by the 
swiftness and rush of his ride, and we heard from him 
a story, incredible to all men except to us who •with 
our own eyes had seen its conclusion. Arion said 
that some time ago he had resolved to leave Italy, 
and the receipt of a letter from Periander had only 
stimulated his desire the more, and when a Corinthian 
merchant-vessel appeared there, he had at once 
embarked and sailed away from that land. For 
three days they were favoured by a moderate breeze, 
and there came over Arion the feeling that the sailors 
were plotting to make away with him, and later he 
learned from the pilot, who secretly gave him the 
information, that they were resolved to do the deed 
that night. Helpless and at his wits' end, he put 
into execution an impulse, divinely inspired, to adorn 

4,31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(161) Aa^elv evrd(f>Lov avT(o rov ivaycLviov en t,<hv 
KocTfjiov, eTTacrai} Se rtp jSto) reXevTcov koI fjirj 
yevecrdai Kara tovto tcov kvkvcov dyevvecrTcpos. 
eaKevaarfievos ovv /cat TrpoetTTCov otl Trpodvfila rts 
avTOV e^ot tcov vofjLCov BieXdelv rov UvdiKov virkp 
acoTTjpLas avTov /cat t7]s vecijs /cat rcov ifiTrXeovrcov, 
D KaracrTas irapd rov roixov iv Trpvfivr) /cat rtva 
decov TTeXayicDv dvaKX-qcriv TTpoavaKpovadfievos aSot 
rov vofjiov. /cat oaov ovttco fxeaovvros avrov /cara- 
Svoiro fiev 6 tJXlos els rrjv ddXarrav, dva^alvoiro 
8' ij YieXoTTOvvriaos . ovKer* ovv rcov vavrcov rrjV 
vvKTa TTepLfxevovTCDV dXXd ;^a»/50u;^a;v im rov 
<f)6vov, ISdiv ^i<f)r) yeyvfivojfieva koI TrapaKaXvTrro- 
fievov rjSr] rov Kv^epvqrr^v, dvahpapLOJV pLipeiev 
iavrov d)s Svvarov ■^v pidXiara TToppw rfjs 6XKdb8o$. 
TTplv 8' oXov Karahvvat ro acD/xa BeX^ivcov VTToSpa- 
ixovrcov dva(f)ipoiro , fxcaros (jl>v dmopias /cat dyvoias 
/cat rapa')(fjs ro Trpcorov CTrei 8e paarcovrj rrjs 
ox^crecos rjv, /cat ttoXXovs icopa dOpoi^ofievovs 
E Trepl avrov evfievcos /cat SiaSexofievovs d)s dvay- 
Kalov iv fiepei XeirovpyrjiJia /cat TrpoarJKov Trdaiv, 
Tf 8' oA/cdj (XTToAet^ Vetera TToppo) rov rd^ovs at- 
adrjocv TTapetx^, fx'qre roaovrov €(f)7] Seovs Trpos 
ddvarov avrcp fJi'qr* eTndvfXLas rov ^fjv oaov (fiiXo- 
TtjLtta? iyyeveadat Trpos rrjv crcorrjpLav, d)s 6eo<f)iX'rjs 
dvqp <f>aveiri /cat Xd^oi Tvepl decov So^av ^ifiaiov. 
djxa 8e KaOopcov rov ovpavov dardpcov TrepLTrXecov 
/cat TTjV aeXrjV7]v dviaxovaav €V(f)eyyrj /cat Kadapdv, 

^ iirq-aai F.C.B. (c/. e.g. Moralia, 347 e) : i^^a-ai. 
4S2 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 161 

his person, and to take for his shroud, while he was 
still hving, the elaborate attire which he wore at 
competitions, and to sing a final song to hfe as he 
ended it, and not to prove himself in this respect 
less generous than the swans. Accordingly he made 
himself ready, and, first saying that he was possessed 
by a desire to sing through one of his songs — the ode 
to Pythian Apollo —as a supphcation for the safety of 
himself and the ship and all on board, he took his 
stand beside the bulwark at the stem, and, after a 
prelude invoking the gods of the sea, he began the 
ode. He had not even half finished it as the sun was 
sinking into the sea and the Peloponnesus becoming 
visible. The sailors therefore waited no longer for 
the night-time, but advanced to the murderous deed ; 
whereupon Arion, seeing knives bared and the pilot 
already covering up his face, ran back and threw 
himself as far away from the ship as possible. But 
before his body was entirely submerged, dolphins 
swam beneath him, and he was borne upward, full 
of doubt and uncertainty and confusion at first. 
But when he began to feel at ease in being carried 
in this manner, and saw many dolphins gathering 
around him in a friendly way, and rehe\'ing one 
another as though such service in alternation were 
obligatory and incumbent upon all, and the sight 
of the ship left far behind gave a means to measure 
their speed, there came into his thoughts, as he said, 
not so much a feeUng of fear in the face of death, or 
a desire to Uve, as a proud longing to be saved that 
he might be shown to be a man loved by the gods, 
and that he might gain a sure opinion regarding them. 
At the same time, obser\ing that the sky was dotted 
with stars, and the moon was rising bright and clear, 

433 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

r earitxrqs Se TTavrr) Trjs daXdrnqs aKVfxovos woTrep 
TpL^ov avaaxt'^o^ievov ra> Spofjia), Siavoeladat rrpos 
avrov d)s ovK eariv els 6 rrjs Alktjs ofj^daXjxos, aAAa 

TTCtCTl TOVTOtS eTTLdKOTTel KVkXcO 6 060? TO. TT/OaTTO" 

fieva nept yrjv re /cat ddXarTav. rovrois Se 817 
Tois AoyiapioZs €(j>ri ro Ka/Jivov avrcp /cat ^apvvo- 
fievov tJSt) tov aajpiaros dva(j)ipeadai,, /cat reAo? 
€7ret rrjs a/cpa? d7ravrway]s dnoTopov /cat viJrqXrjs 
€V TTCtis (f>vXa^dp,€voi, /cat Kcifupavres ev XP'V '^o.p^^' 
Xovro^ rrjs yfjg warrep els Xipueva aKd(j)OS d<J(f)aXa)s' 
162 Kardyovres, TravrdrraaLV alcrdeadai deov Kv^epvrjOeL 
yeyovevai ttjv KopiS-qv. 

" Tau9*," 6 Topyos €^17, " TOV 'Apiovos gIttov- 
ros, TjpoixTjv avTOv ottoi^ ttjv vavv oterat Karaa^ri- 
aecv. 6 8e Trdvrois fi^v els KopLvdov, ttoXv fxevroi 
Kadvarepelv avrov yap ecnrepas eKireuovra irevra- 
Koaiiov ov jxetov oXeadai araSiuiV 8p6p.ov KOfjuaOrj- 
vat, /cat yaX-qvr^v evdvs Karaa^yeiv." ov prjv dXX' 
eavTov o Vopyos e(f)r] 7Tvd6p.evov tov re vavKXrjpov 
Tovvop,a Kal rov Kv^epvrjTov /cat rr^s veats to Trapd- 
ar)p,ov eK-nepujjaL irXola /cat aTpariajras inl rds /ca- 
B Tapaeis irapacf^vXd^ovras' rov S' 'Aptova fjuer avrov 
Kop,il,eLV aTTOKeKpvfipevov, ottojs p^} TrpoaiaOopevoi 
rrjv acxinqpiav Sta^yyotev ovrcos ovv eoi/ceVat 0eta 
Tvxj) TO TTpdypa' TrapeZvai yap avrovs dpa Sevpo 
/cat TTVvddveadai rrjs vecbs KeKparrjpevrjs vtto ra)v 
arparuaruiv avveiXrj^dai rovs ep^iropovs Kal vavras. 

^ ■n-apfVTixovTo Wyttenbach ; yap ivqxovTO, or ivfixovro irapa 
in one ms. 

* dff(f>a\u)s Reiske : datpaX^s. * Sttoi Hatzidakis : 6nov. 

" Possibly a reference to a line of an unknown tragedian 
found in Moralia, 1 124 f. 

434 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 161-162 

while the sea everywhere was without a wave as if a 
path were being opened for their course, he bethought 
himself that the eye of Justice is not a single eye 
only," but through all these eyes of hers God watches 
in every direction the deeds that are done here and 
there both on land and on the sea. By these re- 
flections, he said, the weariness and heaviness which 
he was already beginning to feel in his body were 
relieved, and when at the last, as the jutting pro- 
montory, rugged and lofty, appeared in their path, 
they rounded it with great caution, and sldrted 
close to the land as if they were bringing a boat 
safely into harbour, then he fully realized that his 
rescue had been guided by God's hand. 

" When Arion had told all this," continued Gorgus, 
" I asked him where he thought the ship would make 
harbour ; and he replied that it would surely come 
to Corinth, but its arrival would be much later ; for 
he thought that after he had thrown himself over- 
board in the evening, he had been carried a distance 
of not less than fifty or more miles, and a calm had 
fallen immediately." Gorgus went on to say that he 
had ascertained the name of the captain and of the 
pilot, and the ship's emblem, and had sent out boats 
and soldiers to the landing-places to keep strict 
watch ; moreover, he had brought Arion with him, 
carefully concealed, so that the guilty ones might 
not gain any premature information of his rescue 
from death, and make good their escape ; -and in 
fact the whole affair seemed like an event divinely 
directed, for his men were here just as he arrived, 
and he learned that the ship had been seized, and the 
traders and sailors arrested. 



VOL. II p 435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(162) 19. '0 fX€v ovv UepiavSpos eKeXevaev evdvs e|- 
avacrravTa tov Fopyov etV (J)vXaKr)v aTTodeadat tovs 
av8pas ov fxrjSels avrols Trpoaeiai fjurj^e <f>pdG€t, tov 
Apiova aeaojafjievov. 

U o AicrcoTTOs aAA vfiets, €(f)r], tovs e/xou? 
xX€vdt,€T€ KoXoLovs Kal KopaKas el SiaXeyovTai' 
8eX(f)LV€s Se TOLavTa veavLevovTai ; 

Kdyoj Trpog avTOV, " aXKo rt Xeycofxev," €(f)r]v, 

C CD AiacoTTe' TovTcp Be tco Xoyco TTLaTevofxevo) Kai 

ypa(f)Ofi€vcp Trap' -qpXv rtXiov rj x^^''' ^"^ Biayeyovev 

Kai (XTTO TOiV 'IvOU? Kol ^AddfJLaVTOS XP°^^^'" 

'0 8e JjoXojv vTToXa^cov " dXXd TavTa [xev, at 
Ato/cAet?, iyyvs dewv eaTCO Kal vnep rj/xas' 
dvdpcoTTLvov Be Kal Trpos "qp-ds to tov 'HacoBov 
TTados' aKrjKoas yap taats tov Xoyov." 
KJVK eyoiy , enrov. 

" 'AAAa piTjv d^Lov TTvdeaOai. MiATycrtou ydp, 
<bs eoiKEv, dvBpos, a> ^evias e/cotvcovei o 'HctioSos* 
D Kal BiatTris iv AoKpots, ttj tov ^evov dvyaTpi 
Kpv(f>a avyy€vop,€vov Kal (fxjjpadevTos viroiffLav 
ea^ev chs yvovs avr' dpx^S Kal avveTTLKpvifjas to 
dBLKrjp,a, p,7]B€v6s u)v atTLOs, opyrjs Be Kaipcp Kai 
Bia^oXrjs TTepLTreadjv dBiKaJs. dneKTeLvav yap avTov 
ol TTJs TTaiBiaKrjs dBeXcf>ol irepl to AoKpiKov Ne/iteiov 
eveBpevaavTes , Kal p,€T' avTov tov aKoXovdov, co 
TpcoiXos rjv 6vop,a. tcov Be acofidTcov eis ttjv 
^ elirov Reiske : elirev. 

" Ino also threw herself into the sea when the crazed 
Athamas was about to kill her, and was metamorphosed 
into the sea-goddess Leucothea. 

* The story is referred to as early as Thucydides (iii. 96), 
and seems to have received some embellishments later. Of 
the many references to the story (which may be found in 
486 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 162 

19- Accordingly Periander bade Gorgus to with- 
draw at once, and have these men put into prison 
where nobody should have access to them or tell 
them that Arion had been rescued. 

" Well ! well ! " said Aesop, " you all make fun of 
my jackdaws and crows if they talk with one another, 
and yet dolphins indulge in such pranks as this ! " 

" Let's change the subject, Aesop," said I to him ; 
" more than a thousand years have elapsed since this 
dolphin story has been believed and committed to 
writing in Greek lands, even from the days of Ino 
and Athamas." " 

Solon here entered the conversation : " Well, 
Diodes, let it be granted that these things are near 
to the gods and far beyond us ; but what happened 
to Hesiod is himian and within our ken. Very likely 
you have heard the story." '' 

" No, I have not," said I. 

" Well, it is really worth hearing, and so here it is. 
A man from Miletus, it seems, >vith whom Hesiod 
shared lodging and entertainment in Locris, had 
secret relations with the daughter of the man who 
entertained them ; and when he was detected, Hesiod 
fell under suspicion of ha\-ing known about the mis- 
conduct from the outset, and of ha\ing helped to 
conceal it, although he was in nowise guilty, but 
only the innocent \ictim of a fit of anger and preju- 
dice. For the girl's brothers killed him, lying in 
wait for him in the vicinity of the temple of Nemean 
Zeus in Locris, and with him they killed his servant 
whose name was Troilus. The dead bodies were 

Wyttenbach's note on the passage) perhaps the most interest- 
ing is in the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, lines 215-254 of 
Allen's edition (in the Oxford Classical Texts, 1912), which 
also assigns names to the persons concerned in it- 

437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(162) ddXaTrav (vadevrcov to fxev rov TpcoiXov, et? tov 
/^d(f>vov TTOTafxov €^co cf)opovfX€vov, eTTecrx^dr) rrepi- 
kXtjoto) xpipdhi jXiKpov VTrep ttjv ddXarrav dv- 
exovcrr]' Kal p-expf' vvv TpcocXos rj ;^oipds' /caAetraf 
E TOV 8' 'HctioSou rov veKpov evdus dvo yrjs vtto- 
Xa^ovaa ^eX(j)ivcov dyeXr] Trpos to 'Plov Kara rrjv 
MoAu/cpetav^ €K6fj.i,t,€. irvyxoLve Se AoKpols rj raJv 
'Picov KadeardJcra dvcna Kal Travr^yvpig, rjv dyovaiv 
en vvv i7n(l>avd)s Trepl rov roirov eKelvov. chs 8' 
a>(f)dr] TTpoa(f)€p6pi€vov ro acojxa, davp.dcravres to? 
eiKos 6771 rrjv dKrirjv KareSpa/JLOv, Kal yvcoptaavres 
ert rrpoa^arov rov veKpov diravra Sevrepa rov 
t,rjr€.Zv rov (f)6vov eiroiovvro 8ia rrjv So^av rov 
'HctcoSou. Kal rovro fiev rax€OJS enpa^av, cvpovres 
rovs <j>oveL?' avrov^ re yap Karerrovnaav i,6jvras 
Kal rrjv OLKLav KareaKai/jav. irdcfjrj 8' o 'HatoSos 
rrpos rip NejLtetac rov 8e rd(f)OV ol rroXXol ratv ^evcov 
ovK 'iuaaiv, dXX drroKeKpvTrrai ^rjrovpevos vtt 
F ^OpxopievLCoVy u)s (f)aGi, ^ovXojjievojv Kara XPV^P-^^ 
dveXeadat rd Xeiipava Kal ddiltai Trap* avrdls- 

€L7T€p OVV OVrCOS ^XOVOLV oiKeicos Kal (f)LXavdpix)7rCOf, 

Trpos rovs dTTodavovras, en p,dXXov clkos ian 
roLS t^djau ^OTjdeiv, Kal pidXiara KTjXrjdevras avXols 
Tj not, p-iXeai. rovn yap iqSr] rrdvreg lapLev, on 
fjLOvaiKrj rd ^<pa ravra x^'-P^^ '<^ct^ 8taj/cei, Kal 
TTapavrix^Tai roXs iXavvojxevoLS Trpos (pSrjv Kal 
avXov iv cvSia TTopeiais repTrofieva. p^atpei 8e 
^ Kara tt\v M.o\vKpeiav Palmer : koX rriv /ioXvKpiav. 

» Cf. Moralia, 984 d. 

^ These were common beliefs in ancient times as is 
attested by many writers. It may suffice here to refer only 
to Plutarch, Moralia, 704 f and 984a-985 c. 
488 



DINNER OF THE SE\^N WISE MEN, 162 

shoved out into the sea, and the body of Troilus, 
borne out into the current of the river Daphnus, was 
caught on a wave-washed rock projecting a Uttle 
above the sea-level ; and even to this day the rock is 
called Troilus, The body of Hesiod, as soon as it 
left the land, was taken up by a company of dolphins, 
who conveyed it to Rhium hard by Molycreia." It 
happened that the Locrians' periodic Rhian sacrifice 
and festal gathering was being held then, wliich even 
nowadays they celebrate in a noteworthy manner at 
that place. When the body was seen being carried 
towards them, they were naturally filled with astonish- 
ment, and ran down to the shore ; recognizing the 
corpse, which was still fresh, they held all else to be of 
secondar\- importance in comparison with investigat- 
ing the murder, on account of the repute of Hesiod. 
This they quickly accomplished, discovered the 
murderers, sank them ahve in the sea, and razed their 
house to the ground. Hesiod was buried near the 
temple of Nemean Zeus ; most foreigners do not 
know about his grave, but it has been kept concealed, 
because, as they say, it was sought for by the people 
of Orchomenos, who wished, in accordance with an 
oracle, to recover the remains and bury them in their 
own land. If, therefore, dolphins show such a tender 
and humane interest in the dead, it is even more likely 
that they should give aid to the living, and especially 
if they are charmed by the sound of flutes or some 
songs or other. For we are all well aware of the fact 
that these creatures delight in music and follow after 
it, and swim along beside men who are ro^Wng to the 
accompaniment of song and flute in a calm, and they 
enjoy travelhng in this way.* They take delight 



439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

163 Kal mj^ecn natBcov /cat KoXvfx^OLs dfjuXXdrai. 8t6 
Acai vo/xog aSeia? aypa(f)6s icrriv avrols' O-qpa yap 
ovheis ovSe Au/xaiVerai, ttXtjv orav ev Slktvois 
yevojjLevoi KaKovpycoai Trepl rrjv aypav, TrX-qyaZg 
KoXdt,ovrai KadaTrep TralSes dfxaprdvovreg. p.ip.vr]- 
fiai, Se Kal Trapd Aea^iwv dvSpcov aKovcras ucott]- 
piav TLvd Koprjs vtto h€X<j>Lvos e/c daXdrrrj^ yeveadai,' 
oAA' iyd) fxev ovk dKpi^o) rdXXa, 6 Se^ YiiTraKos 
CTTel yiyvixiOKei^ SiKaios iari Trepl tovtcov SteXdelv." 
20. "E^Ty roivvv 6 YiirraKog evSo^ov clvai Kal 
Hvrjuovevofievov vtto ttoXXcov tov Xoyov, xPV^H-ov 
yap yevofxevov rols OLKt^ovai, Aea^ov, orav epixari 

B TrXeovreg TTpocrrvxiocnv o KaXeZrai Mecrdyetov, 
TOT evravda IIoCTeiSaii't fiev ravpov 'A/x^irptTT/ 
Se Kal ^rjprjtai ^dJaav KadeZvat^ Trapdevov ovrojv 
ovv dpxy]y€Ta)v eTTTO. /cat fiaaiXlajv, oyhoov 8e 
TOV 'E;(eAaou TTvdoxpri<yTov rfjs aTrot/cta? -qyefiovos, 
ovTOS fiev Tjideos '^v ert, ra)v 8' CTrrd KXrjpovfjLevcov, 
ooois dyafiot TraZSes rjoav, KaraXapL^dvei Oiryarepa 
^fiLvdecos d KXrjpos. rjv iadijrc Kal -x^pvaat ko- 
ap.TJcravT€s d)s iyevovro Kara tov tottov, e/ieAAov 
ev^dfJievoL Kadr^aeLV. eru;^€ 8e tls epdjv avrrjs 
TCtJV avfXTrXeovTCov, ovk dyewrjs d)S eoiKC veavia?, 

C ov /cat Tovvofxa Scafivr^fiovevovatv "^vaXov. oStos 

^ dW iyii ix^v . . . 6 5i Bernardakis seems to be the best 
correction suggested as yet. Xiyu y.kv oOk dKpi^Qs dW 6 
TliTTaKos can also be defended : Xeyd/xeyov dvpi^Qs dW 6, 

* ^irei yiyvdKTKfi Wyttenbach : itriyiyi'daKet. 

^ Kadelvai Hercher : KadUvai. 

440 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 163 

also in children's s>\-imniing, and vie with them in 
diving.* For this reason they profit also by an un- 
wTitten law of immunity ; for nobody hunts them or 
injures them except when they get into the fisher- 
men's nets, and do havoc with the catch, and then they 
are punished with a whipping Hke naughty children. 
I remember also hearing from some men of Lesbos 
that the rescue of a certain maiden from the sea was 
effected by a dolphin, but, as I am not sure of the 
various details, it is only right that Pittacus, who 
does know them, should relate the tale." 

20. Pittacus thereupon said that it was a famous 
story ,^ and one mentioned by many, to this effect. An 
oracle had been given to those who were setting out 
to found a colony in Lesbos that when their voyage 
should bring them to a reef which is called " Midland," 
then they should cast into the sea at that place a bull 
as an offering to Poseidon, and to Amphitrite and the 
Nymphs of the sea a living virgin. The commanders 
were seven in number, all kings, and the eighth was 
Echelaiis, designated by the oracle at Delphi to head 
the colony, although he was young and still un- 
married. The seven, or as many as had unmarried 
daughters, cast lots, and the lot fell upon the 
daughter of Smintheus. Her they adorned with 
fine raiment and golden ornaments as they arrived 
opposite the spot, and purposed, as soon as they had 
offered prayer, to cast her into the sea. It happened 
that one of the company on board, a young man of 
no mean origin as it seems, was in love with her. 
His name, according to a tradition still preserved, was 

" See preceding note on page 438. 

* The story is briefiy mentioned by Plutarch. Momlia, 
984 E, and is given in full with some variations by Athenaeus, 
466 c, who quotes as his authority Anticleides an Athenian. 

4 1-1 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(163) a^ri-)(av6v riva tov ^o-qdelv rfj napdlvu) TrpodvfXLav 
ev Tco Tore Trddet Xa^ojv rrapa rov Katpov (Lpp^rjcre 
/cat TTepLTrXaKels op-ov avyKadrjKev iavrov et? ttjv 
daXarrav. evdvs p-€V ovv (f^ripLT] tls ovk e^ovaa 
TO ^e^aiov, dXXcos Se Treidovaa ttoXXovs iv tco 
crrparoTTeScp hiiqvix^'^ Trepl aiorrjpia^ avTUiv /cat 
KofXiSrjs. varepcp 8e XP^^V '''^^ "Ei^aAoi' (f)acnv 
iv Aecr^cp (f)avrjvaL /cat Xeyeiv (hs vtto heX(jiivcov 
<f)opr]rol Sia daXdrrrjs eKiriaotev d^Xa^els^ et? 
T^v "qTreipov, ert* S aAAa detorepa tovtojv c/cttAt^t- 
Tovra /cat KiqXovvra tovs ttoXXovs hi-qyeiadai, 
D Trdvroiv Se Triariv epyo) Trapaax^Zv . Kvp^aTos yap 
'r]Xi^drov irepl ttjv vrjaov alpofievov /cat rajv 
dvdpcoTTCOv SeSioTajv, aTravrrjaai pLOVov ttj daXdrrrj, 
/cat* CTTeadaL TToXvTToSas avTO) Trpos to Upov tov 
HoaeiScovos' J)v tov /xeytWou XiBov Kopiit,ovTO£ 
Xa^elv TOV "KvaXov /cat avadeZvai, /cat tovtov 
"YjVoXov KoXovpiev. " K.ad6Xov S ," eiWei^, " et 
TLs elSeiTj* hia<j)opdv dhvvdTOV /cat davvridovg 
/cat TTapaXoyov /cat TrapaSo^ov, fidXtaT^ dv, cb 
Xt'Acov, Kal pL-qTe^ TnaTevojv d)g ctvx^ p-riT aTnaTCJv, 
TO ' p,r)hev dyav ' chs crif irpoaeTa^as Stac/iyAarrot.* " 
21. Mera Se tovtov 6 ^ Avd^o-pocs elrrev otl tov 
0aAea» /caAtDs VTroXap,^dvovTOS iv Trdacv €tvat, 
E TOLS KvpLojTdTOis /xe/oecTi TOV Koapiov /cat /LteytCTTOis" 
ijivx^^v, OVK d^Lov icTTi davpidl^eiv et ra /caAAtCTxa 

1 d;8Xaj8m F.C.B. (c/. (t<2oi', Moralia, 984. e): d^Xa^Qi. 
^ irt Hercher: ean. 
^ rji daXoLTTrj, Kal F.C.B. : daXdrTT]. 
* et'SeiTj Pflugk : fldfv 7j. * Kal /x-qre] tir)T€ Wy ttenbach. 

* 5ia<j)v\a.TToi. Wyttenbach : Sia^uXdrrwy. , 

442 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 163 

Enalus. He, conceiving a despairing desire to help 
the maiden in her present misfortune, at the critical 
moment hurriedly clasped her in his arms, and threw 
liiniself with her into the sea. Straightway a rumour 
spread, having no sure foundation, but nevertheless 
carrying conviction to many in the community, re- 
garding their safety and rescue. Later, as they say, 
Enalus appeared in Lesbos, and told how they had been 
borne by dolphins through the sea, and put ashore 
unharmed on the mainland. Other things he related 
more miraculous even than this, which astonished 
and fascinated the crowd, and he gave good grounds 
for beheving them all by a deed which he did ; for 
when a towering wave precipitated itself on the shores 
of the island, and the people were in a state of terror, 
he, all by himself, went to meet the sea, and cuttle- 
fish followed him to the shrine of Poseidon . the biggest 
of which brought a stone "■ vvith him, and this stone 
Enalus took and dedicated there, and this we call 
Enalus. " And in general," he continued, " if a 
man reahzes a difference between the impossible 
and the unfamiliar, and between false reasoning and 
false opinion, such a man, Chilon, who would neither 
believe nor disbelieve at haphazard, would be most 
observ-ant of the precept, ' Avoid extremes,' as you 
have enjoined." 

21. Follo-rting him Anacharsis said that as Thales 
had set forth the excellent hypothesis that soul 
exists in all the most dominant and most important 
parts of the universe,^ there is no proper ground for 
wonder that the most excellent things are brought 

" Athenaeus (466 c) says a golden cup was brought out 
of the sea by Enalus. 

* Cf. Dials, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, vol. i. p. 12 
(A 22). 

VOL. II P 2 443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Trepalverai, deov yvcofir). " iJjvx'rJ9 yap opyavov 
TO au)p.a, deov 8' rj i/j^XV' '^^^ KaOaTrep aajfia 
TToXXag p.kv e^ avrov KLV-qaets ^x^iy to.? Se TrXeiaras 
Koi KaXXiaras vtto tf^vx^js, ovtcos av ttolXlv -q 
i/jvx'r] TO. pL€V V(f)* eavrrjg KLVovfxevr] TrpdrTei, ra 8e 
to) deip TTapex^i XP^H'^^V xarevOvveiv /cat TpeTTCtv 
eavTTjv rj ^ovXoiro, TravroiV opydvtov evrpeTreararov 
ovaa. heivov yap/' eLTrev, " el TTvp fiev opyavov 
6CTTI deov /cat TTvev/xa /cat vSojp /cat I'e^r; Kat 
F op^poi, St' Sv TToAAd fxev aoj^et re /cat rpe<^eL, 
TToAAa 8 (XTToAAuCTt /Cat dvatpet, t^chois 8e p^pT^rat 
77/30? ouSeF aTrAco? ovSeTTCo riJov vtt' avrov yiyvo- 
fxevcov. dXXd p-aXXov eiKos e^-qprrjpeva^ rijs rov 
deov Bvvdjjieajs VTTOvpyelv, /cat avpLTradeiv rats 
rov deov Ktvijaeaiv ^ TiKvdais ro^a Xvpai 8' 
"EAAr^at Kat auAot crofXTTadovaw ." 

'Etti 8e rovroLs 6 TTOLrjrrjs Xepfftas" dXXojv re 
aoidevrcDV aveXirLarcos epbepivriro /cat l^vifjeXov 
rov Hepidv^pov Trarpos, ov ol 7Tep,<^devres dveXetv 
veoyvov ovra Trpoaixeihiaaavr ^ avroZs dnerpdTTOvro' 
/cat TrdXtv fieravo-qoavres el,r]rovv /cat ovx evpov 
164 els KvipeXrjv vtto rrjs pr}rp6s aTToredevra. 8id 
/cat rov oIkov ev lS.eX(f)ols KareaKevaaev 6 K^vi/jeXos, 
(jjcTTTep deov rore rov KXavdpvptafxov einaxovros, 
OTTios SiaXddot rovs l,r)rovvras. 

Kat d UirraKos irpoaayopevaas rov HepiavSpov 

^ i^rjpT7)iJ.^va Meziriacus : (^■qprr^ij.^vwv. 

" TrpocfxeiSidcravT Reiske from Herodotus, v. 92 : irpoa- 
oiu\rj<TavT''. 

" Cf. Moralia, 404 b. 
* The story is found in Herodotus, v. 92. 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 163-164. 

to pass by the Avill of God. " For the body," he 
continued, " is the soul's instrument, and the soul is 
God's instrument ; " and just as the body has many 
movements of its owti, but the most, and most ex- 
cellent, from the soul, so the soul performs some 
actions by its own instinct, but in others it yields 
itself to God's use for Him to direct it and turn it in 
whatsoever course He may desire, since it is the most 
adaptable of all instruments. For it is a dreadful 
mistake to assume that, on the one hand, fire is 
God's instrument, and wind andwater also, and clouds 
and rain, by means of which He preserves and fosters 
many a thing, and ruins and destroys many another, 
but that, on the other hand. He never as yet makes 
any use whatever of living creatures to accomphsh 
any one of His purposes. Nay, it is far more likely 
that the living, being dependent on God's power, 
serve Him and are responsive to His movements 
even more than bows are responsive to the Scythians 
or lyres and flutes to the Greeks." 

Thereupon the poet Chersias cited, among the 
cases of persons who had been saved when their 
plight seemed hopeless, the case of Cypselus,* the 
father of Periander, who, when he was a new-born 
babe, smiled at the men who had been sent to make 
away with him, and they turned away. And when 
again they changed their minds, they sought for 
him and found him not, for he had been put away in 
a chest by his mother. It was because of this that 
Cypselus constructed the building at Delphi, firmly 
believing that the god had at that time stopped his 
crying so that he might escape the notice of those 
who were searching for him. 

And Pittacus, addressing Periander, said, " Chersias 

445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(164) €v y ," €(f)r], " IlepiavSpe, XepCTta? €7Toir]ae 
jjivrjadels rod olkov ttoXXolkls yap i^ovX6ixr]v 
epeadai ae tcov ^arpaxcov rrjv alriav eKeivcov, ri 

pOvXoVTai 776/31 TOV TTvdjJL€Va TOV (j)oiviKOS iv- 
r€TOp€VfJL€VOi TOCTOVTOL, Kal TLVa TTpOS TOV dcOV Tj 

TOV avaOevra Xoyov exovat." 

Tov Se TLepidvSpov tov \epaiav ipcordv KeXev- 
aavTos, elSevaL yap €K€ivov Kal "napelvai to) 
B l^vilteXcp KadiepovvTL tov olkov, 6 Xepata? fietSidaas 
aXX ovK av," €(J)T], " ^pdaaipn Trporepov ■^ TTvde- 
adat, TTapd tovtojv 6 tl ^ovXerai to ' fxrj^ev dyav ' 
avroLs Kal to ' yvcodt cravrov,' Kal tovto Srj to 
TToXXovs fiev dydfiovs ttoXXovs 8' aTTLGTOVs ivLovs 
oe Kal d(j}cLvovs TrerroLrjKos ' iyyva irdpa S' ara.' 

It o, eiTTev o LLLTTaKos, rjixojv oerj ravra 
<f)pa^6vTa)v ; TrdXai, yap AIo-cuttov Xoyov els e/ca- 
OTOV ws eoLKe tovtcvv avvredeiKoTos eTratvelg." 

Kat o AtaojTTOs, " orav ye TTai^r) Trpos ifxe 
Xe/3crtas'/' eiTre* " a7TOvSdl,cov 8e TovTa)v "Ofirjpov 
evper-qv dnoSeLKwai Kat ^tjcl tov jxev "E/cropa 
Q yiyvcoaKeiv iavTov tols yap dXXois iTTiTiOefMevos 
A'lavTos dXecLve fJ-dx''^v TeAa/xojrtaSao • 

TOV 8' '08uo"CTea tov ' )U,7j8ev dyav ' eTTai,V€Tr]v to) 
Ato/xTjSei TTapaKeXeveaQai 



' The frogs and the pahn-tree are mentioned also in 
Moralia, 399 f. 

44§ 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 164 

certainly did well to mention the building, for I 
have often desired, Periander, to ask you the reason 
for those frogs, and what is their significance, carved 
as they are in such numbers about the base of the 
palm-tree," and what relation they have to the god 
or to the dedicator." • 

Periander bade him ask Chersias, for Chersias, he 
said, knew and was present when Cypselus conse- 
crated the building ; but Chersias said ^\^th a smile, 
" No, I will not tell until I learn from our friends 
here what significance they give to the precepts, '' 
' Avoid extremes ' and ' Know thyself,' and, in par- 
ticular, that one which has kept many from marrying, 
and many from trusting, and some even from 
speaking, and this is it : ' Give a pledge, and mischief 
attends.' " 

" What need of us to tell you that ? "said Pittacus ; 
" since for this long time you have been praising 
the stories which Aesop has composed touching each 
of them, as it seems." 

And Aesop said, " Only when Chersias is poking 
fun at me ; but when he is serious he points to 
Homer as their inventor, and says that Hector 
' knew himself ' because he attacked all the others, 
but 

Only with Ajax, Telamon's son, he avoided a conflicL* 

And Odysseus, he says, gives praise to ' Avoid 
extremes ' when he enjoins 

* For information about these famous precepts reference 
may be made to Plato, Protagoras, p. 343 b, and Charmidet, 
p. 165 a; Aristotle, iiA«/orjc, ii. 12. 14: Pausanias, x. 24. 1; 
JPlutarch, Moralia, 116 c, 385 d, and 511 b, and J)e vita et 
poesi Homer i, 151. 

« Homer. //. xi. 542 {Moralia^ 24 c). 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(164) TvSclSr], jxrjT* ap' {xe fiaX atvee /XT^re ri vet/cei. 

rrjv h eyyvrjv oi [xev dXXot, XoiBopeZv avrov ws 
rrpdyixa SeiXaiov /cat fidraiov otovrai Xeyovra 

SeiAat Toi SetAtuj/ ye /cat eyyuat iyyvdaaOai, 

^epaias S' ovroai (f>r)cn ttjv "Att^v utto tou Ato? 
pi<f)rjvat rfj iyyvr) Trapaytyvofievrjv rjv iyyvrjad- 
D fJL€vos 6 Zeu? icrcfidXrj Trepl rrjs rod 'H/aa/cAeous' 
yei'eaea)?." 

LTToAapcov o o ZjoAcov ovkovv, ^(p^, Kai 
TW ao^ctirdra) TnarevTeov^ 'Ofi'qpu) 

vv^ S' tJSt] reXedet' dyadov Kol wktl mdiadai,. 

a7T€iaavT€s ovv Moucrat? Kal Yloaeihajvi /cat 
Ai^i(f)trpLTrj SiaXvcofiev el BoKeZ to ovjXTToaLOV." 

Tout' ecrx^v, cS NiKapx^, irepas r) t6t€ avvovala. 

* iTiO'TevT^ov] Treia-reoy Hatzidakis. 



4418 



DINNER OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN, 161 

Son of Tydeus, praise me not too much nor chide me." 

And as for the pledge, other people think that Homer 
vihfies it as a worthless and futile thing when he says, 

Worthless are pledges of worthless folk to accept at 
their pledging ; * 

but Chersias here asserts that Mischief was hurled 
from heaven by Zeus because she was present at 
the pledge which Zeus gave when he was befooled 
in regard to the birth of Heracles." " 

Solon here put in his word : " Well, then, we should 
have faith in the very great wisdom of Homer who 
also says,"* 

Night-time advances apace : 'tis well to pay heed to 
the night-time. 

So, if it please the company, let us offer a hbation 
to the Muses and Poseidon and Amphitrite, and be 
going." 

And thus, Nicarchus, the party came to an end. 

" Homer, 7Z. x. 249 (Moralia, 57 e) 

» Homer, Orf. viii. 351. 

• Homer, 11. xix. 91-131. 

" Ibid. vii. 282 and 293. 



449 



(>;•'. 



SUPERSTITION 

(DE SUPERSTITIONE) 



INTRODUCTION 

Plutarch's essay on Superstition is, in the main, an 
attempt to prove that superstition is worse than 
atheism. Its somewhat impassioned tone savours 
more of the emotional sermon than of the carefully 
reasoned discourse, and suggests that it was originally 
prepared for public presentation. 

Wyttenbach was disturbed because in the cata- 
logue of Lamprias, in which this essay is No. 155, the 
title is given as Uepl SeLcnSaLfiovLas Trpos 'KTrUovpov, 
and he thought that this title might refer to some 
other treatise of Plutarch. The explanation is so 
simple that the only surprising thing is that it should 
have escaped a man of Wyttenbach 's acumen. On 
the first page of the essay are the words, " the uni- 
verse . . . atoms and void . . . assumption is false." 
Then, as now, librarians and reviewers looked at 
the first page, and reached their conclusions ; so it 
was only natural that the compiler of the catalogue 
should conclude that the rest of the book was equally 
hostile to Epicurus. On the other hand, this affords 
interesting evidence that the compiler of the cata- 
logue of Lamprias probably had a copy of Plutarch's 
works before him when he drew up his list. 

The MS. tradition of this essay is better than of 
many others, and one ms. (D) has preserved many 
452 



SUPERSTITION 

excellent readings." Only one passage, a quotation 
(170 b), presents serious difficulty, and of this Pro- 
fessor Goodwin remarked : "As to the original Greek, 
hardly a word can be made out with certainty." 

Mention should be made of a separate edition 
and a parallel EngHsh translation of this essay in a 
book entitled " Ilepi S€«ri8ai/zovia?. Plutarchus and 
Theophrastus on Superstition with various appen- 
dices and a hfe of Plutarchus. Printed a.d. 1828. 
(Privately) printed by Juhan Hibbert . . . Kentish 
To>vn." The translation is very Hteral, but is some- 
times an improvement on that of Wilham Baxter 
in the translation of Plutarch by " Several Hands " 
(London, 1684—94'). Intimate and amusing is the 
preface of the author, who, in his notes, admits that 
he has never read Plato, but ends his preface with 
these words : "I terminate this my Preface by con- 
signing all * Greek Scholars ' to the special care of 
Beelzebub." 

A spirited defence of this essay (if any defence 
is needed) may be found in John Oakesmith's The 
Religion of Plutarch (London, 1902), chap. ix. pp. 
179 ff. 

"In spite of the fact that Pohlenz in his preface to Vol. I. 
(Leipzig, 1925) of the Moralia (p. xiv) uses these words : 
" Codicem Paris D e recensione libidinosissima ortum " ! 
Paton, who edited this essay, accepts the readings of D a 
good part of the time, and his edition would have been more 
intelligible had he accepted them more often. 



453 



E nEPI AEISIAAIM0NIA2 

1. Tr;? 7T€pi decbv dfiadtas /cat ayvoia? €vdv9 
e| apxfjs St'xa. pveiarjs to pbkv wuTrep ev x^tipiot? 
aKXr]poZs ToXs dvTLTVTTOts rideai Trjv ddeor-qra, to 
8' coaTrep €v vypols toTs aTraAot? nqv SetCTtoat- 
ixoviav 7T€7TOLr]K€v. d-TTacra /xer ovv Kpiais^^^vorjg, 
dXXios T€ Kav fi -rrepl ravra, p.oxdr]p6v fi 8e Kat 
irddos upoaeari., pLOX^ripoTarov . irdv yap Trados^ 
F eot/ce dTrdrr] (fiXeyp-atvovaa etvaL- /cat Kadairep ax 
/iera rpavfjuaros e/cjSoAat tcDi^ dpQpoiv, ovrojs at 
fiCTCt nddovs hiaaTpo<j)al rrjs i/jvxfjs x^-^^'^^'^^P^'" 

'Ato/xou? Ti? oterai /cat /cevov dpxa? efvat rcov 
oXojv if)€v8r]s 7) VTToXrjifjLs, dAA' eA/co? ou Troiet ouoe 
a(f)vyix6v oi5S' oSuktji' rapdrrovaav. 

'T-rroXafjL^dvei ri? toi^ ttAoutov dya^ov efmt 

165 /xeyiaroi'- toOto to iftevhos lov e^et, vip,erai rrjv 

ifjvxvv, e^iarqaiv, ovk id KadevSeiv, oiorpuiv 

ilxTTLTrXiqaLV, (hdeZ Kara -nerpcjv, dyx^h ttjv rrap- 

prjaiav dcfiatpetTai,. 

UdXiv oiovrai rives elvai acop,a rr]v dperrjv 
Kal rrjv /ca/ciav alaxpdv tcrcos ro dyv6r]fxa, dprjvojv 

" Cf. Plutarch, lAfe of Alexander, chap. Ixxv. (p. 706 b) 
and Life of Camillus, chap. vi. (p. 132 c). 

" Aimed at the theories of Epicurus, and possibly ot 
Deniocritus. 



454 



'S foan 



SUPERSTITION 

1. Igxorance and blindness in regard to the gods 
divides itself at the very beginning into two streams, 
of which the one produces in hardened characters, 
as it were in stubborn soils, atheism, and the other in 
tender characters, as in moist soils, produces super- 
stition.** Every false judgement, and especially con- 
cerning these matters, is a mischievous thing ; but 
where emotion also enters, it is most mischievous. 
For every emotion is likely to be a delusion that 
rankles ; and just as dislocations of the joints accom- 
panied by lacerations are hardest to deal with, so 
also is it with derangements of the soul accompanied 
by emotion. 

A man thinks that in the beginning the universe 
was created out of atoms and void.* His assumption 
is false, but it causes no sore, no throbbing, no 
agitating pain. 

A man assumes that wealth is the greatest good. 
This falsehood contains venom, it feeds upon his soul, 
distracts him, does not allow him to sleep, fills him 
with stinging desires, pushes him over precipices, 
chokes him, and takes from him his freedom of speech. 

Again, some people think that virtue and \ice are 
corporeal." This piece of ignorance is disgraceful, 

" Aimed at the Stoics, who referred all qualities to the 
body. Cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 1084 a. 

455 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(165) Se /cat oSvpfxaJv ovk a^iov dAA' aiTives elai 
TOiavrai Kpiaeis Kal inroX-^ipetg 

CO tAtjixov aperr], Aoyos ap rjaU • eyoj oe ere 
ojs epyov TJaKOVV 

a^eig ttjv ttXovtottolov dBiKiav Kal rrjv yovLfiov 
aTTacnqs rjSovrjs aKoXaaiav, ravras a^iov iariv 
B OLKTLpcLv ofiov Kal Svax^po-LveLv, on TToAAd vo- 
(jrjfxara /cat Tradr] KaOdrrep evXds Kal aKOiXrjKas 
evTCKTOvai rat? ^v^^^aig Ttapovaai. 

2. OvKovv Kal irepl cLv 6 Xoyos, rj p.ev ddeoTTjs 
Kplats ovaa <j>avX'q rov firjSev etvat [laKapiov /cat 
d(f)dapTov elg dirddeidv riva SoKeZ ttj (XTncrTta rov 
deiov 7T€pi,(f)€peLv, Kal reXos icrrlv avrfj rov [mt] 
vop^L^Civ deovs TO p,rj (f)0^eia9aL- rrjv SeicrtSat/xov'tav 
Se firjvvei Kal rovvop-a ho^av ipLTradrj Kal Beovs 
TTOiTjTtKrjv VTToXrjijjiv ovaav iKTaTTCtvovvros Kai 
crvvrpi^ovTos rov dvdpcjTTov, ol6p,€vov p,ev etvat 
deovg, elvaL Se XvTrrjpovs Kal ^Xa^epovs- eoi/ce 

C yap 6 jxev ddeos dKLv-qros elvai, rrpog to detov, o 
Se SetcrtSat/xa»v Kivovp^evos co? ov TrpocrqKei Sia- 
aTpi(j)eadai. r) yap dyvoia to) piev dmaTiav rov 
cocf>eXovvTOS ip,7T€7TOLrjK€, TO) Se /cat So^av ort 
^AttTTret TTpocrredetKev. odev -q p,ev ddeoTTjs Xoyos 
ecrrt Stei/reucr/xeVos', rj Se SetatSat/xoi/ia Trddos €/c 
Xoyov ipevSovs eyyeyevr^p^evov . 

3. Ai,(T)(pd pev 817 TrdvTa rd rry? ^^x^js vocrrjpiaTa 
Kal Trddr], to Se yavpov eviois opLOis /cat vifnjXov 

" Author unknown ; cf. Nauck, Traff. Graec. Frag. p. 910, 
Adespota, No. 374. 

456 



SUPERSTITION, 165 

perhaps, but it is not worthy of wailings or lamenta- 
tions. But consider judgements and assumptions 
that are like this : 

Poor virtue ! A mere name thou art, I find. 
But I did practise thee as real ! « 

and thereby I gave up ^\Tongdoing which is pro- 
ductive of wealth, and licentiousness which begets 
every sort of pleasure. These it is right and proper 
that we pity, and at the same time loathe, because 
their presence engenders many distempers and 
emotions, Uke maggots and grubs, in men's souls. 

2. To come now to our subject : atheism, which is 
a sorry judgement that there is nothing blessed or 
incorruptible, seems, by disbelief in the Dignity, to 
lead finally to a kind of utter indifference, and the 
end which it achieves in not belie\"ing in the existence 
of gods is not to fear them. But, on the other hand, 
superstition, as the very name (dread of deities) 
indicates, is an emotional idea and an assumption 
productive of a fear which utterly humbles and 
crushes a man, for he tliinks that there are gods, but 
that they are the cause of pain and injur}-. In fact, 
the atheist, apparently, is unmoved regarding the 
Divinity, whereas the superstitious man is moved as 
he ought not to be, and his mind is thus perv^erted. 
For in the one man ignorance engenders disbelief 
in the One who can help him, and on the other it 
bestows the added idea that He causes injury. 
Whence it follows that atheism is falsified reason, 
and superstition is an emotion engendered from 
false reason. 

3. Clear it is that all distempers and emotions of 
the soul are disgraceful, but in some of them are to 

457 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(165) Kat Strjpfjievov eveartv vtto kov^ottjtos, hpacrrqpiov 
o opfJLTJs ovSev cos €77o? etTTetv aTTeaTeprjTai. 
aAAa TOVTO Srj to kolvov eyKX-q/jua TravTOs Trddovs 
eoTiv, oTt rats TrpaKTiKaZs opfxals €K^Lat,6p,€va 

-L' KaT€7T€iy€i Kol avvTeCvei rov Xoyiaixov. fxovos 8' 
o (popos, ovx "^TTov cov ToA^Tj? ivSerjs 7] XoyiafJLOV, 
aTTpaKTov ex^t fat airopov Kat ap.rj-)(a.vov ro dXoyi- 
arov. fj Koi help,a kol rdp^os avrov ro avvSeov 
ofiov T7]v ^VXW ^^'' Tapdrrov uivopiaarai. 

^opcDV 8e TrdvTOjv aTrpaKroraTos Kal dTTopcoraTOS 
o rfjs SeiCTiSai/xop-ta?. ov <f}o^€LTai ddXarrav 6 fjbr] 
trXecov ouSe TToXe/xov 6 fj,r) aTparevoficvos, ovSe 
Xyjarag 6 oiKovpcov ovSe avK0(f)dvTr)v 6 Trevr^s ovhe 
(poovov 6 iSiwT-qs, ovhe aeiajxov 6 iv VaXdrais ouSe 
Kepavvov 6 iv AWloi/jlv 6 8e deovs Behicbs Trdvra 

^ Se'Sie, yrjv OdXarrav depa ovpavov okotos <f><^S 
KXrjSova atojTTrjv oveipov.^ ol hovXoi rcur heoTToraJv 
eTTiXavOdvovraL KadevSovres, rols TTcS-qrais eireXa- 
<f)pvv€L Tov SeCT/xov o vTTVos , (f)Xeyjxovai nepl rpav- 
fiara /cat vofxal crapKos drjpicoheis /cat TrepicoSwiai 
KoifxcofJievcDV d(f)L(7ravTaL' 

c5 ^iXov VTTVOV diXyrjTpov eTTiKovpov voaov, 
d)S fjBv fioi TTpoarjXOeg iv Seovri ye. 

tout' ov SlScdgiv elrrelv r) SeiatSaifJLOvia {jxovr) yap 

^ 6i'eipoi'] iiirap ovupov Bywater. 



" The derivations of " terror " from " tie," and " awe " 
from " awake " are not more fanciful than those in which 
Plutarch indulges. 

458 



SUPERSTITION. 165 

be found pride, loftiness, and exaltation, o^^•ing to 
their uplifting power ; and no one of them, we might 
say, is destitute of an impulse to activity. But this 
general complaint may be made against ever}' one 
of the emotions, that by their urgings to be up and 
doing thev press hard upon the reasoning power and 
strain it. But fear alone, lacking no less in boldness 
than in power to reason, keeps its irrationality im- 
potent, helpless, and hopeless. It is on this ground 
that the power of fear to tie down the soul, and at the 
same time to keep it awake, has come to be named 
both terror and awe.* 

Of all kinds of fear the most impotent and helpless 
is superstitious fear. No fear of the sea has he who 
does not sail upon it, nor of war he who does not 
serve in the army, nor of highwaymen he who stays 
at home, nor of a blackmailer he who is poor, nor of 
envy he who holds no office, nor of earthquake he 
who is in Gaul,^ nor of the lightning-stroke he who 
is in Ethiopia ; but he who fears the gods fears all 
things, earth and sea, air and sky, darkness and 
hght, sound and silence, and a dream. Slaves in 
their sleep forget their masters, sleep makes light 
the chains of prisoners, and the inflammations sur- 
rounding wounds, the savage gnawing of ulcers in 
the flesh, and tormenting pains are removed from 
those who are fallen asleep : 

Dear soothing balm of sleep to help my ill. 
How sweet thy coming in mine hour of need.* 

Superstition does not give one a right to say this ; 

* Cf. Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea, ill. 7, and Pliny, 
Natural History, ii. 80 (195). 
' Euripides, Orestes, 211-12. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ov aTTevSerai Trpos rov vttvov, ouSe rfj tffvxf] ttotc 
yovv StSojcrii/ dvaTTvevaai /cat dvadapprjaat Tag tti- 
F Kpas /cat ^apetas Trepl rov deov Sofa? d-naxjapivrj) , 
aAA ioarrep ev aaepcov x^PV '^^ vttvco tujv oeiat- 
oaipLovoiv etSojAa (fypiKcoht) /cat rcpdaria (fydapLara 
/cat TToivds TLvas iyeipovaa /cat arpo^ovaa rrjv 
auXiav ijsvx^v €k8h6k€i rots oveipoLs e/c tcov vttvojv, 
fjLaaril^ojjievrjv /cat KoXal^opievrjv avrrjv j5^' avrijs 
a>? vcf) irepov, /cat Setva TTpoardypuara /cat dX- 
XoKora Xa/jL^dvovaav. efr' i^avaaravres ov /car- 
e<j>povrj(Tav ovhe KareyeXaaav, ouS' -rjadovTO ore 
Tiov rapa^dvTcov ovSev rjv dXr/OLvov, dXXd aKidv 
166 (fyevyovres drrdT-qg ovhev KaKov ixova-qs vrrap 
i^avaTojaLV iavrovs /cat SaTravcDcrt Kat rapdrrov- 
(Jiv, etV dyvpras koI y6r]Tas ifiireaovres Xeyovras 

aAA' etr' evvirvov ^dvTaap.a (f)0^rj, 
Xdovias 6* 'E/cttTT^? Kcofiov eSefo), 

Ti^p' TTeptpLaKTptav /caAet ypavv /cat ^dvTcaov aeau- 
Tov ets" OdXarrav /cat Kadiaas ev rfj yfj SirjjjLepevaov. 

(5 pdp^ap* €^€vp6vT€s "KXXrjves /ca/ca 
TT^ SetCTtSai/Aovta, 7Tr]X(x>aeis Kara^op^opcuaeLS )Sa- 
TTTiafxovs,^ piipCLs €ttI TTpoacoTTov, aiaxpo-9 vpo- 
KadiaeLS, dXXoKorovs TrpoarKUVT^aeis. St/cato; tw 
aTOfjLart tovs KidapcoSovs cKeXevov aSeiv ol Tqv 
B v6fJii[xov fiovaiKTjv aa>l,€LV hoKovvres' "qfiets Se rot? 
^ PairTi(Ti~i.ovs Bentley : cra^^aTicyfiovs. 

" Author unknown ; c/. Nauck, Tra*/. Graec. Frag. p. 910, 
Adespota, No. 375. 

'' Euripides, The Trojan Women, 764. 

460 



SUPERSTITION, 165-166 

for superstition alone makes no truce with sleep, and 
never gives the soul a chance to recover its breath 
and courage by putting aside its bitter and despond- 
ent notions regarding God ; but, as it were in the 
place of torment of the impious, so in the sleep 
of the superstitious their malady calls up fearful 
images, and horrible apparitions and divers forms of 
punishment, and, by keeping the unhappy soul on 
the rack, chases it away from sleep bv its dreams, 
lashed and punished by its own self as if by another, 
and forced to comply with dreadful and extraordinary 
behests. When, later, such persons arise from their 
beds, they do not contemn nor ridicule these things, 
nor realize that not one of the things that agitated 
them was really true, but, trying to escape the 
shadow of a delusion that has nothing bad at the 
bottom, during their waking hours they delude and 
waste and agitate themselves, putting themselves 
into the hands of conjurors and impostors who say 
to them : 

If a vision in sleep is the cause of your fear 
And the troop of dire Hecate felt to be near," 

then call in the old crone who performs magic puri- 
fications, dip yourself in the ocean, and sit down on 
the ground and spend the whole day there. 

Greeks from barbarians finding evil ways ! * 

because of superstition, such as smearing with mud, 
wallo\ving in filth, immersions, casting oneself do^vn 
with face to the ground, disgraceful besieging 
of the gods, and uncouth prostrations. " To sing 
^vith the mouth aright " was the injunction given to 
the harp-players by those who thought to preserve 
the good old forms of music ; and we hold it to be 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(166) Oeois d^tovfJi€v opdco ru) aroyLari /cat BtKato) -npoo- 
evx^adai, /cat JM17 Tr]V eVt ribv a-nXdyxvoiv jikv 
yXoirrav et Kadapd Kal 6p9r] okottcXv, Trjv 8' iav- 
rcbv Siaarp€(f)OVTas Kal ixoXvvovras droTroLS ovofiaai. 
/cat pT^/xacTt ^ap^apiKots KaTaiaxvvetv Kal Tiapa- 
vofxelv t6^ delov Kal rrdrpLOV a^tco/xa rrjs evae^etas. 
'AAA' o ye KCOjJLLKos ovK d-qhojs e^prjKe ttov 
TTpos Tovs KaraxpvcrovvTas rd KXivihia /cat /car- 
apyvpovvras 

6 Ti fjiovov Tjpuv TTpoiK choiKav ot peot" 
VTTVOV^ ri Tovro TToXvreXeg aavro/ TTOtels; 

C ecrrt 8e /cat vrpo? Toi^ Setcrt8at/>tova etTretv, "o Tt^rov 
U77I/OV ot 0eot Xr]dr]V KaKOiv ehoaav rjixlv /cat ava- 
iravcriv, ri rovro KoXaoT-qpiov cravTO) Trotet? €7"- 
[xovov Kal 6bvvr]p6v, rijs dOXtas ipvxrjs et? aAAov 
VTTVOV^ dTToSpdvat, p,7] hvvap,€V7]s;" 6 'Hpa/cAetroj 
(f>r)aL rols eyp-qyopooiv eva Kal kolvov Koaixov etv-at, 
TcDv Se KOLixojfJidvojv eKaarov els lSlov avaarpe- 
<f)eadaL. tw 8e BeimSaifxovi kolvos ouSet? eari 
Koapios' ovre yap eyprjyopojs rep ^povovvri XPV'^^'' 
ovre KOipnop-evos dTraXXdrTerat, tov rapdrrovTos, 
dXX' dveipwrrei [xev 6 Xoyiapios,^ eyprjyope 8' o 
(f)6^os del, (f)vyr) 8' ovk eariv ovhe peTacrraaLS . 

4. "Hv (j>o^ep6s ev Sa/ioj Y{oXvKpdrr]s rvpavvos, 

'^v ev Kopivdcp Uepiavhpo'S, aAA' ovhels e^o^etro 

D rovTovs p-eraards els ttoXlv eXevdepav Kal ^hr]po- 

Kparovpevqv. 6 he Tr)V twv 6ed)v dpxrj^ d)s rv- 

1 t6] eh rb Hercher. 

* Tj/xli' . . . Oeol Meineke: ?5u}Kav i)fuv oi Oeol npoiKa. 

^ VTTVOP F.C.B. : Tbv virvov. 

* aavTi^ Meineke : aeavrt^. 

* virvov\ Tdirov Hercher. 

462 



SUPERSTITION, 166 

meet to pray to the gods with the mouth straight and 
aright, and not to inspect the tongue laid upon the 
sacrificial oflPering to see that it be clean and straight, 
and, at the same time, by distorting and sullying 
one's owTQ tongue with strange names and barbarous 
phrases, to disgrace and transgress the god-given 
ancestral dignity of our religion. 

Nor is there lack of humour in what the comic 
poet " has somewhere said with reference to those 
who cover their bedsteads with gold and silver : 

The one free gift the gods bestow on us. 

Our sleep, why make its cost to you so much ? 

But to the superstitious man it is possible to say, 
" The gift of sleep which the gods bestow on us as a 
time of forgetfulness and respite from our ills ; why 
do you make this an everlastingly painful torture- 
chamber for yourself, since your unhappy soul can- 
not rim away to some other sleep ? " Heracleitus * 
says that people awake enjoy one world in common, 
but of those who are fallen asleep each roams about 
in a world of his own. But the superstitious man 
enjoys no world in common with the rest of man- 
kind ; for neither when awake does he use his intel- 
ligence, nor when fallen asleep is he freed from his 
agitation, but his reasoning power is sunk in dreams, 
his fear is ever wakeful, and there is no way of escape 
QX removal. 

4. A despot much feared in Samos was Polycrates, 
as was Periander in Corinth, but nobody feared these 
men after he had removed to a free State governed 
by its own people. But as for the man who fears 

" Probably some poet of the new Comedy ; cf. Kock, 
Com. Att. Frag. iii. p. 438. 

* Diels, Fragmenta der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 95. 

46S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(166) pavviSa (fjo^ovfjcevog (TKvdpatTrrjv /cat aTTapairrjTOV 
7TOU p,eraarr\ ttov (fivyrj, TTolav yrjv dOeov €vpr], ttoLov 
ddXarrav; els tL KaraSvs rov Koapiov jxipos Kai 
aTTOKpvifjas aeavrov, u) TaXaiircDpe, TncTrevaei? on 
rov deov aTroTT€(f>evyas ; eari /cat SouAot? vojjlos 
iXevdepiav airoyvovai Trpaaiv alreladai Kal 8e- 
aTTOTTjv jjiera^aXXeLV iTTieLKearepov tj 8e SetcrtSai- 
fiovia dewv dXXayrjv ov SlScoatv, ouS' eariv evpeXv 
ov ov ^o^'^aerai deov 6 (fio^ovjJLevos rovs Trarptoovs 
/cat yevedXiovs , 6 (j>pLTT(x)v rovs arwTrjpas /cat tovs 
E fxeuXixLovs rpipuDV /cat SeSot/cco?, Trap' (Lv alrov- 
fieda ttXovtov einropiav elp-^vrjv ofiovoiav opOcoaiv 
Xoycov /cat epycov rcx)v dpiariov. 

Et^' ovTOL TO SouAeuetv drvx'i)P'0. rjyovvTat /cat 
XdyovoL 

Seivrj Tis" dvSpl Kal yvvaLKi aviJL(l)opd 
hovXovg yeveadai Beairoras re Sucrp^epety^ 



Aa^i 



eiv 



TToacp 8e heivorcpov oteade 7Tacr;^6tv av tovs^ 
dv€K(f}evKTOVs dvaTToSpdaTous dvaTToardrovs^ ; eari 
BovXcp <f>€v^tfios ^cofxos, ear I /cat Xrjarats d^e- 
^rjXa TToXXd rcov iepojv, /cat TToAe/xtou? ol (f)evyov- 
res, dv dyaXfjuaros Xd^covrai fj vaov, dappovatv 
6 8e Seto-tSa/jLtcov ravra pcdXiara <j>pirrei, /cat 0o- 
^eZraL /cat SeSot/cev, iv ols ol (fjo^ovfJLevoi ra 
Secvorara rds eXTrlSas exovai. p.r) diroaTra rov 

^ Sv<Txepeh Valckenaer: hvarvxeh- 

* aC roi)s F.C.B. : aiirom, omitted in many mss. 

' Bernardakis would add Xafji^dvovras after dvawoffTdLTovs. 

" From an unknown tragic poet ; cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag. p. 910, Adespota, No. 376. 
464 



SUPERSTITION, 166 

the rule of the gods as a sullen and inexorable despot- 
ism, where can he remove himself, where can he flee, 
what country can he find without gods, or what 
sea ? Into what part of the universe shall you steal 
away and hide yourself, poor wretch, and beHeve 
that you have escaped God ? There is a law even 
for slaves who have given up all hope of freedom, 
that they may demand a sale, and thus exchange 
their present master for one more mild. But 
superstition grants no such exchange ; and to find 
a god whom he shall not fear is impossible for him 
who fears the gods of his fathers and his kin, who 
shudders at his saviours, and trembles with terror 
at those gentle gods from whom we ask wealth, 
welfare, peace, concord, and success in our best 
efforts in speech and action. 

Then again these same persons hold slavery to be a 
misfortune, and say. 

For man or woman 'tis disaster dire 
Sudden to be enslaved, and masters harsh 
To get." 

But how much more dire, tliink you, is the lot of 
those for whom there is no escape, no running away, 
no chance to revolt ? For a slave there is an altar 
to which he can flee, and there are many of our 
shrines where even robbers may find sanctuary, and 
men who are fleeing from the enemy, if once they 
lay hold upon a statue of a god, or a temple, 
take courage again. These are the very things 
that most inspire a shuddering fear and dread in 
the superstitious man, and yet it is in them that 
those who are in fear of the most dreadful fate place 
their hopes. Do not drag the superstitious man 

460 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

F SeiaiSaifiova rcbv Upcbv ivravda /coAa^erai /cat 
Ti/xa>petTa6. 

Ti Set fxaKpa Xeyeiv; " irepas iarl rov jSiou 
Trdaiv dvOpdoTTOis 6 ddvaros,^ " rrjs Be BetaiSai- 
jxovLas ov8^ ovTOs, dAA' v-nep^aXXei, tovs opovs 
ineKeiva rov t,rjv, fxaKporepov rov ^iov TTOiovcra 
rov <f)6^ov /cat avvaTrrovaa rat davdrco KaKcov 
€7TLvoiav ddavdrcov, /cat ore Tvaverai Trpaypidroyv, 
IG/ apxeadai SoKovaa [mt) -navopiivajv . "AtSoy rives 
avoiyovraL TTvXai ^adelat, /cat Trora/xot Trvpos opLOV 
/cat Hrvyos dnoppwyes dvaKepdvvvvrai , /cat aKoros 
ifjLTr LTrXarat TToXv<f)avrdarcov^ elScoXcov rivcijv ;(aAe- 
Tras" fJiev oi/jeis oiKrpds Se (fxovds eTn<j)ep6vro}V , 
hiKaaral he /cat KoXaaral /cat ^(dap.ara /cat fivxol 
fivpLcov KaKoJv yefjLovres. ovrcos 17 KaKohaip,o}v 
SeiacSaLfjiovia rfj Trepirrfj Trpos dirav ro Sokovv 
Seivov euAa^eta Xavddvei eavrfjv vno^dXXovaa 
TTOvroioLs heivoZs.^ 

5. Tovrcov ovhev rfj ddeorrjri Trpoaeariv, dAA' 
•f] fiev dyvoia xclXctttj /cat to napopdv /cat rv^Xcor- 
B reiv rrepl rr]XtKavra avpi<f>opd fxeydXr) ^vx^is, oiaixep 
ofjLfxdrwv TToXXoJv ro (f)av6rarov /cat Kvpicorarov dir- 
ea^eanevrjs rrjv rov deov vorjaiv. ravrr] 8e ro epL- 
TTades, wanep eiprjrat, /cat eA/ccDSes" /cat rapaKrt- 
Kov /cat KarahehovXojjxivov evdvs Trpoaeari rfj 86^7). 
fiovaiK-qv ^Tjcxiv 6 HXdrcov e/i/xeAeias' /cat evpvdpiLas 

^ 6 Odvaros] Odvaros in the better mss. of Demosthenes, 
xviii. 97. 

* Tro\v(t>aPTd(TTuv Stobaeus, Florilegium, ed. Meineke, vol. 
i\'. p. 245 : iroKvtfuivTaaTov, 

* rg TrepiTTT) kt\. ] This is the reading of D : other mss. 
have Kal dei^ rb (or t(^) jxi] vadelv iinre7r^(pvyev d<pv\iKTtj} 
vpoadoKav ai^r^ irewolrjKe, 

466 



SUPERSTITION, 166-167 

away from his shrines, for it is in them that he suffers 
punishment and retribution. 

What need to speak at length ? "In death is the 
end of hfe for all men,"" but not the end of super- 
stition ; for superstition transcends the limits of life 
into the far beyond, making fear to endure longer 
than Hfe, and connecting with death the thought 
of undying e\'ils, and holding fast to the opinion, at 
the moment of ceasing from trouble, that now is the 
beginning of those that never cease. The abysmal 
gates of the nether world swing open, rivers of fire 
and offshoots of the Styx are mingled together, dark- 
ness is crowded ^v^th spectres of many fantastic shapes 
which beset their victim with grim visages and 
piteous voices, and, besides these, judges and torturers 
and yawning gulfs and deep recesses teeming ^v^th 
unnumbered woes. Thus unhappy superstition, by 
its excess of caution in trying to avoid ever}-thing 
suggestive of dread, unwittingly subjects itself to 
every sort of dread. 

5. Nothing of this kind attaches to atheism, but 
its ignorance is distressing, and to see amiss or not to 
see at all in matters of such importance is a great 
misfortune for the soul ; for it is as if the soul had 
suffered the extinction of the brightest and most 
dominant of its many eyes, the conception of God. 
But superstition is attended by emotion, as has 
already been said,** and by sore distress and dis- 
turbance and mental enslavement from the very 
beginning. Plato " says that music, the creator of 

" From Demosthenes, Or. xviii. {On the Crown), 97 ; 
quoted again in Moralia, 333 c. 

* Supra, 165 b. 

• Adapted freely from the Timaeus, p. 47 d. 

VOL. II Q 467 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(167) BrjfiLovpyov avOpcoTTOis vtto dewv ov Tpv(f)rjs eveKa 
/cat Kvqa€U)s oiTOiv So6rjvai, aAA' ware roiv rri<5 
ipvxrjs TrepioScov /cat dpfiovtcov to rapaxcohes /cat 
TreTrXavqixevov iv Gcvfiart, fjbovcrrjs re /cat ;\;aptTos' 
evheia TToXkaxfj St' aKoXaaiav /cat TrXrjiipiiXeiav i^v- 
C PpLl^ov, avdis els rd^iv dveXirrovaav oiKeiajs /cat 
TTepidyovaav Kadiardvat.^ 

" oaaa Se p,r) TTe(^iX7]Ke Zeu?," ^Tjcrt Wivhapos, 

"drv^ovTcu ^odv 
niepiScuv diovra' " 

/cat yap StayptatVerai /cat dyava/cret, /cat ra? 
riypeis 8e ^acrt 7TepLrvfi7TavLt,ofjievas eKfiaiveaOai 
/cat rapdrreadat /cat TeAo? ayra? StaCTTrav. eAar- 
Tov ouv KaKov ots Std Kco(f)6rr]Ta /cat Trrjpcoaiv 
aKorjg dirddeia rrpos pbovatK'qv /cat avaiadrjaLa 
crvp.pe^r]Kev. 6 Teipeaias exp'rJTO Svarvx^o- /ai7 
pXcTTcov rd T€Kva fjLTjhe rovs crvvT]deis, 6 8' ^Add/xas 
fjLei.t,ovL /cat 77 'AyauTj, ^XeTTovreg co? Aeovra? /cat 
D eXd(f>ovs' /cat to) 'Hpa/cAei St^ttou piavevri rovs 
vlovs eXvaireXei p-'^r* ISeiv p^ijr' aladeadai Trap- 
ovras T] p^prycr^at rols ^iXrdrois d)S TToAejuioiS'. 

6. Tt ovv; ov So/cet crot /cat to tcDi' dOecov vpos 
rovs SeLOLSaCpovas irddos ^X^''^ roiavrr^v 8iacf)opav; 
ol p.ev^ ovx dpcoGi rovs deovs ro Trapdrrav, ol 8e 
KaKovs VTfdpx^i'V vopiL^ovaiv ol p,ev Trapopcaaiv, ol 
he ho^dt,ovai cfio^epov ro evp,eves /cat rvpavviKov 

^ KaOiffrdvai Hercher : KaOiarav or vapeivai. 
* luv Wyttenbach : niv o^v. 

" Pythian Odes, i. 13 (25); quoted also in Moralia, 
746 B and 1095 e. * Cf. Moralia, 144 d. 

" All these were victims of a god-sent madness. 

468 



SUPERSTITION, 167 

harmony and order, was given to mankind by the 
gods not for the sake of pampering them or tickling 
their ears, but so that whatever in a man's body 
is disturbing and errant, affecting the cycles and 
concords of his soul, and in many instances, for lack 
of culture and refinement, waxing wanton because 
of hcentiousness and error, mvisic should, in its own 
way, disengage and bring round and restore to its 
proper place again. 

Whatsoever things there be 

Which by Zeus are not held dear, 

says Pindar,** 

In affrighted panic flee 

When the Muses' voice they hear. 

In fact they become provoked and angry ; and tigers, 
they say, surrounded by the sound of beaten drums 
go utterly mad, and get so excited that they end by 
tearing themselves to pieces.^ There is less harm, 
therefore, for those who, as the result of deafness or 
impairment of hearing, have a feeling of indifference 
and insensibility toward music. Teiresias laboiu-ed 
under a misfortune in not being able to see his 
children or his intimate friends, but greater was the 
misfortune of Athamas "^ and Agave,*' who saw them 
as lions and deer ; and for Heracles " in his madness 
it would undoubtedly have been better neither to see 
his sons, nor to realize that they were present, than 
to treat his nearest and dearest as enemies. 

6. What then ? Does it not seem to you that the 
feeling of the atheists compared with the superstitious 
presents just such a difference? The former do 
not see the gods at all, the latter think that they 
do exist and are evil. The former disregard them, 
the latter conceive their kindliness to be frightful, 

4^9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(167) TO TTarpiKov /cat ^Xa^epov to K-qScfioviKov Kal to 
dfiT]viTov^ aypiov elvai, /cat drjpicoBes. etra ;i(aA/co- 

TVTTOLS jJieV 7T€idoVTaL /Cat Xldo^OOlS Kal KTjpO- 

TrXdoTais dvdp(OTr6iJ,opcf>a tcjv decov rd eiBr] ttoiovgl,^ 
E /cat Totaura TrXaTTOvat, /cat KaTaaKevdt,ovcn /cat 
TTpouKVvovaf (^tAocro^cov Se /cat TroAtrt/ccav' avSpcDr 
KaTa^povovaiv , dTToheiKvvvTiov ttjv tov deov aep,- 
voTTjTa pLCTa ^prjOTOTrjTog /cat fi€'yaXo<f>poavinjs 
/cat evfievelas Kal KrjSefiovLas. irepUaTiv ovv rot? 
[jL€v dvaiad-qala Kal dTTiaTia tojv (h(f)eXovvTOJv , rot? 
Se rapax^ Kai (f)6^os rrpos ra dxjieXovvTa. Kal 
oXcos 7] pikv ddeoTTjs dirddeia rrpos to delov icTTt 
jxri voovaa to dyadov, 7] 8e heiaihatp-ovia ttoXv- 
TrdOeta KaKOV to dyadov virovoovaa. (j>o^ovvTaL tovs 
deovs Kal KaTa(f)evyovaLV evrt tovs deovg, KoXa- 
Kcvovai Kal AotSopoucrtv, evxovTai Kal KaTajxefi- 

F (j)OVTaL. KOLVOV dvdpCOTTCOV TO flT] TTaVTa SceVTVX^LV' 

K€LVOi yap T * dvoaoi /cat ayqpaoi 
TTOvixiv T aTTeipoi, ^apu^oav 
TTopdfJLOv vec^evyoTes 'Ax^povTOs, 

6 IltvSapos' deovs <f>y]aL, ra 8 avdpa)7nva TrdOrj 
Kal TTpay/xara jue/xt/crat crvvTVxioit-S aAAor' aAAco? 
peovaaLS. 

7. Oepe St] TrpcoTOV iv toZs d^ovXrjTOis a/coTret 
TOV ddeov Kal KaTap,dvdave ttjv Scddeacv, dv rj 
ToXXa pi€TpL05, ;^/3aj/LteVoy aLCOTrfj tols TTapovai /cat 

^ dfj.rji'LToi' Meziriacus, Reiske, and Wyttenbach : AfUKTOv 
or anlfirfTov. Cf. Moralia, 413 d. 

^ TO. etSt) TTotoOai] rd (roi/xara elvai in most MSS. 
* yap T Moralia, 1075 a : yap. 

" Or, as given in most mss., " that the bodies of the gods 
are like the oodies of men." 
470 



SUPERSTITION, 167 

their fatherly sohcitude to be despotic, their loving 
care to be injurious, their sloA\'ness to anger to 
be savage and brutal. Then again such persons 
give credence to workers in metal stone, or wax, 
who make their images of gods in the hkeness of 
human beings," and they have such images fashioned, 
and dress them up, and worship them. But they 
hold in contempt philosophers and statesmen, who 
try to prove that the majesty of God is associated 
with goodness, magnanimity, kindhness, and sohci- 
tude. So the atheists have more than enough of 
indifference and distrust of the Beings who can help 
them, whereas the superstitious experience equal 
agitation and fear towards the things that can help 
them. Or, in fine, atheism is an indifferent feehng 
towards the Deity, which has no notion of the good, 
and superstition is a multitude of differing feeUngs 
with an underljing notion that the good is e\il. 
For the superstitious fear the gods, and flee to the 
gods for help ; they flatter them and assail them 
\\-ith abuse, pray to them and blame them. It is the 
common lot of mankind not to enjoy continual good 
fortune in all things. 

Age and illness not their lot. 
Toil and labour thev know not, 
'Scaped is Acheron's loud strait, 

says Pindar * of the gods, but human experiences and 
actions are linked with chance circiunstances which 
move now in one course and now in another. 

7. Come now, observe the atheist in circumstances 
not desired by him, and take note of his attitude. If 
he be moderate in general, you will note that he takes 

* Frag. 143 (ed. Christ). Cited by Plutarch again in 
M&ralia, 763 c and 1075 a. 

471 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

TTopi^ovTOS avro) ^o-qdeias /cat Traprjyopias, av Se 
Bvacj^opfj /cat TreptTradfj, iravras em rr^v rv^v /cat 
168 TO avTOfiarov aTrepeihopulvov rovs oSvp[xovs Kal 
^oaJVTOS d)g ovhev Kara SIktjv ouS' e/c Trpovoias 
aAAa rravTa avyKexvpievcos /cat aKpircos ^e/oerat 
/cat TapaTrerat^ to. tcov dvdpcoTTOJV. tov Be 
SeiatSaifMOvos ovx ovrog 6 rpoTTOs, dAA' et /cat 
pLiKporaTOV avTcp KaKov rt (tvhtt€7ttcok6s eariv, 
aAAa KadrjTai, Trddrj x^-XeTrd /cat /xeyaAa /cat 
SucraTvaAAa/CTa t?^ Autttj irpocroLKoBop.cJjv , /cat rrpoa- 
cfX(f>opcJL)V avrtp Sei/xara /cat (f)6^ovs Kat inroiptas 
Kal rapa)(as, Travn dp-qvcp Kat iravrL arevayixo) 
Ka6aTTr6[ji€vos' ovre yap dvOpajvov ovre rvx^^v 
ovre Kaipov ov9^ iavrov dXXd Trdvrcov tov deov 
B atTtarai, KdKeWev eV avrov t]K€iv Kal <j)ipeaQaL 
p€vp.a Sai/xovLOV axTjs" (ftrjal, Kal (Ls ov Svarvxr]? 
d)v aAAa deojXLarjs ris dvdpcoTTOs vtto rcov dewv 
KoXdt,eadat Kal SiKrjv StSdvai /cat ndvra Trda^^i'V 
TTpocrqKovTcos St avrov oterat. 

NoCTcDv 6* 6 ddeos eKXoylt^erai /cat dvapupivri- 
a/cerat irXrjapiovds avrov /cat olvujaeLs xal dra^ias 
7T€pl hiairav t) kottovs vrrep^aXXovras rj fiera^oXds 
depcov d-qdecs Kal rorrcov, eTreira TrpoaKpovaas 
iv TToAiTetat? Kat rrepnTeawv dSo^tat? irpos oxXov 

^ TapaTTerai Wyttenbach : irpaTTerai or ffiraOarat, which 
seems dubious : SiaffiraTai ? 
472 



SUPERSTITION, 167-168 

his present fortune without a word, and tries to 
procure for himself means of help and comfort ; but 
if he be given to impatience or violent emotion, you 
A\ill note that he directs all his complaints against 
Fortune and Chance, and exclaims that nothing 
comes about according to right or as the result of 
providence, but that the course of all hiunan affairs 
is confusion and disorder, and that they are all being 
turned topsy-turvy. This, however, is not the way 
of the superstitious man ; but if even the slightest ill 
befall him, he sits down and proceeds to construct, on 
the basis of his trouble, a fabric of harsh, momentous, 
and practically unavoidable experiences which he 
must undergo, and he also loads himself with fears 
and frights, suspicions and trepidations, and all this 
he bitterly assails with everj- sort of lamentation and 
moaning. For he puts the responsibility for his lot 
upon no man nor upon Fortune nor upon occasion nor 
upon himself, but lays the responsibility for every- 
thing upon God, and says that from that source 
a heaven-sent stream of mischief has come upon 
him with full force ; and he imagines that it is not 
because he is unlucky, but because he is hateful to 
the gods, that he is being punished by the gods, and 
that the penalty he pays and all that he is under- 
going are deserved because of his own conduct. 

The atheist, when he is ill, takes into account and 
calls to mind the times when he has eaten too much 
or drunk too much wine, also irregularities in his 
daily life, or instances of over-fatigue or unaccustomed 
changes of air or locality ; and again when he has 
given offence in administering office, and has en- 
countered disrepute with the masses or calumny with 



473 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(168) rj StajSoAat? Trpog 'qyeyiova ttjv alriav i^ avrov 
/cat Toov TTcpl avrov aKoireZ 

TTTj TTape^Tjv; ri 8' epe^a; ri fioi, Seov ovk 
ireXeaOT] ; 

Tco 8e SeiaSaijJiovi koI crcopLaTos dppcoarta Trdaa 
C /cat xpTqfidrcJV OLTTO^oXr] /cat t€Kvcov ddvaroL /cat 
7T€pl TToAtTt/ca? TTpa^ets Suai7/xepiat /cat dnoTev^eis 
TrXrjyal deov /cat irpoa^oXal Saufjiovos Xeyovrai. 
odev ovhk ToXjJia ^orjdeXv ovSe StaAueiv to avp,- 
^e^TjKos ouSe OepaTTeveiv ouS' avTiTaTreadai, p,rj 
ho^ji deojjiax^Zv /cat avrir€iv€iv KoXa^ojJievos, aAA' 
(hdetrai jxev e^co vocrovvros 6 larpos, drroKXeLerai, 
8e TTevdovvTOS o vovOeroJv /cat Trapanudovfievos 
(l}LX6ao(f)OS . " ea pie," (^rjacv, " dvOpioTre, StSoi^at 
Slktjv, tov dae^rj, rov eTrdparov, rov deots /cat 
SatjLtocrt [M€iJLi,arjjji€vov." 

D "EcTTlV dvdpCVTTOV pLT] TTeTT€L(TpieVOV dcOVS etVttl 

XvTTovjJievov 8 dXXoJS /cat vepLTTadovvros diropid^ai, 
SdKpvov, dTTOKeipai Kop^riv, d^eXeudai ro lp.driov 
rov 8e SeLOiSaLjjLOva ttcos dv TrpoaeiTTOLS -^ tttj^ 
^07]Qrjaeis ; efco KddrjraL aaKKiov exoiv /cat Trepi- 
e^60cr/xeVo? pdKeat pvirapoZs, 7roAAa/ct? Se yvpivos 
iv TTrjXo) KvXivSovpievos i^ayopevei Tim? dpiaprias 
avrov /cat TrATy/x^LteAetas', ctis robe <f)ay6vros rj 
TTLovros Tf ^ahicravros ohov 7]v ovk eta ro SatfiovLov. 
dv 8' dpiara rrpdrrrj /cat avvrj irpdajs^ 8et(7t8at- 

^ TTTj] TTOO most MSS. 

* irpdwr Abernetty and F.C.B. : wpa.(p. 

" Pythagoras, Carmina aurea, 42 ; quoted again in 
Moralia, 515 f. 

474 



SUPERSTITION, 168 

a ruler, he looks to find the reason in himself and his 
own surroundings : 

AVhere did I err, and what have I done ? What duty 
of mine was neglected ? " 

But in the estimation of the superstitious man, every 
indisposition of his body, loss of property, deaths of 
children, or mishaps and failures in pubhc life are 
classed as " afflictions of God " or " attacks of an 
evil spirit." ' For this reason he has no heart to 
reheve the situation or undo its effects, or to find 
some remedy for it or to take a strong stand against 
it, lest he seem to fight against God and to rebel 
at his punishment ; but when he is ill the physician 
is ejected from the house, and when he is in grief 
the door is shut on the philosopher who would advise 
and comfort him. " Oh, sir," he says, " leave me 
to pay my penalty, impious WTetch that I am, 
accursed, and hateful to the gods and all the heavenly 
host."*' 

It is possible in the case of a man unconvinced of 
the existence of gods, when he is in grief and great 
distress in other ways, to wipe away a tear, cut his 
hair, and take off his cloak ; but what words can you 
address to the superstitious man, or in what way-shall 
you help him ? He sits outside his house >vith sack- 
cloth on and filthy rags about him ; and oftentimes 
he rolls naked in the mire as he confesses divers sins 
and errors of his — eating this or drinking that, or 
walking in a path forbidden by his conscience. But 
if he is very fortunate, and but mildly yoked with 

* Cf. Cicero, Ttiseulan IHsputationa, iii. 29 (72). 
' Perhaps the langruage was suggested by the words in 
Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 1340. 

VOL. II Q 2 475 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(168) (JLOvia, TTepLdetovfxevos^ oIkol KadrjraL Kat^ Trept- 
fiaTTOjjLevos, at Se ypdes " Kaddrrep TTarTaXq)," 

E (f>rjalv 6 Biojv, " o Ti dv rvxcoaiv avra> TTepiaTTTOVdi 
<f>epovaaL /cai TreptapraicTi." 

8. Tov TcpL^a^ov^ (f>aaiv vtto rwv Hepacov 
cruXXapL^avopiGvov airdaaadai re tov dKivaKrjv , 
evpcocrrov ovra, /cat Siapdx^crOaL' pbaprvpopevcov 
Se /cat ^oojvroiv on avXXapf^dvovatv avrov ^aacX^ws 
KeXevaavros , avriKa to ^Lcf)OS KaTa^aXeXv Kal tco 
;^etpe avvSrjaaL Trapaax^iv . dp ovv ov)( opoiov eoTi 
TO yiyvopevov ; ol pev dXXoi hiapd^ovTai crvp(f)opals 
Kal hiojOovvTai ra irpdypaTa, (jivyd? eavTols pf]- 
XCLVwpevot /cat Trapar ponds tcjv d^ovXi^TCov 6 

F Se hetcnSaipcov ovSevos aKovaas, avTos irpos avrov 
CLTTcov " TauTa Trdaxets, c5 /ca/cdSat/xop', e/c rrpovoiag 
Kal deov KeXeuovTos " eppiifje irdcrav eXiriha, rrpo- 
■qKaro iavTov, e^vye, SieKpovaaTO tovs ^oridovvras. 
IloAAa Twv pcTpLcov KaK(x)V oXeOpta ttolovoiv 
at SetCTtSat^oviat. MtSa? o TraAato?, d>£ eoiKev, 
€K TLVcov ivvTTVLCOv ddvpixiv Kol TapaTTopevos 
ovrco /ca/ccD? ecr;^e rrjv ipuxT^v, ojcr^' eKovatcog 
dTTodavelv atpa ravpov Trccov. 6 Se raJv Mea- 
arjVLOjv ^acriXevs ^ApiaroSrjpos iv tco npdg Aa/ce- 
SaLpovLous* TToXepo), Kvvojv XvKOLS (Lpvopevcov 
opoia Kal TTepl ttjv ioTiav avTOv ttjv Trarpipav 

^ irepideioifxevoi Hercher : irepi0v6fX€vos. 

* Kal added by Reiske. 

^ Jipl^a^ov Hercher : Trjpifia^dv or T€ipl^a'<;6v. 

* XaKeSaifioviovs Xylander : fieaa-qvLovs. 

" Plutarch, in his Life of Artaxerxes, chap. xxix. (p. 1026 c), 
represents Tiribazus as fighting to the end, but this may have 
been on another occasion. 

476 



SUPERSTITION, 168 

superstition, he sits in his house, subjecting himself 
to fumigation, and smearing himself with mud, 
and the old crones, as Bion says, "bring whatever 
chance directs and hang and fasten it on him as 
on a peg." 

8. Tiribazus, they say, when an attempt was made 
by the Persians to arrest him, drew his sword, being 
a man of great strength, and fought desperately. 
But when the men protested and cried out that they 
were arresting him by the King's command, he in- 
stantly threw down his sword and held out his hands 
to be bound." Is not what actually happens just 
hke this ? The rest of men fight desperately against 
misfortunes, and force their way through difficulties, 
contri\ing for themselves means to escape and avert 
things undesired ; but the superstitious man, without 
a word from anybody, says all to himself, " This you 
have to undergo, poor soul, by the dispensation of 
Providence and by God's command," and casts away 
all hope, gives himself up, runs away, and repulses 
those who would help him. 

Many ills of no great moment are made to result 
fatally by men's superstition. Midas of old, dispirited 
and distiu-bed, as it appears, as the result of some 
dreams, reached such a state of mind that he 
committed suicide by drinking bull's blood. ** And 
Aristodemus, king of the Messenians in the war 
against the Spartans, when dogs howled hke wolves, 
and quitch-grass began to grow around his ancestral 

* Plutarch, in trying to be a physician of the soul to cure 
superstition, has here unwittingly turned homoeopath. Cf. 
B. Perrin's note on chap. xxxi. (p. 128 a) of the Life of Themi- 
stocles in Plutarch's Themistocles and Aristides (New York, 
1901), page 256. To the references there given should be 
added 5s'icander, Alexipharmaca, 312. 

477 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aypcoarecDS ava^Xacrravovar]^ koI rdv fiavrecov 
ra crqixela cf)o^ov[jLevcov, i^advix-qaas Kai Kara- 
169 a^eadels rals iXTriaiv avros eavrov aTi€a<j)a^ev . rjv 
S' tacDS /cat NtKta rw 'AdrjvaLCOV aTpa-rqyco 
KpaTLGTOv ovTCos dTTaXXayrjvai rrjs SetcrtSatju.ov'ia? 
(x)S Mt'Sa? T] ^ Apiarohriyios ■?} (fio^rjddvTL rrjv oklclv 
iKXnrovcrqs rrjs aeXT^vrjs KadrjadaL Treptretp^t^d- 
fjLcvov VTTO Tcbv 7ToX€p.ioiv, eW ofiov TCTTapcn. 
pLVpidaiv dv6pci)7Tcov ^ovevdevTU)v re /cat I^ojvtojv 
dXovrojv VTTO)(^eipLov yeveadai /cat Sucr/cAeoi? drro- 
dav€LV. ov yap yrjs dvrL(f>pa^Ls iv fxiacp yevofieviqs 
(f>o^€p6v, ovBe Seivov ev /caipoi TrepioSoiv^ oKids 
TTpos aeXrjvTjv dTrdvrqaLs, dXXd het,v6v ro rrjs 
B heiaihaifxovias gkotos ip,7T€a6v tou* dv9pd)7Tov avy- 
X^o.L /cat rv(f)Xco<7aL Xoyiap.6v iv TTpdyjjLaai yioXiara 
XoyiapLov SeojLtevot?. 

VXavx , opa, ^aOvs^ yap rjSrj KvpLaaiv rapdaaerai 
TTOvros, dyL(f>l 8' a/cpa* Tvpeajv opdov lararai 

V€(f>OS, 

aijfjLa ;(ct/xa)j/os'. 

TOVT I8d)v Kv^epvT^TTjs evx^TO.1 ficv v7reK(f)vyelv 
/cat deovs CTTiKaXelTai acoTrjpag, €V)(6[jl€vos Be tov 
ota/ca TTpoadyei, Tr]v Kepaiav V(f)L7]aL, 

^ vepidSuf Xylander: ttoSwv ; c/. 171 a infra. 

* ifireffdv tov By water and F.C.B. : (fxireaovTos. 

' rXaO/c' 6pa ^a'dvs Canter, but the reading is established 
by other quotations of the passage : y\avK€opd^5oii. 

* dKpa J. Pierson : &Kp(}. 

" Other portents which disheartened Aristodemus are 
related by Pausanias, iv. 13. 

478 



I 



SUPERSTITION, 168-169 

hearth, and the seers were alarmed by these signs, 
lost heart and hope by his forebodings, and slew him- 
self by his own hand.** It would perhaps have been 
the best thing in the world for Nieias, general of the 
Athenians, to have got rid of his superstition in the 
same way as Midas and Aristodemus, rather than to be 
affrighted at the shadow on the moon in echpse and 
sit inactive while the enemy's wall was being built 
around him, and later to fall into their hands together 
with forty thousand men, who were either slain or 
captured aHve, and himself meet an inglorious end.* 
For the obstruction of hght caused by the earth's 
coming between sun and moon is nothing frightful, 
nor is the meeting of a shadow with the moon at the 
proper time in its revolutions anything frightful, but 
frightful is the darkness of superstition falhng upon 
man, and confounding and blinding his power to reason 
in circumstances that most loudly demand the power 
to reason. 

Glaucus, see, the mighty ocean 
Even now with billows roars. 
Round about the Gyrian summits 
Sheer in air a dark cloud soars, 
Sign of storm . . . ; ' 

when the pilot sees this, he prays that he may escape 
the storm, and calls upon the Sa\'iours,'' but while he 
is praying he throws the helm over, lowers the 
yard, and 

* The details regarding Nieias are to be found in Thucy- 
dides, vii. 35-87, and in Plutarch's lAfe of isicioi., chap, 
xxlli. (p. 538 d) if. 

* A fragment from Archilochus : c/. Bergk, Foet. Lyr. 
Graec. ii. p. 696, Archilochus, No. 54. 

■* Castor and PoUux. 

479 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(169) ^evyei, /xeya XaL(f>os VTToaroXiaas ipe^coSeos eK 
daXdaarjs . 

o HcTioSos' KeXevei Trpo dporov /cat anopov rov 
yewpyov 

ev^ecrdal r*^ Ad )(dovicx) Arqp/rjrepi 6* dyvfj 

C 'T'^S ix^rXrjs exop-evov, "Op,rjpos Se rov AtavTOL 
(f)r]aL Tip "EiKTopi jxeXXovra povopax^lv evx^adai 
KeXeveiv tovs "EXXrjvag VTrep avrov rots deoZs, 
elr' evxopievcov eKeivcov oTrXl^eadai. Kal 6 'Aya- 
p,epvix}v ore rols juap^o^eVoi? Trpoaira^ev 

€v pL€v TLs Sopv Qri^dadu), €v S' dcrTTiSa deadoj. 

Tore TTapd rov A to? atret 

86s fte Kara Trprjves ^aXeeiv Hpidpioio fxeXadpov 

dperrjs ydp eXTrls 6 deos eariv, ov SetAta? 7Tp6(f)aaLg. 
dAA' 'lovSaXoL aa^^drcov ovrcov ev dyvdpTrrois^ Kad- 
e^6p,evoi, ra>v 7ToXep,LCov KXip^oKas Trpoaridevrcuv 
Kal rd Teixf] KaraXapL^avovrcov , ovk dvecrrrjaav 
dAA' epeivav cooTvep ev aayijvr) /tta rfj Zeiaihaip^ovia 
avvhehepievoL. 
D 9. TotawTT^ pikv ev roZs d^ovXi^rois Kal Trepi- 
arariKots Xeyop.evois Trpdypbaai Kal Kaipols r] 
SetcrtSat/xovta, ^eXriajv 8' ovSev ou8' ev rols 
■qSiocjL ri]s ddeorrjros. i^Sto-ra Be rols dvdpcoTrois 

^ t'] 5' in some mss. and in Hesiod. 
* dyvdiTTois in some mss. preferred by Abernetty. 
" Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraec. ill. p. 730; PlutarclT, 
Moralia, 475 f, and Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 910, 
Ades}X)ta, No. 377. * Works and Days, 465-8. 

' Homer, II. vii. 193 ff. "* Ibid. ii. 382. 

' Adapted from Homer, II. ii. 413-414. 
480 



SUPERSTITION, 169 

Furling the big main sail, 
Hastens to make his escape 
Out from the murky sea." 

Hesiod ad\ises '' that the farmer before ploughing 
and sowing should 

Pray to Zeus of the world below and to holy Demeter 

with his hand on the plough-handle ; and Homer 
says " that Ajax, as he was about to engage in single 
combat with Hector, bade the Greeks pray to the gods 
for him, and then, while they were praying, donned 
his armour ; and when Agamemnon enjoined '' on 
the fighting men. 

See that each spear is well sharpened, and each man's 
shield in good order, 

at the same time he asked in prayer from Zeus, 

Grant that I raze to the level of earth the palace of Priam ; ' 

for God is brave hope, not cowardly excuse. But 
the Jews,' because it was the Sabbath day, sat in 
their places immovable, while the enemy were 
planting ladders against the walls and capturing the 
defences, and they did not get up, but remained 
there, fast bound in the toils of superstition as in 
one great net. 

9. Such are the characteristics of superstition in 
undesired and critical (as they are called) circum- 
stances and occasions, but it is not one bit better 
than atheism even under pleasurable conditions. 
The pleasantest things that men enjoy are festal 

' Perhaps the reference is to the capture of Jerusalem by 
Pompey in 63 b.c. (0/. Dio Cassias, xxxvii. 16), or jxjssibly 
to its capture by Antony in 38 b.c. (c/. Dio Cassius, xlix. 
22). C/. also Josephus, Antiquitates Jud. xii. 6. 2, and 
1 Slaccabees, ii. 32 ff. 

481 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(169) iopral Kal elXaTrlvai, Trpog Upols /cat (xviqaets /cat 
opyLaafMol /cat Karevxal decbv /cat TTpoaKvvr^creis. 
evravda roiwv oKo-nei tov ddeov yeAcDv-ra /xev 
fiaviKOV /cat aaphdviov^ yiXiora roZs TroLovfievoig 
/cat TTOV 7Tapa(f}9€yy6{Ji€vov rjpefia'^ 77/36? rovg 
avvT^deis OTL Terv(f>oiVTai /cat haijxovcbaLv ol deots 
ravra 8pdadaL vo/xt^oi/re?, dXXo 8' ovSev exovra 
KaKov. 6 8e SetCTiSat^ojt' ^ovXerat jjiev ov Svvarai 
Se ;\;at/)etv ovh' rjSeadai' 

TToAt? S' o/Ltou fJi€V dvpLLap,droiv ye/Ltet, 
E o/Ltou Se TTaidvcov re /cat o-revayfidTcov 

7] tfjvx'^ 'TOV Seiaihatfiovos' eoTe^avcofxevo? coxpi'd, 
dvei /cat ^o^etrat, ey;^eTat (^cov^ TraXXo/jiein) /cat 
X^polv eTndvjJLLa rpeyiovaais, /cat oAco? aTioSet/cvuCTt 
TOV nu^aydpou Aoyot' <f)Xvapov elrrovTOS on ^eX- 
TiGTOL yiyvofxeOa Trpos rovs deovs ^aSt^ovres' 
Tore yap ddXicLrara /cat KdKiara TrpdrTOvaiv ot, 
SetcrtSat/xov-e?, axJTTep dpKTCov 0a>Aeot? -^ ;^etat? 
SpaKOVTCOv Tj jJLVXOLS KrjrdJv rots- rcut' ^ecDt' fxeydpois 
•^ ai/a/CTopoiS' Trpoaiovres. 

10. "O^ei^ e/xotye /cat davpid^eiv eireiaL tovs rrjv 
F d^eoTT^ra (f)daKovTas dae^eiav elvai, jxr] (l)daKovTag 
Se TT^r SetCTiSat/Aortav. /catVot y' 'At'a^ayopa? 
BiK-qv ecf)vyev dae^etas iirl rep Xtdov^ etTretP toi' 
T^Atov, KLfXfiepLovs S' ouSet? etTrev dae^elg on tov 
rjXcov ovS^ etvat, to Trapdrrav vo/xt^ouat. rt ctu 

•^ (rapSdytov] crapSdviov or crapduviov. 

* i7P^Ma] arpiixa in some Mss. 

' Xt^o;/] fjiiSpov, the traditional word, by correction in one 
MS. Plutarcli probably drew from the well-known passage 
in Plato's Apology, p. 26 d. 
482 



SUPERSTITION, 169 

days and banquets at the temples, initiations and 
mystic rites, and prayer and adoration of the gods. 
Note that the atheist on these occasions gives way to 
insane and sardonic laughter at such ceremonies, 
and remarks aside to his cronies that people must 
cherish a vain and silly conceit to think that these 
rites are performed in honour of the gods ; but with 
him no harm is done save this. On the other hand 
the superstitious man, much as he desires it, is not 
able to rejoice or be glad : 

The city is with burning incense filled : 

Full too of joyous hymns and doleful groans " 

is the soul of the superstitious man. WTben the 
garland is on his head he turns pale, he offers sacrifice 
and feels afraid, he prays with quavering voice, with 
trembling hands he sprinkles incense, and, in a word, 
proves how foolish are the words of Pythagoras,^ 
who said that we reach our best when we draw near 
to the gods. For that is the time when the super- 
stitious fare most miserably and wTetchedly, for they 
approach the halls or temples of the gods as they 
would approach bears' dens or snakes' holes or the 
haunts of monsters of the deep. 

10. Hence it occurs to me to wonder at those who 
say that atheism is impiety, and do not say the same 
of superstition. Yet Anaxagoras was brought to trial 
for impiety on the ground that he had said the sun 
is a stone ; but nobody has called the Cimmerians 
impious because they do not believe even in the 
existence of the sun at all." What say you ? The 

" Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 4 ; quoted also in 
Moralia, 95 c, 445 d, and 623 c. 
» Cf. Moralia, 413 b. 
■= Cf. Homer, Od. xi. 13-19. 

483 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Xiyeis; 6 fjirj vofiil,cov deovs etvat, dvocrios iariv; 
o Se ToiovTOVs vofjiLi^cov OLOvs OL SeiatSaLfjioves, 
ov iiaKpo) So^at? avoaicoTepais avveariv; iyaj yovv 
av iOeXoLfJLi fxdXXov tovs dvdpojTTOvs Xeyeiv Trepl 
ifiov />fi7Te yeyovevai to Trapdrrav fxrjr elvai 
170 UXovrapxov rj Xeyeiv on UXovTap^os eariv 
dvdpiOTTOS d^e^atos ev/xerd^oXos, evx^prjS rrpos 
opyrjv, ivl roZs TV^ovai TL/jLajp-qriKos, fxiKpoXvTTOS' 
dv KaXdjv CTTt Selnvov erdpovs TrapaXLTrrjs eKelvov, 
dv daxoXias ooi yevofievrjs cttI dvpas fJLr) eXdrjs 
rj [XT] TTpoaeLTTTjs, SteSerat aov to acbpLa Trpoa^vs 
rj avXXa^d)v dTTOTVfnravLeL to TratStov, t] drjpiov 
€xoiv TOLs KapTTOis i(f>T^cr€i Kai XvfiaveiTai tt]v 
OTTchpav. 

Tov Tip^odlov TTjv "ApTCfitv dSovTos iv 'AdijvaLs 
/cat XeyovTos 

dvidSa^ (f>oi^d8a fxaivaSa XvaaaSa 

KiFrycrias" o /xeAoTTOtoj €K twv deaTcbv dvaaTas, 
B " TOLavTT] aoL," elne, " BvyaTrjp yevoiTO." Kai 
fjLTjv ofioia TOVTOLs Kai X^^P^ Trepl 'A/are/xtSos ol 
heiaiSaifioves viroXapi^avovaiv , 

aire /ca dv" dyxovas d^aaa, 
atVe /ca Xexdjv Kvaiaaaa, 
alVe /ca/c veKpcJb napovaa, 
dn7T€(f)Vpix€va iarjXdes, 
atVe Kai e/c TpioScov 

^ dvidda, Bergk : Ovdda, 
484 



SUPERSTITION, 169-170 

man who does not believe in the existence of the gods 
is unholy ? And is not he who believes in such gods 
as the superstitious believe in a partner to opinions 
far more unholy ? Why, for my part, I should prefer 
that men should say about me that I have never been 
born at all, and there is no Plutarch, rather than 
that they should say " Plutarch is an inconstant 
fickle person, quick-tempered, \'indictive over little 
accidents, pained at trifles. If you invite others to 
dinner and leave him out, or if you haven't the time 
and don't go to call on him, or fail to speak to him 
when you see him, he will set his teeth into your 
body and bite it through, or he will get hold of your 
Uttle child and beat him to death, or he will turn the 
beast that he owns into yoiu* crops and spoil your 
harvest "" 

When Timotheus, in a song at Athens, spoke of 
Artemis as 

Ecstatic Bacchic frantic fanatic,* 

Cinesias, the song-writer, standing up in his place 
among the audience, exclaimed, " May you have a 
daughter like that ! " It is a fact that the super- 
stitious make assmnptions like that, and even worse 
than that, about Artemis : 

If hasting in fear from a hanging corpse. 

If near to a woman in childbirth pain. 

If come from a house where the dead are mourned. 

Polluted you entered the holy shrine, 

Or if from the triple cross-roads come 

" Probably a covert reference to Artemis who sent the 
Calydonian boar to ravage the fields ; Homer, II. ix. 333 ff. 

* Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii. p. 620, Timotheus, No. 1 ; 
cf. Plutarch, Moralia, 22 a. 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

170) Kadapfjudreaaiv iTTiaTTtofidva 

TO) TraXafxvaio) arufXTTXexd^Xcra} 

OyScv 8e Tovrcov eTTiei/cearepa <f)povovai Trepi 
A.7T6XXa)vos rrepl "Yipas irepl ^ A.<f)pohiT'r]S' Trai/ra? 
yap rovTOVs Tpep.ovai, Kal SeSoi/caat. Katrot n 
TOLOVTOV r) Nio^Ty 7T€pl TTJs ArjTOVs i^Xa(J(f)rjprjaev, 
olov 7] SetCTiSai/zoi'ta ireTreiKe Trepl rrjs deov rovs 
C d(f)povas, chs dpa XoLhoprjdeiaa KareTo^evae rrjs 
adXiag yvvaiKos 

ef fiev dvyarepas, e^ S* vleas rj^coovras; 

ovroiS aTrXrjaTos aXXorpicov KaKOJv rjv Kai av- 
iXaaros- et yap dX7]dcJi)s rj deos xoX'r]v etx^ xai 
fiiaoTTomrjpos Tjv Kal rjXyei KaKOJS dKovovaa /cat fir] 
KareyiXa rrjs dvdpcoTTLvrjs dpLaOta? /cat ayvota? 
dXX TjyavdKreL, rovrovs eSei To^evaai rovs rocrav- 
TTjv (vfiorrjTa Kal TTiKpiav KaTaifievSojjievovs avrijs 
Kal TOiavra Xeyovras Kal ypd(f)Ovras. rrjs yovv 
'¥jKd^r]s TTpo^aXXofxeda rrjv inKpiav cos ^dp^apov 
Kal drjptcoSr] Xcyovorrjs 

D Tov iyd) fjLeaov r^Trap e^oi/ii 

iadefxevat, Trpoa<^vaa, 

rr)v 8e Tivplav deov ol SetcrtSat/Ltoves' vopiLt,ovaiv , dv 

^ The Mss. with only the slightest variations read as 
follows : aX re kSli> &t' dyxivas di^aaa at re /caXex^va Kvalaare 
a'i T€ KaveKeKpos /xaioiKxa av ir€(pi'pij.ivtx icrfjXdes at re Kal iK 
rpnr68uv, kt\. It was long ago recognized that we here have 
to do with a writer who in Doric dialect touches upon 
certain things which were taboo in the worship of Artemis, 
essentially the same as are referred to by Euripides in 
Iphixf. Taur. 380-4. There is a temptation to suggest other 
possible restorations, for example veKpovs KXaiovaa, Xexoi^J M^i'' 
oSira, veKpbv Kvaicaaa, but those interested will find other 

486 



SUPERSTITION, 170 

Drawn to the place by cleansine rites 
For the part you bear to the guilty one." 

And they think no more reasonably than this about 
Apollo and about Hera and about Aphrodite. For 
they tremble at all of these and dread them. And 
yet what did Niobe say regarding Leto that was so 
irreverent as is the behef which superstition has fixed 
in the minds of the unthinking regarding the goddess, 
that, because she was derided, she required that the 
unhappy woman's 

Daughters six that she bore and six sons in the prime 
of young manhood ' 

be shot dead ? So insatiable was she in doing harm 
to others, and so implacable ! For if it were really 
true that the goddess cherishes anger, and hates 
wickedness, and is hurt at being ill spoken of, and 
does not laugh at man's ignorance and blindness, but 
feels indignation thereat, she ought to require the 
death of those who falsely impute to her such 
savagery and bitterness, and tell and WTite such 
stories. At any rate, we bring forward the bitter- 
ness of Hecuba as something barbaric and savage 
when she says, 

I wish I might eat up his liver. 
Biting it 'tween my teeth." 

And yet of the S}Tian goddess •* the superstitious 

• Cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 680 ; Lobeck, Aglao- 
phamus, p. 633, and Wilamowitz - Moellendorff, Lesebuch 
(Berlin. 1902), p. 336. 

* Adapted from Homer, II. xxiv. 604. 
« Homer, //. xxiv. 212. 

•* C/., for example, Athenaeus, 346 d, or Kock, Cotti. 
Attic. Frag. iii. p. 167, Menander, No. 544. 

attempts at restoration in the books mentioned in note 
a above. 

487 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(170) ^aivtSas^ ti? rj d(f)vas <l>oi'yj), to. avriKvri^ia St- 
eadUiv, eXKeai ro aoj/xa TTifiTrpdvai,, crvvT-qKeiv to 
•^TTap. 

11. *A/3' ovv TO [Jiev Xiyeiv to. <j)avXa nepl tcov 
Oecov dvoaiov, to 8e So^a^etv ovk dvoatov; ■^ Kai 
TTjV (^ojvrjv aTOTTOv 7] ho^a TTOtet Tov ^Xaa(f)rjfjiovv- 
Tos; Kal yap rj/xels ttjv ^\aa(j>ripLia.v otl Bva- 
jjLGveias arjixetov ioTt TTpo^aXXofieda, /cat tovs 
KaKcos rinds XeyovTas i^dpovs vop,L^oijL€v d)s /cat 
KUKcos (f>povovvTas . opas 8' ota Trept tcov decLv ot 
E SctcrtSatyaore? <f)povovaiv, ifXTrXi^KTOvs diricTTOVs 

eVp,eTa^6XoVS TLfJLCOprjTLKOVS COp^OVS ptKpoXvTTOVS 

V7roXap.^dvovTes , ii (Hv dvdyKrj /cat p,LaeZv tov 
heiathaipova /cat (j>o^eladaL tovs deovs. ttcos yo-p 
ov fjieXXet,, ra /x.eytcrra twv KaKcov avTco 8t' e/cet- 
vovs ol6pL€vos yeyovevai /cat -ndXiv yevqaeadaL ; 
pLiadjv Se deovs Kal t^o^ovpevos e^Qpos ecrrt. kov 
SeSoLKj),^ vpoaKwei ye /cat ^i;et Kai KddrjTai -npos 
iepols, /cat ov davpaaTov ecjTi' /cat yap tovs Tvpdv- 
vovs doTrdt^ovTai TrepLerrovai y^pvaovs dviGTaaiv, 
dXXd piaovai cnyfi " Kapa aelovTes." 'AXe^avSpov 
'^ppoXaos eQepdireve, IlauCTai'tas' ehopv<j)6peL Ot'A- 
F iTTTTOV, Xatpeaj Faiov, dXX eKaaros tovtcov eXeye 
TTapaKoXovOojv 

•^ a' dv Tiaaiprjv, et p,OL hvvapis ye Trapeirj. 

^ /xaivlSas] fiaivlda most MSS. : /xaivlSia Paton. 
* kSlv dedoiKTi F.C.B. : Kav (xai some mss.) d^5ie Kal or Kalroi. 

" Sophocles, Antigone, 291. 

'' Cf. Plutarch, Life of Alexander, chap. Iv. (p. 696 c). 

" It is said that Pausanias later helped to kill Philip. Cf. 
Aristotle, Politics, V. 10; Diodorus Siculus, xv, 94-95 ; Aelian, 
Varia Historia, iii. 45 ; Valerius Maximus, i. 8, ext. 9. 

488 



SUPERSTITION, 170 

believe that if anybody eats sprats or anchovies, 

she will gnaw through the bones of his shins, inflame 
his body ^%^th sores, and dissolve his hver. 

1 1 . Is it, then, an unholy thing to speak meanly of 
the gods, but not unholy to have a mean opinion 
of them ? Or does the opinion of him who speaks 
mahgnly make his utterance improper ? It is a fact 
that we hold up malign speaking as a sign of ani- 
mosity, and those who speak ill of us we regard as 
enemies, since we feel that they must also think ill 
of us. You see what kind of thoughts the super- 
stitious have about the gods ; they assinne that the 
gods are rash, faithless, fickle, vengeful, cruel, and 
easily offended ; and, as a result, the superstitious 
man is bound to hate and fear the gods. Why not, 
since he thinks that the worst of his ills are due to 
them, and ^\'ill be due to them in the future ? As he 
hates and fears the gods, he is an enemy to them. 
And yet, though he dreads them, he worships them 
and sacrifices to them and besieges their shrines ; 
and this is nothing surprising ; for it is equally true 
that men give welcome to despots, and pay court to 
them, and erect golden statues in their honour, but 
in their hearts they hate them and " shake the 
head."* Hermolaiis*' attended upon Alexander, 
Pausanias " served as bodyguard for Philip, and 
Chaerea ** for Gains Cahgula, yet each one of these 
must have said as he followed along : 

Verily I would have vengeance if only my strength 
were sufficient.* 

"* Cassius Chaerea fomented the conspiracy which resulted 
in the death of Cahgula ; cf. Tacitus, Annals, i. 32 ; Suetonius, 
Caligula, 56-58. 

* Homer, Tl. xxii. 20. 

489 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

OvK o'terat, deov^ elvat, 6 ddeos, 6 8e SeiaiSalfxcov 
ov ^ovXerat, inaTevei 8' aKcov (f>o^elraL yap d- 
TTiaTeiv. KaLTOL y' warrep 6 Tai^raAo? inreKhvvaL 
Tov Aidov eTTaicopovixevov ovrco /cat ovros tov ^o^ov 
cos ovx rJTTov vij avTOV 7n€t,6fji€vos dyaTT-qaeiev 
av, KaL ixaKapiaeie rrjv tov ddeov Siddeatv (hs iXev- 
depiov. vvvl Se rco p.€v dOdco SetcrtSat/iot'tas" oySev 
ixereariv, 6 8e SetcrtSatjLtajv Tjj TTpoaipeaei dOeos 
cov dadevearepos iarriv 7] ware So^a^etr Trepl Becov 
o ^ovXerai. 
171 12. Kat fjLrjv 6 dOeos SetcriSatjtiovtas' ovSap,7J avv- 
aiTiog, rj Se Seiaidaifiovia rfj ddeorrjTi, /cat yeveadai 
Trapeax^v dpx'f]v /cat yevofievr] St'Saxrtv dTToXoylav, 
OVK dXrjdij jxkv ouSe KaXrqv, Trpoc/idaecus 8e rivos 
OVK dfioLpov ovaav. ov yap iv ovpavcp rt [xeixTrrov 
ovS' €V darpois ouS' ev (Lpais t) 77eptdSots" oeXijvrjs 
7) Kivqaeaiv rjXlov Trepl yqv, " rjjjiepas KaL vvktos 
SrjfXLOvpyoLS," 7] rpo^ais ^cocov iq KapTTCvv yeveaeai 
TrXr^fifxeXes /cat draKTOv ivihdvTes ovtcds adeonqra 
TOV TTavTos KaTeyvojoav , dXXd ttjs 8eicrt8at/Aot'tas' 
epya /cat Trddrj /carayeAao-ra, /cat p-qfiaTa Kat Ktvq' 
B iiaTa /cat yoi-jTelat /cat fxayeXai Kat TrepLBpofxat Kat 
TvpLTTavtapiol Kat dKadapTot ^ikv KaOapjxol pvirapat 
8' dyvetat, ^dp^apot 8e /cat Trapdvofiot Trpos tepots 
KoXacrptol Kat TrpoTrrjXaKtafjtoi, TavTa StScocrtv ivtots 
Xeyetv d)s fJtrj elvat Oeovs afxetvov 7] eij^ai, rotaura 

" Adapted from Plato, Timaeus, p, 40 c. Plutarch quotes 
the phrase more accurately in Moralia, 937 e, 938 e, and 
1006 E. 

490 



SUPERSTITION, 170-171 

The atheist thinks there are no gods ; the super- 
stitious man wishes there were none, but believes in 
them against his will ; for he is afraid not to believe. 
And yet, as Tantalus would be glad indeed to get 
out from under the rock suspended above his head, 
so the superstitious man would be glad to escape his 
fear by which he feels oppressed no less than Tantalus 
by his rock, and he would call the condition of the 
atheist happy because it is a state of freedom. But, 
as things are, the atheist has neither part nor lot in 
superstition, whereas the superstitious man by prefer- 
ence would be an atheist, but is too weak to hold 
the opinion about the gods which he \^ishes to hold. 

12. Moreover, the atheist has no part in causing 
superstition, but superstition provides the seed from 
which atheism springs, and when atheism has taken 
root, superstition supplies it with a defence, not a 
true one or a fair one, but one not destitute of some 
speciousness. For it is not because these people 
saw in the heavens anything to find fault with, or 
anything not harmonious or well-ordered in the stars 
or seasons, or in the revolutions of the moon or in the 
movements of the sun around the earth, " artisans of 
day and night,"" or in the feeding and growth of 
Hving creatures, or in the sowing and harvesting of 
crops, as the result of which they decided against the 
idea of a God in the universe ; but the ridiculous 
actions and emotions of superstition, its words and 
gestures, magic charms and spells, rushing about 
and beating of drums, impure purifications and dirty 
sanctifications, barbarous and outlandish penances 
and mortifications at the shrines — all these give 
occasion to some to say that it were better there 
should be no gods at all than gods who accept with 

491 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(\71) [Jiev Sexofievovs toiovtois 8e x^ipovras , ovtco 8' 
v^piards , ovTCO Se fUKpoXoyovs /cat jxiKpoXvTTOvg. 

13. OvK ap^eivov ovv rjV FaAarats' eKeivois koI 
YiKvdai? TO TTapoLTTav p^r}T^ evvoiav c^eiv decov [xiqTC 
(f)avTaaLav fXT]6^ laropiav rj Qeovs elvat vofii^etv 
')(aipovras dvdpcoTTCov crcfjaTTOfievcov at/xart /cat 
C TeAecoTaTTyv dvaiav /cat lepovpyiav ravriqv vofxl- 
l^ovrag; ri Se; Kap;^7jSo>'iotS' ovk iXvatreXet Kpt- 
TtW Xa^ovGiv ri Atayopav vopioderrjv a7r' d.px'fjs 
fJL'qre nvd Saijxovcov jj.'qTe Oeojv voiJi,it,eiv rj roiavra 
dvetv Ota TO) Kpovo) eOvov; ovx cooTrep 'E/iTreSo- 
KXrjg (f>rjaL tcov rd C^a dvovnov KadaTTTopuevo's 

[xop(f)r]v 8' dXXd^avra TTarrjp (f)iXov vlov detpas 
a<f)dt,€i, i7T€vxdpi€Vos fjbdya v^ttcos, 

dAA' etSorej kol yiyvaxTKovres avrol rd avTcov 
T€Kva Kadiepevov, ol S dreKvoi irapd rdjv TrevrjTCOv 
(hvovfxevot, 77at8ia Karea<f)al,ov Kaddnep dpvag t] 
D veoaarovs, Trapetarr^/cet 8' rj p.'^rrjp dreyKTOs /cat 
aCTTeVa/CTO?. et 8e o-rem^etev r) 8a/cpyo-etev, eSei 
rrjs TLpLTJ? arepeadai, to 8e 7rat8tov ovSev rJTTOv 
edvero' KpoTov re /careTrt/XTrAaTO Trdvra Trpo rov 
dydXpiaros eTTavXovvrcov /cat TU/x.Trai^t^ot'Tajv eVe/ca 
Tou /XT^ yevecrdai ttjv ^otjv tcjv dp-qvcov i^dKovarov. 

" Gf. Caesar, Gallic War, vi. 16 and Strabo, iv. 4. 5. 

<- Gf. Herodotus, iv. 70-72. 

" Both Critias and Diagoras were famous atheists of 
antiquity. Gf. Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Matheviaticos, 
ix. 54 ; Pkitarch, Moralia, 880 d, 1075 a. 

^ Plutarch says {Moralia, 175 a and 522 a) that the 
practice was stopped by Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, after his 
victory over the Carthaginians in 480 b.c. But cf. Diodorus, 
XX. 14, which suggests that the practice was later revived. 

4,92 



SUPERSTITION, 171 

pleasure such forms of worship, and are so over- 
bearing, so petty, and so easily offended. 

13. Would it not then have been better for those 
Gauls " and Scythians * to have had absolutely no 
conception, no \'ision, no tradition, regarding the gods, 
than to beheve in the existence of gods who take 
delight in the blood of human sacrifice and hold this 
to be the most perfect offering and holy rite ? Again, 
would it not have been far better for the Carthaginians 
to have taken Critias or Diagoras <= to draw up their 
law-code at the ver)' beginning, and so not to believe 
in any di\ane power or god, rather than to offer such 
sacrifices as they used to offer to Cronos ? ^ These 
were nut in the manner that Empedocles describes * 
in his attack on those who sacrifice living creatures : 

Changed in form is the son beloved of his father so pious. 
Who on the altar lays him and slays him. What folly ! 

No, but with full knowledge and understanding they 
themselves offered up their own children, and those 
who had no children would buy little ones from poor 
people and cut their throats as if they were so many 
lambs or young birds ; meanwhile the mother stood 
by without a tear or moan ; but should she utter a 
single moan or let fall a single tear, she had to forfeit 
the money ,^ and her child was sacrificed nevertheless ; 
and the whole area before the statue was filled with 
a loud noise of flutes and drums so that the cries of 
waihng should not reach the ears of the people. Yet, 

Cronos here is, of course, the Greek equivalent of Phoenician 
El (Hebrew Moloch or Baal). Cf. G. F. Moore in the 
Journal of Biblical Lit. xvi. (1897), p. 161. 

' Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, i. p. 275. 

'' Since the bad omen of her conduct would nullify the 
good effect of the sacrifice. 

493 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(171) et 8e Tv(f)cov€s nves 7) Tcyavres 'QPX^^ rjfxcbv tovs 
deovs eK^aXovreg, Trolais olv t^Sovto dvcriais rj rtW? 
aAAa? lepovpyias aTTrjTOVv; "Ayuricrrpis S' rj "B^ip^ov 
yvvTj ScoSeKa Karcopv^ev dvOpconovs l^a)VTas vnep 
avTTJs Tip "AiSrj, ov 6 YlXdrcov ^rjal (f)tXdvd pconov 
E ovra /cat ao<f)6v /cat rrXovcnov, TretdoX /cat Xoyw 
Karexovra rds i/jvxds, "AiB-qv (hvofidaOat. Sej'o- 

(fidvTjS 8' O (ftVCriKOS TOVS AiyVTTTLOVS KOTTTOjJieVOVS 

iv Tals iopTOLS /cat dprjvovvTas opwv inrefMvrjaev 
ot/ceto)?. " ovTOL," <j>riaiv, " et pukv deol elai, p.rj 
dprjveLTe avTovs' el S' dvOpcoTTOi, p.rj OveTe aurots'." 
14. 'AAA' ovSkv ovTco TToXvTrXaveg /cat TToXvirades 
vooTjixa /cat piepayp^evov evavTiais So^ats /cat pia)(o- 
fievais pidXXov a»S" to ttjs SetcrtSatjUovta?. (f)evKT€OV 
ovv avTr]v da(f)aXd)s re /cat avpL(f)ep6vTcos, ovx 
axjTTep ol XrjctTcov rj OrjpLcov e(j)ohov 7^ irvp dnepi- 
F CT/ceTTTO)? /cat dAoyiarcos" TTept(f)evyovT€s ipLTTiTTTov- 
aiv et? avoStas" ^dpadpa /cat Kprjjxvovs i)(ovaas. 
ovTOi yap eVtot (ftevyovTes Trjv SetcrtSat/xov'iai' 
ipLTTLTTTovGLv et? ddeoTTjTa Tpax^Zav /cat dvTLTVTrov, 
VTTepTTTjS'qaavTes iv fieao) K€Lp,€vrjv ti)V evae^eiav. 

" Herodotus, vii. 114 ; but compare iii. 35. 

* The reference is probably to Plato, Cratylus, pp. 403 a- 
404 B, where are repeated the popular etymologies of Pluto 
from wXovTO'i (wealth), and Hades from Trdvra rd xaXd elMvai 
(all-knowing of good). 

" The saying is quoted also in Moralia, 379 b and 763 c, 
and referred to in 228 e, cf. also Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 23, 27. 



494 



SUPERSTITION, 171 

if Typhons or Giants were ruling over us after they 
had expelled the gods, with what sort of sacrifices 
would they be pleased, or what other holy rites would 
they require ? Amestris, the wife of Xerxes, caused 
twelve human beings to be buried ahve " as an 
offering in her behalf to propitiate Hades, of whom 
Plato says ^ that it is because he is humane and wise 
and rich, and controls the souls of the dead by 
persuasion and reason, that he has come to be called 
by this name. Xenophanes, the natural philosopher, 
seeing the Egj-ptians beating their breasts and wail- 
ing at their festivals, gave them a very proper 
suggestion : " If these beings are gods," said he, 
" do not bewail them ; and if they are men, do not 
offer sacrifices to them." " 

14. But there is no infirmity comprehending such 
a multitude of errors and emotions, and involving 
opinions so contradictory, or rather antagonistic, as 
that of superstition. We must try, therefore, to 
escape it in some way which is both safe and ex- 
pedient, and not be like people who incautiously and 
blindly run hither and thither to escape from an attack 
of robbers or wild beasts, or from a fire, and rush into 
trackless places that contain pitfalls and precipices. 
For thus it is that some persons, in trjing to escape 
superstition, rush into a rough and hardened atheism, 
thus overleaping true rehgion which lies between."* 

** An application of the Aristotelian doctrine that virtue is 
the mean between two extremes (vices). 



495 



VI 



INDEX 



AcHAKUs, 165 : Greek tragic poet, 
of EreUia in Eaboea, bom about 
4S4 B.C. 

Acheron, 135 : a riTer of the other 
world. 

Achilles, 49, 127, 171 : one of the 
most prominent Greek leaders in 
Trojan war. 

Ada, 241 : queen of Caria. 

Adrastns, 19 : son of Talaiis, king 
of Argos, and brother of Briphyle, 
who betrayed her husband Am- 
pbiaraiis for the sake of the 
necklace of Harmodia. 

Aeacus, 209 : son of Zeus and 
A^ina ; after his death he be- 
came one of the judges In the 
other world. 

Aemilios Paulas, L., 313 : sumamed 
Macedonicos fr»m his victory 
over the Macedonians under Per- 
seus at Pydna, 168 B.&, was a 
famous Boman general of patri- 
cian family. He liveti 229 (?)- 
160 B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Aeschines, 197, 199: Attic orator, 
opp ^nent of Demosthenes, 389- 
314 B.C. 

Aeschylus quoted, 9, 15, 81, 111, 
131, 151, 185: Athenian tragic 
poet, 525-156 B.C. 

Aesop. 160. 293, 369, 371, 381, 383, 
3P3, 397, 399, 401, 403, 409, 415, 
437, 447 : at one time a slave, was 
a writ-r of fables, cir^a 570 B.& 
The fables now current as Aesop's 
can hardly be in anything like 
their original form. 

Asamedea, 145 147 : brother of 
Trophonins, who with Trophonins 
built a Temple of Apollo at 



Delphi ; afterwards honoured at 
L«badeia. 

Agamemnon, 407, 4S1 : brother of 
MenelaiLs and commander-in- 
chief of the Greeks in the Trojan 
war. 

Agave, 469 : daughter of Cadmus, 
and mother of Peutheus, whom 
she slew while she was in a 
Bacchic frenzy. 

Aglaonice, 339 : learned daughter of 
Hegetor of Thessaly. 

Ajax, 407, 451 • son of Telamon, 
from the island of Salamis, one 
of the Greek heroes of Troy. 
Sophocles' Ajax portrays his last 
day. 

Alcaeus, 403 : an emendation by 
Capps of an almost hopeless p«s- 
sage. Perhaps wapa t^ KpotVy 
may be defended by Diogenes 
Laertios, i. 99. 

Alcmeon, 19 : son of Amphiaraiia 
and Eriphyle ; the fiither enjoined 
his sons to kill their mother as 
soon as they should be grown up. 

AJcyoneus, 199 : son of Antigonus 
Gonatus. 

Alexander the Great, 65, 75, 227 
241, 489 : son of Philip, and king 
of Macedon, 356-323 B.a 

Alexander (see Paris), son of Priam. 
75. 

Alexidemus, 363, 365 : son of Thia- 
sy bolus tyrant of Miletus. 

Alyattes, 389, 391 : king of Lydia, 
617(?K60b.c. 

Amasis, 376, 377, 383,385, 387, 389 : 
king of Egypt, 26th dynasty. 

Amestris 495 : wife of Xerxes, king 
of Persia. 

497 



INDEX 



Amphiaraiis, 155 : an Argive, son 
of Oecles and Hypermnestra ; a 
prophetand heroat Argos. Took 
part, in the Calydonian boar hunt, 
the Argonautic expedition, and 
the expedition of the Seven 
against Thebes, where he met his 
death. Worshipped as a hero 
after death ; oracular shrine at 
Oropus. 

Amphidanias, 39i : legendary king 
and hero of Chalcis in Kuboea. 

Amphitrite, 441, 449 : goddess, wife 
of Poseidon. 

Anacharsis, 347, 359, 361, 371, 381, 
395, 397, 403, 415, 443 : a Scythian 
ofhigh rank and intelligence, who 
travelled widely in pursuit of 
knowledge, visiting Athens in 
the time of Solon, circa 594 b.c. 

Anaxagoras, 193, 195, 483 : Greek 
philosopher fr^m Clazomenae in 
Asia Minor, friend of Pericles at 
Athens, banished from Athens he 
retited to Lampsacus ; circa 500- 
428 B.C. 

Anaxagoras quoted, 83. 

Ancliises, 97 : a Trojan beloved of 
Aphrodite, by whom he became 
the father of Aeneas. 

Andromache, 191 : wife of Hector. 

Antigonus Gonatas, 193, 19:J : the 
son of Demetrius Poliorcetes ; 
born circa 319 B.C. ; king of 
Macedonia 283-239 B.C. 

Antimachus, 131 : of Colophon in 
Asia Minor, epic and elegiac poet, 
5th century B.C. Besides Z.i/</c he 
wrote a long epic poem Thebais. 

Antipater, 321 : trusted Macedon- 
ian officer, appointed regent by 
Alexander during his Asiatic 
expedition, 334 B.C., and c^n- 
tinued as regent after Alexan- 
der's death until 320 B.C. Was 
General against the Greeks dur- 
ing the Lamian war. 

Aphrodite, 301, 329, 333, 349, 351, 
405, 487, of the Eleans, 323 : the 
Greek goddess of love. 

Apollo, 433, 487 : the Greek god, 
brother of Artemis. 

Apollonius, to whom Plutarch's 
letter is addressed, 109, 211. 

498 



Apollonius, son of Apollonius (?), 
see 106. 

Arcesilaiis, 151, 237 : Greek philoso- 
pher 4lh and 3rd century b.c. ; 
succeeded Crates as head of the 
Academy. 

Archemorus(orOpheltes), 155 : son 
of Lycurgus, king of Nemei ; left 
alone by his nurse, Hypsipv le he 
was killed by a s-rpent, at the 
time of the expedition of tlie 
Seven against Tlie.'es. 

Archilochus quoted, 385, 479 : from 
the island ol Paros ; wrote elegiac 
poetry as well as the iambic, of 
which he was reputed to be the 
inventor ; or' a ti50 B.C. 

Ardalus, 369, 371, 401, 411, 413 : an 
hereditary priest and flute-player 
from Troezene. 

Argus, 47 : of the hundred eyes ; 
appointed by Hera to guard lo, 
after lo had been changed into a 
heifer. 

Arion, 431, 433, 435 437, a famous 
harp player from the island of 
Lesbos, reputed inventor of dithy 
ranibic poetry ; he lived in the 
latter part of the 7th century b.c. 

Aristeides, 75 : a high - minded 
Athenian, often called " the 
Just " fought at Marathon and 
Salamis ; died 468 ac. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Aristodemus, 477, 479 : king of the 
Messenians, Sth century B.c. 

Aristotle, 177, 275 : the philosopher, 
3!54-322 B.C. 

Aristylla, 337 and note. 

Arsinoe, 161 : sister and wife of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus. 

Artemis, 485 : the Greek goddess, 
sister of Apollo. 

Asclepius (Lat. Aesculapius), 425 : 
the legendary founder of the art 
of medicine ; later reputed to be 
the son of Apollo. 

Athamas, 437, 469 : son of Aeolus, 
and king of Orchomenos in 
Boeotia. In a tit of insanity he 
slew his own son, Learchus. 

Athena Krgane, 85. 

Athens, Athenians, 331, 879, 383; 
fond of lighting, 239. 



INDEX 



Athletic trainers, 271, 273. 

Bathiso, 221, 223, 261. 

Bathycles, beaker of, 401, and 
note. 

Bias, 347, 351, 369, 375, 377, 379, 
3'J5, 899, 401, 429 : of Priene in 
Asia Minor, circa 550 B.C., one of 
tlie Seven Wise Men. 

Bion quoted, 477 : called Borys- 
thenites, circa 250 B.C., a Scythian 
philosopher from Olbia on the 
north of the Black Sea, noted for 
his pungent sayings. He tried 
out the different systems of 
philosophy, and finally attached 
himself to the Peripatetics. 

Biton, 145 : an Argive, brother of 
Cleobis. 

Boeotia, wedding custom in, 301. 

Briareus, 47, 61 : also called Aegaeon 
(Horn. IJ. L 403); son of Uranus 
(or Poseidon T) and Gaea ; a mon- 
ster with fifty heads and an 
hundred arms. 

Bull's blood, suicide by drinking, 
477. 

Busiris, 373 : a town in Egypt. 

Buzygius, 321 : a ceremonial plough- 
ing observed at Athens. 

Caesar, C. Iolids, 31 : famous 
Roman general, statesman, and 
writer, 100-44 B.C. Plutarch wrote 
his Ufe. 

Caligula, 489 : emperor of Rome, 
A.D. 37-41. 

Callicles, 207-211 : an Athenian, one 
of the characters in Plato's Gor- 
gias. 

Carthage, 75 : celebrated city on 
the northern coast of Africa, 
settled by the Phoenicians. 

Carthaginians, 493. 

Castor (and Pollux), 479 : the Dio- 
scuri, protectors especially of 
sailors. 

Cathartics, use of, 275, 277, 279. 

Cato, M. Porcius, 246, 263, 307 : 
the Elder, commonly called the 
Censor, 234i(?)-149 b.c. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Cato, M. Porcius, 33, 35 : commonly 
called Cato Uticensis, or Cato 

VOL. II 



Minor. 95-46 B.C. Plutarch wrote 

his life. 
Celt.s, 167 : a people of Western 

Enrol*. 
Chaerea, Cassius, 489: a Roman, 

leader of the conspiracy against 

the emperor (Daligfula. 
Chaeremon quoted, 75: Greek 

tragic po*;t, early part of 4th 

century b.c. 
Chalcis, 391 : a town in Eaboea. 
Chersias, a poet, 407 and note, 409, 

411 445 447 449. 
Chilon, 5, 63, 347, 357, 369, 377, 379, 

381, 383, 395, 401, 403, 407, 443 : 

of Lacedaemon, one of the Seven 

Wise Men, circa 500 B.C. 
Chios, 35 : large island off the west 

coast of Asia Minor. 
CHcero, M. TuUius, 31 : famous 

Roman orator and statesman, 

106-43 B.C. Plutarch wrote his 

life. 
Cimmerians, 483 : in Homer a 

mythical people who lived in 

utter darkness. Later an actual 

people living north of the Black 

Sea. 
Cinesias, 485 : Attic dithyrambic 

poet, 5th century B.C., often 

ridiculed by contemporary poets. 
Circe, 303 : the sorceress of the 

Odyssey, who changed men into 

animals. 
Claudia, Quinta, 341 : a Roman 

matron, 3rd and 2nd centuries b.c. 
Cleobis, 145 : an Argive, brother of 

Biton. 
Cleobnlina (really named Eumetis), 

341. 373 : daughter of Cleobulus 

of Rhodes ; famed for her riddles. 
Cleobulus, 347, 375, 381, 395, 401, 

400, 411 : of Lindus in Rhodes ; 

one of the Seven Wi.se Men, early 

part of the 6th century b.c. 
Cleodorus, 383, 389, 391, 393, 407, 

411, 415, 419, 423: a character in 

the Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. 
Cocytus, 135 : a river of the other 

world. 
Cornelia, 341 : a Roman matron, 

mother of the Gracchi ; 2nd cen- 
tury B.C. 
Crantor, 106; quoted, 113, 121,173: 

499 



INDEX 



Academic philosopher from Soli 
in Cilicia, pupil of Xenocrates 
and Polemo : early part of 3rd cen- 
tury B.C. ; wrote Ilept irevBovi 
and comments on Plato. 

Crassus, M. Licinius, 19, 23 : a very 
wealthy Roman; lived 115-53 
B.C. ; triumvir with Pompey and 
Julius Caesar tJO b.o. Plutarch 
wiote his life. 

Crates, 9, 235, 317 : of Thebes in 
Boeotla, 3rd century b.c., Cynic 
philosopher, disci pie of Diogenes. 

Creon, 65 : king of Corinth who 
gave his daughter to Jason, and 
suffered death with his daughter 
at the hands of Medea, Jason's 
former wife. (Euripides, Medta.) 

Crete, 5 : the large island south of 
Greece, home of early Aegean 
civilization. 

Critias, 493 : one of the Thirty 
Tyrants at Athens 404 b.o. ; fell 
at the battle of Munychia that 
year ; an unprincipled and god- 
less man. 

Croesus, 369, 397 : king of Lydiain 
Asia Minor, 560-546 b.c, famous 
for his wealth ; conquered by 
Cyrus the Great. 

Cronos, 207 : (Lat. Saturn) god, 
son of Uranus and the father of 
Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, and others. 

Cronos (= El, or Moloch), 493 and 
note. 

Cypselus, 445, 447 : son of Aeetion 
and father of Periander. 

Cyrus the younger, 327 : the second 
of the sons of Darius Nothos, 
king of Persia ; attempted to 
■wrest the kingdom from his 
brother Artaxerxes, and fell at 
the battle of Cunaxa, 401 B.C. 

Cytherea, 333 ; a name of Aphro- 
dite. 



Damon, 51 ; offered himself as 
surety to be put to death if his 
friend Pliintias (condemned for 
plotting against Dionysius the 
elder) did not come back to suffer 
pimishment. 

Danae, 129 : daughter of Acrisius 



and mother of Perseus, tha 
Argive hero; cast into the sea 
with Perseus in a chest by 
Acrisius. 

Danaids, 427 : the fifty daughters 
of Danaus, king of Argos, who, 
for the murder of their husbands 
were condemned in the other 
world to till with water a great 
vase which had a hole in the 
bottom. 

Daphnus, 439 : a river of Locris, 
emptying near the entrance of 
the Gulf of Corinth. 

Death not an evil, 131 ff. 

Delos, 413 : an island in the Aegean 
sea, one of the Cyclades. 

Delphi, 441, 445, 447; a town in 
Phocis, the seat of the cele- 
brated oracle of Apollo. 

Delphi, the two inscriptions at, 183, 
447. 

Demades, 239; a brilliant Athenian 
orator, opponent of Demo- 
sthenes ; put to death by Anti- 
pater, 318 B.C. 

Demeter, 299, 417, 423, 481 : the 
Greek goddess of agriculture, 
worshipped especially at Atliens 
and Eleusis. 

Demetrius of Plialerum, 119, 281 : 
Athenian orator and writer, 350(?) 
-283 B.C., put in charge of 
Athens by the Macedonians (317 
B.C.), but forced to flee, 307-308 
B.C., by Demetrius Poliorcetes. 

Deniocritus, 251, 283 : of Abdera 
in Thrace ; widely travelled ; sug- 
gested the atomic theory ; " the 
laughing philosopher." Circa 
460-360 B.C. 

Demosthenes, 193, 197, 199 ; the 
famous Attic orator, 385-322 B.C. 

Demosthenes quoted, 15, 89, 467. 

Demus (v.l. Onomademus) of 
Chios, 35. 

Determinants, as a subject for dis- 
cussion, 271. 

Diagoras, 493 : of Melos, 6th cent. 
B.C., known as "the atheist." 

Dictys, 129 ; of Seriphus ; rescued 
Danae and Perseus when they 
were afloat in the chest. 

Diodes, 348, 367, 379, 399, 437 : a 



500 



INDEX 



character In the Dinner of the 
.vren Wise Men. 

Diogenes, 9 : of Sinope 420 (?>-323 
B.C., the ftimons Cynic philo- 
sopher, to whom are ascribed 
numeroos pungent and witty say- 
ings. 

Diogenes quoted, 15, 139. 

Diou, 65, 193, 197 : of Syracuse in 
SicQy, brother-in-law of the 
elder Dionysius. Plutarch wrote 
his life. 

Dionysiac artists, 13 : actors and 
musicians. 

Dionysius the elder, 317 : bom 430 
B.C., rose to be tyrant of Syra- 
cuse, 405-367 B.C. 

Dionysius the youneer, 65 : son of 
Dionysius the elder, succeeded 
his father as ruler, but was 
finally driven out by Timoleon, 
343 B.a 

Dionygns, 269, 369, 405, 417; the 
Greek god of wine, and patron 
of the drama. 

Dolphins, stories about, 42<*-443. 

Domitius, 3, 19, 33 : Cn. Domitius 
Ahenobarbus, last part of 2nd 
cent, and first part of 1st cerit. 
B.a Consul 96 B.C. Censor 92 
B.C., with li. Licinius Crassus. 

Drinks, kinds and use of, 265, 267, 
269, 2S9. 

EcHELAus, 441 : head of the expe- 
dition to foond a colony at 
Le.^bos. 

Egypt, 351, 361, 379. 

Egyptians, 167, 321, 363, 373, 375, 
495. 

Elephantine, 375: an important 
city of upper Egypt. 

Elysius, 147, 149: of Terina in 
Italy ; father of Euthynoiis. 

Emetics, use of, 275, 277. 

Empedocles quoted, 47, 67, 81, 
493: physical philosopher of 
Acragas (Aerigentnm) in Sicily, 
middle of 5th cent. B.C., said to 
have thrown himself into the 
crater of Mt. Etna. 

Eralus, 443 : a local hero of Lesbos. 

Epameinondas, 51,287: of Thebes 
in* Boeotia, circa 420-362 blc, 

VOL. 11 H 2 



famous general and statesmsB, 
fonnder of the Theban League. 

Ephemera (insects), 159. 

Epicharmus quoted, 79 : comic poet 
from the island of Cos, but lived 
most of his life in Sicily under 
the patronage of Hiero. 

Epicurus, 2S1, 452 : the celebrated 
Greek philosopher, 341-270 bc, 
founder of the Epicurean school ; 
greatly admired by the Roman 
poet, Lucretius. 

Epicurus, quoted, 83. 

Epimenides, 347, 411, 413, 416; 
priest, and prophet from Crete, 
circa 600 B.C. ; rated by some as 
one of the Seven Wise Men ; 
purified Athens after the murder 
of Cylon. 

Eresns, 411 : a town on the west 
coast of the island of Lesbos. 

Eretrians, contest for the Lelan- 
tine Plain, 391. 

Ethiopia, no thtinder - storms in, 
459. 

Ethiopian king, the, 375, 385. 

Eiimetis, 361. 309, 391, 393, 401. 
See Cleobnlina. 

Euripides quoted, 15, 17, 49, 61, 81, 
111, 113, 115, 119, 121, 129, 131, 
133, 137, 151, 153, 157, 163, 181, 
18-5, 189, 201, 227, 233, 237 (?), 265, 
327, 329, 4-59, 4'51, 48(5: Athenian 
tragic ix)et. eirta 485-406 B.C. 

Eurydice, 299, 337, 341 : a young 
friend of Plutarch's. 

Euthycrates, 75; of Olynthns, 
accused by Demosthenes of hav- 
ing betraved his country to 
Philip of Macedon, 

Euthynoiis, 147 ; son of Elysiua. 

Kxact mode of living, 249, 279. 

Exercise, 257, 259, 273, 275. 

Food, kinds and use of, 229, 233, 
236, 239, 249, 255, 263, 265, 289, 
411-427. 

Galatiars, 167 : an ancient people 
living inland in Asia Minor are 
probably meant, bnt the Gaula 
may be included also. 

Ganl, no earthqtiakes in, 459. 

501 



INDEX 



Gauls, 493 : an ancient people in- 
habiting northern Italy, France, 
Belgium, and some parts of the 
adjacent territory. 

Qetae, 289 : a people of Thrace 
(called Daci by the Romans) liv- 
ing near the river Danube. 

Glaucus, 217, 219, 221, 229: a 
physician. 

Gorgias, 207, 333; of Leontini in 
Sicily ; famous as an author and 
rhetorician, born about 480 B.C. , 
and said to have lived over one 
hundred years. 

GvYgo, 341 : a Spartan woman. 

Qorgus, 427, 429, 431, 435, 437: 
brother of Periander. 

Graces, the, 301. 

Greeks, contrasted with barbarians, 
167, 371, 445. 

Greeks, customs of In early times, 
391, 418. 

Gryllus, 197 : son of Xenophon the 
historian. 



Hades, 133, 135, 495. 

Hector, 127, 171, 191, 447, 481 : son 
of Priam, and the great Trojan 
hero of the Iliad. 

Hecuba, 487 : wife of Priam. 

Helen, 313 : wife of Menelails ; her 
abduction by Paris was the 
alleged cause of the Trojan war. 

Hera, 145, 319, 329, 487: sister 
and wife of Zeus, mother of He- 
phaestus. 

Heracleitus quoted, 79, 183, 285, 
463 : physical philosopher of 
Ephesus in Asia Minor, circa 
660-500 B.C., often called "the 
Obscure. " 

Heracles, 29, 449, 469 : the famous 
strong man of the Greeks. 

Hermes, 301 : the Greek god. 

Hermione, 329 : daughter of Mene- 
lails and Helen ; married to 
Neoptolemus, and later to 
Orestes. 

Hermolaiis, 489: a Macedonian, 
attendant of Alexander the Great. 

Herodotus quoted, 305: Greek 
historian of the 5th cent. B.C. 

Hesiod, 891, 407, 413, 415, 437, 439 : 



of Ascra in Boeotia, epic poet 
of the 8th or 9th century B.C. 

Hesiod quoted, 37, 89, 97, 127, 177, 
193, 243, 481. 

Hiero, 25 : powerful tyrant of 
Syracuse and Gela in Sicily, 478- 
467 B.C. 

Hieroiiymus (St. Jerome), 279. 

Hippocles, 121, received a letter of 
condolence from Grantor, but 
otherwise unknown. 

Hippocrates, 27, 214, 243, 255 : of 
Cos, perhaps the most famous 
physician of antiquity ; 6th and 
4th centuries b.c. 

Homer, 391, 407, 447, 449: the 
traditional author of the Iliad 
and the Odyssey. 

Homer, the IHad quoted, 18, 27, 
51, 57, 119, 123, 127, 139, 175, 187, 
189, 191, 207, 217, 227, 273, 329, 
339, 425, 447, 449, 481, 487, 480. 

Homer, the Odyssey quoted, 27, 51, 
57, 83, 123, 139, 157, 175, 219, 239, 
273, 449. 

Hypsipyle, 49 : daughter of Thoas, 
king of Lemnos, and herself later 
queen of Lemnos ; captured by 
pirates, and sold into slavery to 
Lyourgus, king of Neniea, she 
became nurse of his child Anche- 
morus. 

Indian problem, 271. 

Ino, 437 : daughter of Cadmus and 

Harmonia, and wife of Athanias. 
Ion of Chios quoted, 167, 183 : 

tragic poet, contemporary of 

Aeschylus at Athens. 
Iphicrates, 87 : famous Athenian 

general, 5th and 4th cents. b.c. 

Of lowly birth, he rose to high 

command by his courage and 

genius. 
Islands of the Blest, 207. 

Jason of Pherae ("Prometheus"), 
21, 383 : ruler ("Tagus") of Thes- 
saly early in 4th cent. B.c. 

Jews, 481. 

Justice, the eye of, 485. 

" Know Thyself," 21, 447. 



502 



INDEX 



Lactdes (r.i. Laeedes), S3 : king of 
ArgoB. 

Lais, 231 : a eeIelMiit«d Greek 
coartesan, contemporary and 
rival of Phryne. 

Lasthenes, 75 : of Olynthus, ac- 
cusal by Demosthenes of having 
betrayed his country to Philip of 
Kacedon. 

Lechaeom, 349 : one of the harbours 
of Corinth. 

I^eo, of Byzantiam, 19 : writer of 
rhetoric and history, contem- 
porary of Philip of Macedon. 

Leonidas, 341 : leader of the Spai^ 
tans at Thermopylae. 

Leptis Magna, 325 : a city on the 
north coast of Africa. 

Lesbians, 389. 

Lesbo8,441,443: a large island off the 
north-w^ coast of Asia Minor. 

Lesches, 391 : repnted author of the 
Little Iliad. 

Leto, 4S7: mother of Apollo and 
Artemis ; honoured especially at 
Delos. 

Life a loan from the gods, 181. 

Ixjcris, 437 : a country north of the 
Gulf of Corinth. 

Lycian (or Locrian?) law-jtiver, 165. 

Lycurgns, 379 : repnted founder of 
the Spartan constitution. Pint- 
arch wrote his life 

Lyde, 131 : wife of Antimachos of 
Colophon. 

Lydians, 167, 269. 

Lynccus, 11 : son of Apharens and 
brother of Idas ; he took part in 
the Argonauric expedition, and 
was gifted with extraordinary 
powers of viaion. 

Lysander, 317 : Spartaa general and 
naval commander, broog^t to a 
close the Peloponnesian war by 
winning the battle of Aegos- 
potami, 404 B. c. ; fell in the battle 
of Haliartus, 395 b.c. 

Lysimachus, 239 : a Macedonian, one 
of the Generals of Alexander the 
Great, at whose death he became 
king of Thrace. In 291 b.c. he 
tried to subdue the Getae, but was 
compelled to surrender. He fell 
in battle agaiik>t Seleucus, 381 blc. 



Mabathon, 37 : a plain on the east 
coast of Attica, scene of the battle 
of Marathon, 490 b.c. 

Medios, 237 : ctnapanion and satel* 
lite of Alexander the Great. 

Melanthios, 333 : probably the 
Attic tragic poet, 5th cent. B.C., 
noted for his pithy and witty 
r**marka. 

Melissa, 351, 369, 3n, 401 : wife of 
Periander of Corinth. 

Menander quoted, 49, 59, 79, 97(?), 
115, 201, 247, 271 : comic poet of 
the New Comedy, 342-291 B.a 

Menelaiis. 57 : Ivother of Agunem- 
nou and husband of Helen. 

Meno, 47 : of Thessaly, one of the 
generals in the army of the 
)Ounger Gyrus, 401 b.c. ; put to 
death by Tissaphemes. He is 
made ttie principal character in 
PUto's Meno. 

Merope, 25, 153 : daughter of Cyp- 
selos, and wife of Cresphontes; 
afterwards wife of Polyphontes. 

Measoiiana, a. custom among, 423 ; 
war with Spai ia, 477. 

Metrodorus, 319 : probably the 
Metrodoms from Lampsacus, 
who was a pupil and friend of 
Epicurus. He died 277 b.c. 

Midas, 177, 179, 477, 479: son ot 
Gordins, and king of Phrygia 
eim 700 blc ; by some identified 
with the legendary Midas to 
whom are attached the apocry- 
phal stories of the "golden 
touch " and the " ass's ears." 

MQetos. 437 : an important city of 
AsiaMinw near the month of the 
river Meander. 

Milk not a beverage, 265. 

Miltiades, 37 : one of the ten 
generals in command of the 
Athenian 8 at Marathon. He held 
the supreme command on the day 
of the battle. 

Minoa, 209, 2<^ : son of Zeus and 
Europa ; legendary king of Crete ; 
after his death one of the judges 
in the other worid. 

Hiniicins, Spurius, 25 : pontifex 
maximns at Rome, 418 b.c 

Mischief (peraonifiedX 449. 

503 



INDEX 



Mnesimachus, 139 : comic poet of 

the Middle CoJiiedy. 

Mnesipliilus, 393, 395, 401, 403, 407 : 
au Athenian, friend of Solon's. 

Molpagoras, 353: presuiimbly a 
demagogue of Chios(in Bithynia?) 
who raised himself to the supreme 
power. 

Molycreia, 439 : a town at the en- 
trance of the Gulf of Corinth. 

Mosehion, 215: a friend of Plut- 
arch's. 

Mourning, 161 ff. 

Mourning (personified), 161. 

Murena, L. Lucinius, 33: 1st cent. 
B.C. Served under Lucullus in 
the 3rd Mithridatic war. Consul 
63 B.C. Prosecuted for bribery 
by Serv. Sulpicius, who was suj)- 
ported by Cato Minor. Murena 
was defended by Cicero (Pro 
Mure7ia) and was acquitted. 

Muses, the, 301, 343, 405, 407, 449. 

Myrsilus, 353 : tyrant of Mitylene, 
7th cent. B.C. 

Myson, 347 : one of the Seven Wise 
Men according to Plato. 

Mysteries, the, 139. 

Nasica, p. Cornelius Scipio, 13 : 
surnamed " Oorculum," 2nd cent. 
B.C., a wise and learned man, 
twice consul ; consistently op- 
posed to Cato's policy regarding 
Carthage. 

Naucratis, 351, 369, 873, 375, 377 : a 
Greek colony situated in the Delta 
of the Nile. 

Keiloxenus, 351, 353, 361, 373, 375, 
377, 379, 383, 385, 387: of Nau- 
cratis in Egypt. 

Nero, 65: emperor of Rome, a.d. 
54-68. 

Nicarchus, 849, 427, 449: a char- 
acter in the Dinner of the Seven 
Wise Men. 

Nicias, 479 : a celebrated Athenian 
general during the Peloponnesian 
war; a good man in spite of a 
certain timidity and superstition. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Niger, 261 : a friend of Plutarch's. 

Niobe, 183, 487 : daughter of Tan- 
talus and wife of Amphion, king 

504 



of Thebes ; she boasted of the 
number of her children, compared 
with those of Leto. 

Odysseus, 303, 313, 447: a most 
important character in the 
Homeric poems. 

Olympias, 125, 31.5, 317: wife of 
Philip of Macedon and mother of 
Alexander the Great. 

Olynthus, 75 : a flourishing town 
in the Chalcidian peninsula at 
the head of the Gulf of Torone, 
captured by the Spartans in 379 
B.C., and by Pliilip in 347 B.C. 

Onomademus. See Denius. 

Orchomenos,439 : a town in Boeotia 
near Lake Copais. 

Orestes, 51 : son of Agamemnon 
and Cly temnestra ; he slew his 
mother to avenge the death of 
his father. 

Orpheu.s, 421 : legendary early bard; 
reputed to have enchanted all 
animate and inanimate things by 
the music of his lyre ; he is said 
to have abstained from eating 
meat 

Pandora, 127: ("all-gifted") the 
first woman, made by the gods 
and given to Epimetheus as wife. 
Her curiosity got the better of 
her discretion. 

Pantica, 315 : a woman from 
Cyprus. 

Paralus, 195 : son of Pericles. 

Paris, 75, 313 : son of Priam the 
king of Troy, and abductor of 
Helen. Also called Alexander. 

Parmenio, 65, 125 : trusted general 
of Philip and Alexander ; accused 
of plotting against the life of 
Alexander, he was assassinated 
by command. He lived 400-330 

B.C. 

Pasiphae, 305 : daughter of the Sun 

(Helio.s), wife of Minos, early 

king of Crete. 
Patroclus, 49: son of Menoetius, 

and friend and close companion 

of Achilles. 
Pausanias, 25, 125 : regent of Sparta 



INDEX 



Trom 479 a.c. Oommanded the 
Greeks at the battle of Flataeae ; 
died 468 b.c. 

Pan'Otnias, 489 : a Macedonian or 
good family, attendant of Philip. 

Peirithoiis, 49, 65 : king of the 
Lapithae in Thessaly ; intimate 
friend of Theseus, who helped 
him in his unsuccessful attempt 
to carry off Persephone from the 
other world. 

Peislstratus, 347: benignant 
" tyrant " of Athens, off and on, 
from 660 to 628 B.C. ; rated by 
some as one of the Seven Wise 
Men. 

Pelopidas, 51 : eminent Theban 
general and statesman, early part 
of 4th cent. b.c. ; intimate fnend 
of Epameinondas. 

Penelope, 313 : Cuthful wife of 
Odvsseus. 

Periander, 347, 349, 359, 363, 366, 
367, 3&9, 371, 373, 377, 3S1, 3^3, 
391, 393, 395, 401, 407, 413, 427, 
431, 437, 445, 447, 463; son of 
Cypselus ; ruler of Corinth 627- 
6S5 B.C. He was sometimes rated 
as one of the Seven Wise Men. 

Pericles, 195 : the famous Athenian 
general and statesman. Died 429 
B.C. Plutarch wrote his life. 

Persephone ("The Daughter"), 423: 
daughter of Demeter, with whom 
she is often associated in worship. 

Persian kings, a custom of, 309. 

Persuasion, 301. 

Pherecydes, 347 : of Syros ; 6th 
cent. B.C. ; rated by some as one 
of the Seven Wise Men. 

Philemon, quoted. 111, 129 : an 
Athenian comic poet of the New 
Comedy ; bom about 360 b.c. 

Philip, 75, 125, 225, 315, 331, 335 : 
of Macedon, 382-336 B.C., con- 
queror of Greece, father of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

Philocrates", 75 : Athenian orator, 
4th century B.&, one of the ten 
ambassadors sent to treat » itli 
Philip of Macfdon, thought to 
have been bribed ; at any rate, he 
went into voluntary exile bef(»« 
his trial. 



Fbilotaa, 65 : son ot Farmenio, one 

of Alexander's most brilliant 
commaoders, accused of plotting 
against the life of Alexander, he 
was put to death just before his 
father in 330 B.C. 

Phintias, 51 : friend of Damon, q.v. 

Phocion, 231, 321 : upright Athenian 
general and statesman, 402-317 
B.C. He was pat to death on a 
charge of treason. Plutarch 
wrote his life. 

Phryne, 231 : a famous courtesan of 
Thespiae in Boeotia, 4th century 
B.a 

Pindar, 145, 147 : famoos Greek 
lyric poet, 522-442 B.C. 

Pindar, quoted, 15, 31, 35, 119, 121, 
137, 145, 185, 203, 205, 469, 471. 

PitUcus, 347, 353, 355, 381, 389, 395, 
401, 403, 411, 441, 446, 447: of 
Mitylene in Lesbos, one of the 
Seven Wise Men, a statesman, 
military leader, and poet. 

Plato, 205, 241, 339: the cele- 
brated philcEopher, 427-346 B.a, 
friend and follower of Socrates, 
and founder of the Academic 
school of philosophy. 

Plato quoted, 17, 25, 27, 39, 41, 47, 
79, 81, 99, 141, 143, 165, 207, 231, 
253, 283, 293, 311, 319, 335, 346, 
467, 491. 

Plautns Ri.belliu8, 65 : ^reat- 
grandson of the Roman emperor 
Tiberius ; he was put to death 
by order of Nero, who feared 
that he might aspire to the 
throne. 

Plutarch, better never bom than 
bad, 4<5. 

Pluto, 207 : god of the nnderworld 
= Hades. 

PoUianus, 299, 337 : * young friend 
of Plutarch's. 

Pollux (and Castor), 479, the 
Dioscuri, protectors especially of 
sailors. 

Polycrates, 463 : ruler of Samos 
latter part of 7th century B.C. ; 
son of Aeaces. 

Pompey (Cn. Pompeius MagnosX 
23, 31 : 106-48 B.a ; famous 
Roman general ; trimnvir wi ta 

505 



INDEX 



Julius Caesar and Crassus. 
Plutarch wrote his life. 

Poseidon, 207, 417, 427, 441, 443, 
449 : Greek god of the sea. 

Postumia, 25 : a Vestal virgin. 

Priam, 13, 127, 169, 171: king of 
Troy at the time of the Trojan 
war. 

Priene, 351 : a Greek city on the 
coast of Asia Minor ; birthplace 
of Bias. 

Prodicus, 239 : a celebrated sophist 
from the island of Ceos ; 5th 
century B.C. 

Prometheus, 7, 81, 85, 89, 209: 
("forethought") legendary bene- 
factor of mankind, who brought 
fire from heaven to mortals. 

Prometheus : a name for Jason of 
Pherae, 21. 

Proteus, 69 : the god who had the 
power to change himself into 
varied forms. 

Proverbial sayings, 17, 217, 245, 
329 

Pulcher, Cn. Cornelius, 5 : pro- 
curator of Achaea in 2nd century 

A.D. 

Pylades, 51 : son of Strophius, 
king of Phocis, and cousin of 
Orestes whose intimate friend 
and helper he was, later marry- 
ing his sister. 

Pythagoras quoted, 33, 63, 223, 
483 ; carmina aurea, 185, 475 : the 
celebrated Greek philosopher, 
6th century b. c. 

Rabia, 831 : a place near Eleusis. 

Regulus, 227: a pancratiast of 
Plutarch's time. 

Rhadamanthys, 209 : son of Zeus 
and Europa, and brother of 
Minos. After his death he be- 
came one of the judges in the 
other world. 

Rhium, 439 : promontory at the 
entrance of the Gulf of Corinth. 

St. Jerome, 297. 

Sappho, 341: of Lesbos, the famous 

poetess, often called the tenth 

Muse. 

506 



Satyr, 7 : one of the attendants 
of IJionysus. 

Scaurus, 3, 33 : M. Aemilius 
Scaurus, builder of the Aemilian 
way ; last part of the 2nd 
century and first part of Ist 
century b.c. Consul 116 b.c. 
Convicted of ambitus, and died 
in exile. 

tScipio, Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Aemilianus Africanus, 75 : Roman 
general, conqueror of Carthage ; 
185-129 B.C. 

Scirum, 331 : a place near Athens. 

Scythian, 269, 371, 445, 493 

Sejanus, Aelius, 65 : commander of 
the praetorian troops and con- 
fidant of the emperor Tiberius, 
over whom he gained complete 
ascendancy, until at last Tiberius 
became suspicious, and brought 
about the death of Sejanus and 
many of his friends. 

Sick people, behaviour of: 101, 
221, 223, 247. 

Silenus, 177, 179 : constant com- 
panion of Dionysus, gifted also 
with knowledge of the past and 
with power to prophesy the 
future. 

■Simonides of Amorgus quoted, 285: 
writer of iambic verse circa 
625 B.C. 

Simonides of Ceos quoted, 35, 125, 
135, 187, 283 : distinguished lyre 
and epigrammatic poet, 556-467 

B.C. 

Skeleton at the feast, 359. 

Smintheus, 441 : one of the leaders 
of the expedition to found a 
colony at Lesbos. 

Socrates, 29, 47, 131, 137, 148, 149, 
197, 207, 229, 259, 317 : the well- 
known Athenian philosopher, 
468—899 B.C. 

Solon, 301, 347, 351, 855, 369, 379, 
381, 883, 393, Sf»5, 397, 399, 401, 
403, 405, 411, 413, 415, 419, 421, 
427, 449 : the Athenian lawgiver, 
638-558 B.C. ; one of the Seven 
Wise Men. 

Solon quoted, 39, 403. 

Sophocles quoted, 21, 55, 69, 77, 
85, 137, 187, 817, 483, 489: 



INDEX 



Athenian tragic poet, 495-40(3 

B.& 

9partan soncs quoted, 153 ; saying 

quoted, 363. 
Spartans, 249, 379. 
Stepmother, 355. 
Styx, 467 : a river of the other 

world. 
Sun, chariot of, 397. 
Superstition, 455 ff. 
Syrians, 167. 

Taenasitm, 427 : the south-western 
promontory of Laconia. 

Tantalus, 491: legendary king, 
father of Pelops. He suffered 
everhwting punishment in the 
other world. 

Tartarus, 207, 209 : synonym for 
the lower world or a place below 
the lower world ; later the place 
of punishment. 

Taylor, Jeremy, 297. 

Teiresias, 469 : the famous blind 
seer of Thebes in Boeotia. 

Telephus, 21 : king of Mysia at the 
time of the Trojan war, wounded 
by Achilles. 

Terina, 147 : a Greek city on the 
west coast of Bruttium in Italy. 

Thales, 347, 349, 359, 361, 363, 365, 
367, 369, 379, 3S7, 389, 395. 399, 
411, 417, 429, 443 ; measured the 
height of the pyramid, 351, 353 : 
of Miletus in Asia Minor, eiroo 
636-546 B.C. The first Greek 
philosopher ; also a statesman 
and mathematicism ; one of the 
Seven Wise Men. 

Theagenes, 341 : leader of the The- 
bans at the battle of Chaeroneia. 

Tlieano, 821, 341 : wife of Pyth- 
agoras. 

Theatre, free admission to, 219. 

Themistocles, 25, 37 : leader of the 
Athenians in the second Persian 
war, 480 B.C. 

Tneognis quoted, 67 : of Megara, 
elegiac gnomic poet of the 6th 
and 5th centuries B.C. 

Theophrastus, 281 : of Lesbos, bom 
372 B.C., pupil of Aristotle, and 
a distinguished philosopher and 
writer. 



Theophrastus quoted, 123, 283. 
Theramenes, 125 : prominent 

Athenian at the time of the 

Peloponnesian war; rated by 

Aristotle as one of the three best 

citizens of Athens ; chosen one 

of the Thirty Tyrants, and put to 

death by them 404 B.C. becaose 

of his moderation. 
Theseus, 49, 65, 163 : son of Aegens, 

and the great legendary Attic 

king and hera Plutarch wrote 

his life. 
Thrasybulus, 355, 363, 365 : tyrant 

of Miletus, 7th century B.C. 
Thucydides quoted, 65 : Greek 

historian of the Peloponnesian 

War, bom 471 B.C. 
Tiberius Caesar, 65, 287 : emperor 

of Rome, ad. 14-37. 
Timesias, 63 : of Clazomenae in 

Asia Minor, founder of the colony 

of Abdera in Thrace. 
Timocleia, 341 : sister of Theagenes 

who fell at Chaeroneia. 
Timotheus, 241 ; son of Conon the 

Athenian general ; he was himself 

several times chosen general in 

the years 378-356 B.C. 
Timotheus, 486 : of Miletus, 447-357 

B.C., lyric poet. 
Timoxena, 337 : Plutarch's wife. 
Tiribazus, 477 : Persian satrap, in 

favour with Artaxerxes II. (Mem- 

non) king of Persia. 
Titus, 215, 223, 227 : emperor of 

Rome, A.D. 79-81 ; bom a.d. 

40. 
Troilus, 169: young son of Priam 

king of Troy ; slain by Achilles. 
Troilus, 437, 439 : the name of the 

servant of Hesiod. 
Trophoniua, 145, 147 : brother of 

Agamedes, who with Agamedes 

builta temple of Apollo at Delphi; 

after his death he was worshipped 

at Lebadeia, and the famous 

oracle of Trophonius was at that 

place. 
Typhon (=the Egyptian god SetX 

373. 

Xanthippe, 29 : wife of Socrates. 
Xanthippus, 195 : son of Pericles. 

507 



INDEX 



Xenocrates, 281, 319 : of Chalcedon, 
399-314 B.C., disciple of Plato; 
succeeded Speusippus as head of 
the Academic school of philos- 
ophy. 

Xeiiophanes, 495: of Colophon in 
Asia Minor, Greek philosopher 
living afterwards at Elea in Italy, 
sometimes called the first Uni- 
tarian. Latter part of 6th cen- 
tury, B.C. 

Xenophon, 197, 239 : Greek historian 
and general writer, 430-350 (?) 

B.C. 

Zenophou quoted, 5, 7, 827. 



Xerxes, 495 : king of Persia 485-465 
B.C. ; conducted the great expedi- 
tion against Greece. 

Zeno, 95 : from Citium in Cyprus, 
founder of the Stoic school of 
philosophy at Athens, circa 270 

B.C. 

Zeno ijnoted, 9. 

Zeus, 161, 207, 407, 417, 437, 439, 

449, 481 ; the supreme Greek god. 
Zeuxippus, 215 : a physician. 
Zeuxis, 55 : a most celebrated Greek 

I)ainter ; latter .part of 5th century 

B.O. 



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